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1.
J Org Chem ; 86(19): 13491-13502, 2021 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34514788

RESUMO

In this study we found that 2,6-dimethanolpyridine displays good complementarity toward di(ethylene glycol) for the complexation of Na+ ions, allowing us to use this recognition system for the efficient synthesis of hetero[2]catenanes; indeed, it allowed us to attach multiple copies of [2]catenanes to branched systems presenting multiple isophthalaldehyde units. When we attempted to form a catenane from a preformed macrocycle featuring only a single di(ethylene glycol) unit, reacting it with a di(ethylene glycol) derivative presenting two amino termini, isophthalaldehyde, and templating Na+ ions [i.e., with the aim of using di(ethylene glycol)·Na+·di(ethylene glycol) recognition to template the formation of the interlocked imino macrocycle], the yields of the hetero[2]catenane and homo[2]catenane, comprising two imino macrocyclic units, were both poor (14% and 7%, respectively). In contrast, when one or two 2,6-dimethanolpyridine units were present in the preformed macrocycles, their reactions with the same diamine, dialdehyde, and Na+ ions provided the hetero[2]catenanes with high selectivity and efficiency (44% and 64% yields, respectively), with minimal formation of the competing homo[2]catenane. The high complementary of the 2,6-dimethanolpyridine·Na+·di(ethylene glycol) ligand pair allowed us to synthesize [2]catenane dimers and trimers directly from corresponding isophthalaldehyde-presenting cores, with yields, after subsequent reduction and methylation, of 42% and 31%, respectively.


Assuntos
Catenanos , Etilenoglicol , Antracenos , Íons , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética
2.
Dalton Trans ; 50(2): 520-534, 2021 Jan 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33336666

RESUMO

We report the syntheses, structures, magnetic and electrochemical properties of MRhRh metal cores helically wrapped by four dpa- (2,2'-dipyridylamide) ligands. We successfully synthesized the precursor Rh2(dpa)4 (1) in high yield and characterized its structure including its oxidized form (1+) which facilitated the syntheses of this series of metal springs. By the reactions of (1) and the metal ions of group 7 to group 12 (M = Mn(2), Fe(3), Co(4), Ni(5), Cu(6), Pd(8), Pt(9), Ru(10), Ir(11) and Rh(12)), ten MRh2(dpa)4Cl2 complexes were successfully isolated. Note that Cd(7) can only be obtained by the one-pot method. The yield of Rh3(dpa)4Cl2 (12) is also improved by this stepwise method. The oxidized complexes [MRh2(dpa)4Cl2](PF6) (M: Ni(5+), Ru(10+), Ir(11+)) are also synthesized for the studies of electronic structures and magnetic properties. The X-ray diffraction technique is applied to characterize all of their structures. The results of these structural, magnetic, and electrochemical studies provide us with in-depth knowledge and comprehensive insight into metal-metal bonds and interactions for this new series of metal strings. In particular, four metal-metal bonds with short distances are found: Pd-Rh (2.372(13) Å), Pt-Rh (2.385(7) Å), Ru-Rh (2.33(3) Å), and Ir-Rh (2.373(5) Å). The remaining ones show no evidence of covalent metal bonds judging from their metal-metal distances, magnetic behaviour, and redox couples in electrochemical analysis. Besides, two unique tetranuclear MRhRhM(dpa)4X2 (M: Cu+(13) and Ag+(14)) complexes with a Rh2(dpa)4 framework are developed. Four metals are aligned linearly. This coordination mode of metal strings provides a unique synthetic route for constructing longer metal chains from a smaller number of dentate ligands.

3.
Dalton Trans ; 49(44): 15602-15606, 2020 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33164020

RESUMO

Four crystalline (pseudo)polymorphs of [Ph-Au-C[triple bond, length as m-dash]N-Phip-OC8H17] (1), where Phip = central phenylene of pentiptycene, reveal that the π-backbone conformation relative to the AuAu bonding axis is important in determining the energy and efficiency of the supramolecular luminescence, which offers mechanistic insights into the luminescence mechanochromism and vapochromism and the solvent-dependent aggregation-induced emission (AIE) of 1.


