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1.
Poult Sci ; 100(4): 100976, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33607317

RESUMO

Reproduction performance is one of the most important economic traits for the poultry industry. Intriguingly, apple pectic oligosaccharide (APO) could promote gastrointestinal function and immune function to improve performance; however, literature about APO on reproduction performance in breeders is limited. This study aimed to determine whether APO administration can improve reproduction performance and ovary function of broiler breeders with different egg laying rates. Two hundred and fifty six Arbor Acres broiler breeders (48-week-old) were used in a 2 × 2 factorial design with 2 egg laying rates (average [AR] and low [LR]) and 2 dietary levels of APO (0 and 200 mg/kg APO). Results showed that the LR breeders presented higher egg weight but lower egg laying rate, qualified egg rate, and feed efficiency than the AR breeders (P(laying) < 0.05). Also, the LR breeders had decreased serum Anti-Müllerian hormone, leptin, and antioxidant enzyme (superoxide dismutase, total antioxidant capacity) levels than the AR breeders (P(laying) ≤ 0.05). Dietary supplementation with APO improved egg weight, feed efficiency, as well as egg albumen quality (higher albumen height and Haugh unit) (P(APO) < 0.05), and decreased the concentration of pro-inflammatory cytokine levels (interleukin [IL]-1ß, IL-8) in serum (P(APO) ≤ 0.05). The apoptosis rate and pro-apoptosis-related gene expression (caspase 9 and Bax) in the ovary of LR breeders were higher, while the anti-apoptosis-related gene expression (Bcl-2, PCNA) was lower in LR compared with the AR breeders (P(laying) < 0.05). Dietary supplementation with APO decreased the caspase 9 and Bax expression in LR breeders (P(interaction) < 0.05), and increased the Bcl-2 and PCNA expression in the 2 breeders (P(APO) < 0.05). These findings indicate that breeders with a lower egg laying rate exhibit lower antioxidant capacity and high cell apoptosis in the ovary. Dietary supplementation with APO might improve albumen quality and antioxidant capacity, and decrease the inflammatory factors and ovary apoptosis-related genes expression to improve ovary function. Moreover, the effect of APO on decreasing ovarian pro-apoptosis-related gene expression was more pronounced in lower reproductive breeders.

2.
Animals (Basel) ; 10(8)2020 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32823578

RESUMO

This study was conducted to investigate the effects of broiler breeder dietary vitamin E and egg storage time on the egg characteristics, hatchability, and antioxidant status of the egg yolks and newly hatched chicks. A total of 512 71-week-old Ross 308 breeder hens were fed the same basic diets containing 6 or 100 mg/kg vitamin E for 12 weeks. During this time, a total of 1532, 1464, and 1316 eggs were independently collected at weeks 8, 10, and 12, respectively, and subsequently stored for 0 or 14 d before hatching. The outcomes from three trials showed that prolonged egg storage time (14 vs. 0 d) negatively affected (p < 0.05) the egg characteristics, hatchability traits, and the yolk total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) (p < 0.05). Chicks derived from the stored eggs exhibited higher malonaldehyde (MDA) and T-AOC in the serum and yolk sac (p < 0.05). Broiler breeder dietary vitamin E (100 vs. 6 mg/kg) increased (p < 0.05) the hatchability and the antioxidant status of the yolks as indicated by a higher α-tocopherol content and T-AOC and lower MDA level (p < 0.05). The supplementation of vitamin E also remarkably increased (p < 0.05) the total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD) activity (yolk sac, weeks 8 and 12) and T-AOC (serum, weeks 8, 10, and 12; yolk sac, weeks 8 and 12) and decreased (p < 0.05) the MDA content of chicks (yolk sac, week 10; serum, week 12). Interactions (p < 0.05) were found between the broiler breeder dietary vitamin E and egg storage time on the hatchability and antioxidant status of chick tissues. Broiler breeder dietary vitamin E (100 vs. 6 mg/kg) increased (p < 0.05) the hatchability and the T-AOC in the serum and liver of chicks, and decreased (p < 0.05) the early embryonic mortality and the MDA content in the yolk sacs of chicks derived from eggs stored for 14 d but not for 0 d. In conclusion, prolonged egg storage time (14 vs. 0 d) increased the embryonic mortality, decreased the hatchability, and impaired the antioxidant status of egg yolks and newly hatched chicks, while the addition of broiler breeder dietary vitamin E (100 vs. 6 mg/kg) could partly relieve these adverse impacts induced by long-term egg storage.

3.
Microorganisms ; 8(5)2020 May 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32443502

RESUMO

Growing concern for public health and food safety has prompted a special interest in developing nutritional strategies for removing waterborne and foodborne pathogens, including Salmonella. Strong links between manganese (Mn) and intestinal barrier or immune function hint that dietary Mn supplementation is likely to be a promising approach to limit the loads of pathogens in broilers. Here, we provide evidence that Salmonella Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium, 4 × 108 CFUs) challenge-induced intestinal injury along with systemic Mn redistribution in broilers. Further examining of the effect of dietary Mn treatments (a basal diet plus additional 0, 40, or 100 mg Mn/kg for corresponding to Mn-deficient, control, or Mn-surfeit diet, respectively) on intestinal barrier and inflammation status of broilers infected with S. Typhimurium revealed that birds fed the control and Mn-surfeit diets exhibited improved intestinal tight junctions and microbiota composition. Even without Salmonella infection, dietary Mn deficiency alone increased intestinal permeability by impairing intestinal tight junctions. In addition, when fed the control and Mn-surfeit diets, birds showed decreased Salmonella burdens in cecal content and spleen, with a concomitant increase in inflammatory cytokine levels in spleen. Furthermore, the dietary Mn-supplementation-mediated induction of cytokine production was probably associated with the nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB)/hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) pathway, as judged by the enhanced manganese superoxide dismutase activity and the increased H2O2 level in mitochondria, together with the increased mRNA level of NF-κB in spleen. Ingenuity-pathway analysis indicated that acute-phase response pathways, T helper type 1 pathway, and dendritic cell maturation were significantly activated by the dietary Mn supplementation. Our data suggest that dietary Mn supplementation could enhance intestinal barrier and splenic inflammatory response to fight against Salmonella infection in broilers.

4.
Poult Sci ; 99(1): 430-440, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32416828

RESUMO

The tea polyphenol (TP) can improve the egg albumen quality in laying hens; however, our understanding of the molecular mechanisms and proteomic changes in the egg albumen remains limited. A total of 720 layers (35-wk-old) were allocated into 5 treatments with TP and were added at 0 (control), 200 (TP200), 400 (TP400), 600 (TP600), and 800 (TP800) mg/kg. It showed that 400 mg/kg TP increases albumen height and Haugh unit (quadratic effect, P < 0.01), while 400 mg/kg TP decreases gel strength, hardness, gumminess, and chewiness value in a quadratic manner (P = 0.01). Eggs from TP400-fed layers had highest reducing power and oxygen radical absorbance capacity, and lowest albumen malondialdehyde content (quadratic effect, P < 0.05). Through Tandem Mass Tag-based quantitative proteomics analysis, 258 proteins were identified and 31 differentially accumulated proteins in egg white affected by 400 mg/kg TP compared to control group, with 19 proteins upregulated and 12 proteins downregulated. A total of 11 binding proteins (A0A1D5PZE3, F1NTQ2, Q7SX63, F1NRV5, P24802, A0A1L1RM02, E1BTX1, A0A1L1RMF4, A0A1D5P1N3, A0A1L1RML6, A0A1L1RQF3), 9 immune response proteins (P10184, R4GI90, P01875, Q6IV20, Q64EU6, P02701, P08110, P0CB50, A0A1D5PQ63), and 3 cell redox homeostasis proteins (P0CB50, P20136, Q8JG64) were changed in albumen of laying hens fed TP400. The differentially expressed proteins mainly involved in pyruvate metabolism, cysteine and methionine metabolism, glutathione metabolism, glycolysis, and protein processing in endoplasmic reticulum pathway. The result gathered in this study suggested that the improving mechanism of TP on albumen quality may act through regulating binding mediation, immune function, and antioxidant activity-related proteins.

5.
J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr (Berl) ; 104(5): 1384-1391, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32342530

RESUMO

This research aims to evaluate the effects of maternal vitamin E (VE) dietary supplementation on the egg characteristics, hatchability and antioxidant status of the embryo and newly hatched chicks of prolonged storage eggs. A total of 576 75-week-old Ross 308 breeder hens were randomly allocated into three dietary VE treatments (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg) with 6 replicates of 32 hens, for a 12-week feeding trial. At week 12, a total of 710 eggs were collected over a 5-day period, and eggs per treatment were attributed into 5 replicates and stored for 14 days until incubation. The egg yolk, trunk and head of 7-day-old embryo and the serum, liver, brain and yolk sac of newly hatched chicks were sampled for the evaluation of antioxidant status. Results showed that as maternal dietary VE levels increased, yolk α-tocopherol concentration increased (p < .05). Compared with 100 mg/kg VE, the use of 200 and 400 mg/kg VE increased the hatchability of set/fertile eggs and total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) of liver and serum in chicks (p < .05), and decreased both the early embryonic mortality and the malondialdehyde (MDA) content of trunk and head in 7-day-old embryos (p < .05); moreover, 400 mg/kg VE increased the yolk T-AOC (p < .05) and decreased yolk and brain MDA content of chicks (p < .05). Brain T-AOC of chicks in 200 mg/kg VE group was improved compared to that of chicks in 100 mg/kg VE group (p < .05). In conclusion, maternal dietary VE at 200 or 400 mg/kg could increase hatchability by decreasing early embryonic mortality and increasing the antioxidant status of egg yolk, embryo and newly hatched chicks as breeder egg storage was prolonged to 14-18 days. The suitable VE level for the broiler breeder diet was 200 mg/kg as breeder egg storage was prolonged.

6.
Biol Trace Elem Res ; 198(1): 231-242, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31933278

RESUMO

Dietary iron (Fe) influences manganese (Mn) utilization in chickens fed with inorganic Mn-supplemented diet. This study aimed to determine if dietary Fe levels affect Mn utilization in broilers fed with organic Mn-supplemented diet. Nine hundred 8-day-old broilers were randomly assigned to 1 of 6 treatments in a 3 (Fe level) × 2 (Mn source) factorial arrangement after feeding Mn- and Fe-unsupplemented diets for 7 days. The broilers were fed the basal diets (approximately 28 mg Mn/kg and 60 mg Fe/kg) supplemented with 0, 80, or 160 mg/kg Fe (L-Fe, M-Fe, or H-Fe), and 100 mg/kg Mn from Mn sulfate (MnSO4) or manganese-lysine chelate (MnLys) for 35 days. The H-Fe diet decreased (P < 0.05) body weight gain and feed intake as compared with L-Fe and M-Fe diets regardless of dietary Mn sources. Dietary Fe levels did not influence (P > 0.10) serum Mn concentration in MnLys-treated broilers, but serum Mn concentration decreased (P < 0.05) with dietary Fe increasing in MnSO4-treated broilers. The Mn concentration in the duodenum and tibia decreased (P < 0.05) with increasing dietary Fe levels regardless of dietary Mn sources, and MnLys increased (P < 0.04) these indices as compared with MnSO4. Dietary Fe levels did not significantly influence (P > 0.11) Mn concentration and activity and mRNA abundance of manganese-containing superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) in the heart of MnLys-treaded broilers, but the H-Fe diet decreased (P < 0.05) these indices in MnSO4-treated broilers as compared with M-Fe and L-Fe diets. The L-Fe diet increased (P < 0.001) duodenal divalent metal transporter 1 mRNA abundance when compared with the M-Fe and H-Fe diets on day 42, regardless of dietary Mn sources. The M-Fe and H-Fe diets decreased (P < 0.001) duodenal ferroportin 1 (FPN1) mRNA level when compared with the L-Fe diet in MnSO4-treated broilers, while dietary Fe levels did not significantly influence (P > 0.40) duodenal FPN1 mRNA abundance in MnLys-treated broilers. These results indicated dietary Fe levels decreased Mn utilization in MnSO4-treated broilers, but did not influence Mn utilization in MnLys-treated broilers evaluated by Mn concentrations in the serum and heart, and the activity and mRNA expression of heart MnSOD.

7.
J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr (Berl) ; 104(4): 1067-1074, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31953905

RESUMO

A study was conducted to investigate the effects of oregano essential oil (EO) on growth performance, nutrients utilization, intestinal morphology, intestinal barrier-related gene expression and antioxidant capability in meat ducks. A total of 360 1-day-old ducks were divided into three groups (12 replicates pens per diet of 10 ducks in each pen): negative control (no essential oil or antibiotic), positive control (antibiotic: 500 mg/kg aureomycin of diet) and oregano EO (100 mg/kg of diet). The experiment was carried out for 35 days. Ducks were given feed and water ad libitum. Ducks fed EO supplement showed similar body weight and feed to gain ratio to antibiotic fed ducks. EO supplementation significantly increased (p < .05) feed intake (day 1-35), jejunal villus height (VH) to crypt depth (CD) ratio, serum superoxide dismutase activities (SOD) and jejunal total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) of ducks compared to controls. Ducks fed diets supplemented with oregano EO also had decreased (p < .05) jejunal CD, serum and hepatic malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration, and the mRNA expression of jejunal zonula occludens-3 (ZO-3) and secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA) genes in comparison to the control group. Compared to the antibiotic supplementation group, the mRNA expression of claudin1 (CLND1) and CLND2 significantly increased (p < .05), but the mRNA expression of ZO-3 and mucin 2 markedly decreased (p < .05) in the jejunum of ducks in oregano EO supplementation group. These results suggest that oregano EO improves the antioxidant capacity and intestinal defence and structural measures and may aide in helping to maintain enteric health in production without growth-promoting antibiotics.

8.
Br J Nutr ; 123(2): 172-181, 2020 01 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31495347

RESUMO

Resistant starch (RS) was recently approved to exert a powerful influence on gut health, but the effect of RS on the caecal barrier function in meat ducks has not been well defined. Thus, the effect of raw potato starch (RPS), a widely adopted RS material, on microbial composition and barrier function of caecum for meat ducks was determined. A total of 360 Cherry Valley male ducks of 1-d-old were randomly divided and fed diets with 0 (control), 12, or 24 % RPS for 35 d. Diets supplemented with RPS significantly elevated villus height and villus height:crypt depth ratio in the caecum. The 16S rRNA sequence analysis indicated that the diet with 12 % RPS had a higher relative abundance of Firmicutes and the butyrate-producing bacteria Faecalibacterium, Subdoligranulum, and Erysipelatoclostridium were enriched in all diets. Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium were significantly increased in the 24 % RPS diet v. the control diet. When compared with the control diet, the diet with 12 % RPS was also found to notably increase acetate, propionate and butyrate contents and up-regulated barrier-related genes including claudin-1, zonula occludens-1, mucin-2 and proglucagon in the caecum. Furthermore, the addition of 12 % RPS significantly reduced plasma TNF-α, IL-1ß and endotoxin concentrations. These data revealed that diets supplemented with 12 % RPS partially improved caecal barrier function in meat ducks by enhancing intestinal morphology and barrier markers expression, modulating the microbiota composition and attenuating inflammatory markers.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Ceco/microbiologia , Patos/metabolismo , Patos/microbiologia , Amido/administração & dosagem , Animais , Ceco/metabolismo , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais , Mucosa Intestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Masculino , Carne , Microbiota/efeitos dos fármacos , RNA Ribossômico 16S/metabolismo , Solanum tuberosum
9.
Biol Trace Elem Res ; 196(1): 243-251, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31641975

RESUMO

Salmonella challenge leads to systemic responses that induce the hypozincaemia in mice, which is considered a vital strategy against Salmonella invasion. However, it is not yet known if this phenomenon occurs in broilers. To investigate the change in zinc homeostasis of broilers against Salmonella challenge, 1-day-old male broilers were fed with the basal diet for 7 days. Afterwards, broilers were orally inoculated with either 0 or 0.5 × 108 CFU Salmonella Typhimurium (ST). The serum and selected tissues of Salmonella-challenged and non-challenged broilers were collected at 1, 3 and 7 days post-challenge for zinc homeostasis analysis. Our results showed that Salmonella challenge results in hypozincaemia (serum zinc decrease and liver zinc increase) via modulating the systemic zinc homeostasis of broilers. A profound, zinc transporter-mediated zinc absorption and redistribution affecting zinc homeostasis provided a mechanistic explanation for this phenomenon. In addition, we found that the zinc importers Zip5, Zip10, Zip11, Zip12, Zip13 and Zip14 were mainly downregulated in Salmonella-challenged broilers to reduce zinc absorption in the duodenum, while the Zip14 mRNA expression was upregulated to redistribute zinc into the liver. Collectively, these findings reveal that broilers counteract Salmonella infection via modulating their systemic zinc homeostasis.

10.
Biol Trace Elem Res ; 194(2): 514-524, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31230207

RESUMO

To investigate the effects of dietary iron (Fe) levels on manganese (Mn) utilization, 900 8-day-old broilers were randomly assigned to 1 of 6 treatments in a 3 (Fe level) × 2 (Mn level) factorial arrangement after feeding Mn- and Fe-unsupplemented diet for 7 days. The broilers were then fed with basal corn-soybean meal diets (approximately 28 mg Mn/kg and 60 mg Fe/kg) added with 0, 80, or 160 mg/kg Fe (L-Fe, M-Fe, or H-Fe), and 0 or 100 mg/kg Mn for 35 days. Body weight gain was lower for H-Fe broilers than that for L-Fe and M-Fe broilers. On day 42, H-Fe broilers had lower serum Mn concentration as compared with L-Fe and M-Fe broilers, and tibia Mn concentration decreased as dietary Fe increased. In Mn-supplemented broilers, liver Mn was lower in L-Fe and H-Fe treatments than that in M-Fe treatment. H-Fe treatment decreased Mn concentration and manganese-containing superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) activity in the heart when compared with L-Fe and M-Fe treatments. Dietary Fe did not significantly influence Mn concentrations in the liver and heart, and heart MnSOD activity in Mn-unsupplemented broilers. In the duodenum, L-Fe treatment decreased divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1) mRNA abundance when compared with M-Fe and H-Fe treatments, and ferroportin 1 (FPN1) mRNA level was higher in M-Fe treatment than that in L-Fe and H-Fe treatments. These results suggested H-Fe diet decreased Mn status in broilers evaluated by Mn concentrations in serum and heart, and heart MnSOD activity. Dietary Fe influenced Mn absorption possibly through effects on duodenal DMT1 and FPN1 expression.

11.
Anim Nutr ; 5(3): 307-313, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31528734

RESUMO

The objective of this paper was to evaluate the effect of vanadium (V) in high-fat diets sourced from egg yolk on body weight gain, feed intake, blood characteristics and antioxidative status of Wistar rats. A total of 72 female Wistar rats were allocated according to a 2 × 4 factorial design throughout a 5-wk trial, including 2 levels of dietary fat (normal and high; ether extract 40.3 and 301.2 g/kg; fat sourced from egg yolk) and 4 levels of dietary V (0, 3, 15 and 30 mg/kg). Vanadium decreased (P ≤ 0.05) body weight gain (V at 30mg/kg during wk 1 and 2; V at 15 and 30 mg/kg during the overall phase), feed intake (V at 30 mg/kg during wk 3 and the overall phase; V at 15 and 30 mg/kg during wk 4), but increased the relative weight of liver (V at 30 mg/kg, P ≤ 0.05). Moreover, increasing dietary V significantly increased (P ≤ 0.05) plasma aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase and malondialdehyde levels and decreased triglyceride level, and V at 30 mg/kg in high-fat treatment had the highest or lowest values (interaction, P ≤ 0.05). Under the same dietary V dose, V residual content in liver (dietary V at 15 and 30 mg/kg) and kidney (dietary V at 15 mg/kg) was higher in high-fat diet treatment compared with normal-fat diet treatment (P ≤ 0.05). In conclusion, it is suggested that V could decrease the body weight together with the feed intake, and the high fat could enhance oxidative stress induced by V of Wistar rats.

12.
Animals (Basel) ; 9(8)2019 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31443255

RESUMO

Organic manganese (Mn) sources can replace inorganic Mn as dietary Mn supplements in poultry. To compare the uptake of Mn from the Mn-lysine complex (MnLys) and MnSO4, we first established the primary chicken intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) model and used it to determine Mn uptake. The MnLys increased the uptake of Mn compared to MnSO4. The uptake of Mn decreased in the IECs with Fe addition in the medium regardless of the Mn sources. The MnLys decreased the Mn2+ efflux transporter ferroportin 1 (FPN1) mRNA level but did not influence the Mn2+ influx transporter divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1) mRNA expression when compared to MnSO4. The results above indicated that the increase of Mn accumulation for MnLys at least partly was due to the decrease of Mn efflux by reduced FPN1 expression. The addition of N-ethylmaleimide, an L-lysine transport system y+ inhibitor, decreased the uptake of Mn from MnLys but did not affect the uptake of Mn from MnSO4. The cycloheximide, as an L-lysine transport system b0,+ activator, increased the uptake of Mn from MnLys, whereas they did not influence the uptake of Mn from MnSO4. The MnLys increased the system y+ members cationic amino acid transporter (CAT) 1 and CAT2, and system b0,+ components rBAT and b0,+AT mRNA expression when compared to MnSO4. These results suggested that the uptake of MnLys complex might be transported by CAT1/2 and system b0,+, which was different from the ionized Mn2+ uptake pathway. In conclusion, the uptake of Mn from MnLys complex not only might be uptake through the ionized Mn2+ pathway, but also appeared to be transported through the CAT1/2 and system b0,+ in primary chicken IECs.

13.
Mol Genet Genomics ; 294(6): 1421-1440, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31289944

RESUMO

Maize tassel architecture is a complex quantitative trait that is significantly correlated with biomass yield and grain yield. The present study evaluated the major trait of maize tassel architecture, namely, tassel branch number (TBN), in an association population of 359 inbred lines and an IBM Syn 10 population of 273 doubled haploid lines across three environments. Approximately 43,958 high-quality single nucleotide polymorphisms were utilized to detect significant QTNs associated with TBN based on new multi-locus genome-wide association study methods. There were 30, 38, 73, 40, 47, and 53 QTNs associated with tassel architecture that were detected using the FastmrEMMA, FastmrMLM, EM-BLASSO, mrMLM, pkWMEB, and pLARmEB models, respectively. Among these QTNs, 51 were co-identified by at least two of these methods. In addition, 12 QTNs were consistently detected across multiple environments. Furthermore, 19 QTLs distributed on chromosomes 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, and 7 were detected in 3 environments and the BLUP model based on 6618 bin markers, which explained 3.64-10.96% of the observed phenotypic variations in TBN. Of these, three QTLs were co-detected in two environments. One QTN associated with TBN was localized to one QTL. Approximately 55 candidate genes were detected by common QTNs and LD criteria. One candidate gene, Zm00001d016615, was identified as a putative target of the RA1 gene. Meanwhile, RA1 was previously validated to plays an important role in tassel development. In addition, the newly identified candidate genes Zm00001d003939, Zm00001d030212, Zm00001d011189, and Zm00001d042794 have been reported to involve in a spikelet meristem identity module. The findings of the present study improve our understanding of the genetic basis of tassel architecture in maize.


Assuntos
Locos de Características Quantitativas , Zea mays/genética , Alelos , Interação Gene-Ambiente , Genes de Plantas , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Fenótipo , Zea mays/anatomia & histologia
14.
Asian-Australas J Anim Sci ; : 1897-1906, 2019 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31010980

RESUMO

Objective: An experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary non-phytate phosphorus (nPP) deficiency on intestinal pH value, digestive enzyme activity, morphology, nutrient utilization, and gene expression of NaPi-IIb in meat ducks from 1 to 21 d of age. Methods: 525 one-d-old Cherry Valley ducklings were fed diets (with 7 pens of 15 ducklings, or 105 total ducklings, on each diet) with five levels of nPP (0.22, 0.34, 0.40, 0.46 or 0.58%) for 21 d in a completely randomized design. Five experimental diets contained a constant calcium (Ca) content of approximately 0.9%. Body weight (BW), body weight gain (BWG), feed intake (FI), and feed to gain ratio (F: G) were measured at 14 and 21 d of age. Ducks were sampled for duodenum and jejunum digestion and absorption function on 14 and 21 d. Nutrient utilization was assessed using 25- to 27-d-old ducks. Results: The results showed ducks fed 0.22% nPP had lower (P<0.05) growth performance and nutrient utilization and higher (P<0.05) serum Ca content and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity. When dietary nPP levels were increased, BW(d 14 and 21), BWG and FI (all intervals), and the serum phosphorus (P) content linearly and quadratically increased (P<0.05); and the jejunal pH value (d 14), duodenal muscle layer thickness (d 14), excreta dry matter, crude protein, energy, Ca and total P utilization linearly increased (P<0.05); however, the serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, jejunal Na+-K+-ATPase activity, and duodenal NaPi-IIb mRNA level (d 21) linearly decreased (P<0.05). Conclusion: The results indicated that ducks aged from 1 to 21d fed diets with 0.22% nPP had poor growth performance related to poor intestinal digestion and absorption ability; but when fed diets with 0.40%, 0.46% and 0.58% nPP, ducks presented a better growth performance, intestinal digestion and absorption function.

15.
BMC Genomics ; 20(1): 159, 2019 Feb 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30813896

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Maize is one of the primary crops of genetic manipulation, which provides an excellent means of promoting stress resistance and increasing yield. However, the differences in induction and regeneration capacity of embryonic callus (EC) among various genotypes result in genotypic dependence in genetic transformation. RESULTS: In this study, embryonic calli of two maize inbred lines with strong redifferentiation capacity and two lines with weak redifferentiation capability were separately subjected to transcriptome sequencing analysis during the early redifferentiation stages (stage I, 1-3 d; stage II, 4-6 d; stage III, 7-9 d) along with their corresponding controls. A total of ~ 654.72 million cDNA clean reads were yielded, and 62.64%~ 69.21% clean reads were mapped to the reference genome for each library. In comparison with the control, the numbers of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) for the four inbred lines identified in the three stages ranged from 1694 to 7193. By analyzing the common and specific DEGs of the four materials, we found that there were 321 upregulated genes and 386 downregulated genes identified in the high-regeneration lines (141 and DH40), whereas 611 upregulated genes and 500 downregulated genes were specifically expressed in the low-regeneration lines (ZYDH381-1 and DH3732). Analysis of the DEG expression patterns indicated a sharp change at stage I in both the high- and low-regeneration lines, which suggested that stage I constitutes a crucial period for EC regeneration. Notably, the specific common DEGs of 141 and DH40 were mainly associated with photosynthesis, porphyrin and chlorophyll metabolism, ribosomes, and plant hormone signal transduction. In contrast, the DEGs in ZYDH381-1 and DH3732 were mainly related to taurine and hypotaurine metabolism, nitrogen metabolism, fatty acid elongation, starch and sucrose metabolism, phenylpropanoid biosynthesis, and plant circadian rhythm. More importantly, WOX genes, which have an ancestral role in embryo development in seed plants and promote the regeneration of transformed calli, were specifically upregulated in the two high-regeneration lines. CONCLUSIONS: Our research contributes to the elucidation of molecular regulation during early redifferentiation in the maize embryonic callus.


Assuntos
Zea mays/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Fenótipo , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Regeneração/genética , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Zea mays/embriologia , Zea mays/metabolismo , Zea mays/fisiologia
16.
J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr (Berl) ; 103(1): 108-115, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30353582

RESUMO

The experiment was conducted to investigate the bioavailability of manganese (Mn) from humate-Mn complex relative to Mn sulphate for the starter broilers fed a conventional corn-soya bean meal diet. A total of 560 1-day-old Arbor Acres male broiler chicks were randomly allotted to one of eight replicate cages (10 chicks per cage) for each of seven treatments in a completely randomized design involving a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement of treatments with two Mn sources (humate-Mn and Mn sulphate) and three levels of added Mn (60, 120 or 180 mg Mn/kg) plus a Mn-unsupplemented control diet containing 27.23 mg Mn/kg by analysis. At 14 days of age, the blood, liver, heart and tibia were collected for Mn analyses, and the activity and mRNA abundance of heart manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD). The results showed that humate-Mn supplementation decreased feed intake from day 1 to day 14, whereas it did not influence (p > 0.20) body weight at day 14 as compared to Mn sulphate. The Mn source did not influence Mn concentration in the liver, heart and tibia, and the activity and mRNA abundance of heart MnSOD, while humate-Mn decreased plasma Mn as compared to Mn sulphate. The Mn concentration in the plasma and heart, and the activity and mRNA abundance of heart MnSOD increased linearly as dietary Mn concentration increased. Based on slope ratios from multiple linear regressions of Mn concentrations in the plasma and heart, and the activity and mRNA abundance of heart MnSOD on daily intake amount of dietary analysed Mn, the bioavailability of humate-Mn complex relative to Mn sulphate (100%) was 82.8, 90.4, 82.8 and 81.9 respectively. These results indicated that the Mn from humate-Mn complex was just as bioavailable as the Mn from Mn sulphate for the starter broilers (day 1-14).


Assuntos
Galinhas/metabolismo , Substâncias Húmicas , Manganês/farmacocinética , Soja , Zea mays , Ração Animal/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Disponibilidade Biológica , Dieta/veterinária , Regulação Enzimológica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Manganês/administração & dosagem , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Distribuição Aleatória , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo
17.
Environ Toxicol ; 33(12): 1312-1320, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30251772

RESUMO

Vanadium (V) can induce cell apoptosis in layers' oviduct resulting in egg quality reduction. In this study, we investigated the relationship between the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)-signaling pathway and V-induced apoptosis in poultry oviduct magnum epithelial cells (OMECs). Cultured OMECs were divided into 8 treatment groups: 0 µmol/L V (control), 100 µmol/L V (V100), V100 + P38MAPK inhibitor (SB203580), SB203580, V100 + extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) inhibitor (U0126), U0126, V100 + c-JUN NH2 -terminal kinase (JNK) inhibitor (SP600125), and SP600125. The OMECs were pretreated with the MAPK inhibitors before their treatment with V100 for 12 h. V100 increased the apoptosis of OMECs (P < .05), while 3 MAPK inhibitors suppressed V100-induced apoptosis P < .05); V100 enhanced the depolarization of △ψm (P < .05), and SB203580 and U0126 alleviated the V100-induced △ψm decrease (P < .05); V100 downregulated B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2) and poly [Adenosine diphosphate ribose] polymerase 1 (PARP1) mRNA expression (P < .05), meanwhile it upregulated Bcl-2 associated x (Bax), Apaf1, cytochrome C (CytC) and cysteine aspartase (caspase) 3, 8, 9 mRNA expression (P < .05). All MAPKs inhibitors alleviated the up-regulation of V100 for Bax and caspase 3 mRNA expression and down-regulation of V100 for Bcl-2 expression (P < .05). SB203580 and U0126 upregulated CytC expression treated by V100 (P < .05), except SP600125, while SB203580 administration resulted in a similar upregulation of PARP1 expression (P < .05). SP600125 can alleviated V triggered p-P38MAPK (phosphor-P38), p-ERK1/2 (phosphor-ERK1/2), p-JNK (phosphor-JNK) increase on OME cells, and SB203580 and U0126 had a similar response to phosphor-P38 and p-JNK (P < .05). It concluded that V-induced apoptosis in OMECs through the activation of P38 and ERK1/2, and by increasing the ratio of Bax/Bcl-2, which resulted in △ψm decrease, CytC release into the cytosol; consequently caspase 3 is recruited and activated, PARP1 is cleaved, eventually leading to apoptosis.


Assuntos
Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Epiteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/fisiologia , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Oviductos/efeitos dos fármacos , Vanádio/toxicidade , Proteínas Quinases p38 Ativadas por Mitógeno/fisiologia , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Galinhas , Células Epiteliais/fisiologia , Feminino , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Proteína Quinase 3 Ativada por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Oviductos/citologia
18.
Front Plant Sci ; 9: 611, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29868068

RESUMO

Stalk lodging resistance, which is mainly measured by stem diameter (SD), stalk bending strength (SBS), and rind penetrometer resistance (RPR) in maize, seriously affects the yield and quality of maize (Zea mays L.). To dissect its genetic architecture, in this study multi-locus genome-wide association studies for stalk lodging resistance-related traits were conducted in a population of 257 inbred lines, with tropical, subtropical, and temperate backgrounds, genotyped with 48,193 high-quality single nucleotide polymorphisms. The analyses of phenotypic variations for the above traits in three environments showed high broad-sense heritability (0.679, 0.720, and 0.854, respectively). In total, 423 significant Quantitative Trait Nucleotides (QTNs) were identified by mrMLM, FASTmrEMMA, ISIS EM-BLASSO, and pLARmEB methods to be associated with the above traits. Among these QTNs, 29, 34, and 48 were commonly detected by multiple methods or across multiple environments to be related to SD, SBS, and RPR, respectively. The superior allele analyses in 30 elite lines showed that only eight lines contained more than 50% of the superior alleles, indicating that stalk lodging resistance can be improved by the integration of more superior alleles. Among sixty-three candidate genes of the consistently expressed QTNs, GRMZM5G856734 and GRMZM2G116885, encoding membrane steroid-binding protein 1 and cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1, respectively, possibly inhibit cell elongation and division, which regulates lodging resistance. Our results provide the further understanding of the genetic foundation of maize lodging resistance.

19.
Front Plant Sci ; 9: 561, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29755499

RESUMO

The regenerative capacity of the embryonic callus, a complex quantitative trait, is one of the main limiting factors for maize transformation. This trait was decomposed into five traits, namely, green callus rate (GCR), callus differentiating rate (CDR), callus plantlet number (CPN), callus rooting rate (CRR), and callus browning rate (CBR). To dissect the genetic foundation of maize transformation, in this study multi-locus genome-wide association studies (GWAS) for the five traits were performed in a population of 144 inbred lines genotyped with 43,427 SNPs. Using the phenotypic values in three environments and best linear unbiased prediction (BLUP) values, as a result, a total of 127, 56, 160, and 130 significant quantitative trait nucleotides (QTNs) were identified by mrMLM, FASTmrEMMA, ISIS EM-BLASSO, and pLARmEB, respectively. Of these QTNs, 63 QTNs were commonly detected, including 15 across multiple environments and 58 across multiple methods. Allele distribution analysis showed that the proportion of superior alleles for 36 QTNs was <50% in 31 elite inbred lines. Meanwhile, these superior alleles had obviously additive effect on the regenerative capacity. This indicates that the regenerative capacity-related traits can be improved by proper integration of the superior alleles using marker-assisted selection. Moreover, a total of 40 candidate genes were found based on these common QTNs. Some annotated genes were previously reported to relate with auxin transport, cell fate, seed germination, or embryo development, especially, GRMZM2G108933 (WOX2) was found to promote maize transgenic embryonic callus regeneration. These identified candidate genes will contribute to a further understanding of the genetic foundation of maize embryonic callus regeneration.

20.
Biol Trace Elem Res ; 185(2): 497-508, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29478228

RESUMO

Salmonella and the host battle for iron (Fe), due to its importance for fundamental cellular processes. To investigate Fe redistribution of Salmonella-infected hens and the effects of high dietary Fe on it, Salmonella-free hens were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 treatments in 2 (two dietary Fe level) × 2 (Salmonella-inoculation or -noninoculation) factorial assignment. After feeding a basal diet supplemented with 60 (adequate, control) or 300 mg Fe/kg (high-Fe) for 4 weeks, 59-week-old Salmonella-free hens were orally inoculated with 5 × 107 colony-forming units of Salmonella Typhimurium (infection) or PBS (vehicle). Blood, spleen, and liver samples (n = 8) were collected at 14 days post-inoculation to determine Fe concentration and Fe transporters expression. Salmonella infection decreased (P < 0.05) hematocrit, serum Fe concentration, and splenic Fe concentration regardless of high-Fe or control hens, whereas increased (P < 0.05) Fe centration in the livers of high-Fe-treated hens. High dietary Fe increased hematocrit and serum Fe concentration, but did not affect (P = 0.11) splenic Fe concentration in Salmonella-infected hens. Salmonella infection did not influence (P = 0.31) liver Fe centration in control hens, but increased (P = 0.04) it in high-Fe-treated hens. High dietary Fe decreased (P < 0.01) the mRNA abundance of divalent metal transporter 1 and transferrin receptor, but increased (P < 0.02) ferroportin-1 (FPN1) mRNA and protein in the spleens and the livers regardless of Salmonella-infected or vehicle hens. Salmonella infection increased (P < 0.02) FPN1 mRNA and protein expression in the spleens, but did not influence its expression in the livers. These results suggested Salmonella infection and high dietary Fe differently influence the Fe distribution in the spleen and the liver of Salmonella-infected hens.


Assuntos
Ferro na Dieta/farmacologia , Ferro/metabolismo , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Salmonelose Animal/metabolismo , Baço/efeitos dos fármacos , Baço/metabolismo , Animais , Galinhas , Feminino , Ferro/sangue , Ferro/farmacocinética , Ferro na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Ferro na Dieta/sangue , Ferro na Dieta/farmacocinética , Oviposição/efeitos dos fármacos , Distribuição Aleatória , Salmonelose Animal/sangue , Distribuição Tecidual/efeitos dos fármacos
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