Assuntos
Antracenos/química , Complexos de Coordenação/química , Ouro/química , Luminescência , Conformação Molecular , Solventes/química , Modelos Moleculares , Termodinâmica
4.
Inorg Chem ; 59(16): 11584-11594, 2020 Aug 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32799471

RESUMO

Ligands play a crucial role in the supramolecular photoluminescence properties of Pt(II) square-planar complexes. To improve the luminescence color responses of N∧C∧N cyclometalated Pt(II) complexes to external stimuli such as mechanical stress and chemical vapors, we have conducted a steric engineering of the previous systems 1a-1d [Inorg. Chem. 2017, 56, 4978-4989] by introducing two tert-butyl groups to the tridentate ligand to form complexes 2a-2c. Unlike the "too low" or "too high" steric hindrance of the NCNPt core in 1a-1d, the combined steric effects of the tert-butyl groups at one side and the pentiptycene group at the other side of the NCNPt core in 2b are "just right" for generating as-prepared powders with pure monomer (green) emission or pure excimer (red) emission, depending on the rate of precipitation from solutions. The synergistic steric effects are also beneficial to the solid-state luminescence quantum efficiency (30-36%). As a result of the differences in steric interactions and thus in the relative monomer vs excimer emission intensity, each complex of 2a-2c performs a two-step luminescence mechanochromism and vapochromism with different color patterns. This work provides an intriguing example of steric engineering of Pt(II) complexes toward highly emissive molecular solids with high-contrast mechanochromic and vapochromic luminescence.

5.
ACS Omega ; 5(25): 15620-15630, 2020 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32637838

RESUMO

The electronic and vibrational structures of trinickel metal string complexes [Ni3(dpa)4X2]1-,0,1+ (X = Cl, NCS) were investigated using both theoretical calculations and spectroscopic methods. We used the density functional theory (DFT) method B3LYP*-D3, including less exact exchange energy and the van der Waals interaction of metal ions, to obtain the geometries and vibrational structures, which were found to be in excellent agreement with the experimental data. The ground state of Ni3(dpa)4X2 is an antiferromagnetic (AF) singlet state, and the next state is a quintet state, which was detected using temperature-dependent Raman spectroscopy under a magnetic field. The vibrational structure of the quintet state is nearly identical to that of the AF state, according to the measured Raman spectra, except that the stretching of Ni-Cl is blue-shifted from 282.5 cm-1 in the AF state to 283.8 cm-1 in the quintet state. Two oxidized Ni3 complexes were found to have [Ni3]7+ cores, the doublet [Ni3(dpa)4]3+ without axial ligands and the quartet [Ni3(dpa)4X2]+. Complex [Ni3(dpa)4X2]-, which was produced from a reduction reaction by gold nanoparticles at room temperature, consists of a quartet state as the ground state and a doublet state lying nearby.

6.
Dalton Trans ; 49(26): 9035-9047, 2020 Jul 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32567620

RESUMO

This paper proposes a novel µ-hydroxo-bridged dinuclear macrocyclic zinc complex, {[Zn(C10H20N8)]2(OH)}(BF4)3. The structure was determined by X-ray crystallography: Monoclinic, C2/c, a = 25.4632(6), b = 10.9818(3), c = 15.7522(4) Å, Z = 8, R1 = 0.0233, wR2 = 0.0557, based on reflections I > 2σ(I). The complex was successfully reacted with graphene oxide to form a µ-hydroxo-bridged dinuclear macrocyclic Zn complex/reduced graphene oxide composite. To evenly disperse the Zn- and N-rich complex onto the surface of the reduced graphene oxide, and to enhance the electrocatalytic property of the graphene composites, a soluble molecular grafting method was used here. The graphene-based composites were applied as the counter electrodes (CEs) of dye-sensitized solar cells. Current density-voltage measurements revealed that the conversion efficiency of the GO/Zn (1 : 10) sample was 7.78%, which was better than that of Pt CE (7.49%). GO/Zn (1 : 10) CE exhibited the lowest impedance (RCE = 9.90 Ω), which was better than that of Pt CE (RCE = 66.1 Ω), showing that GO/Zn CEs can reduce the impedance at the CE/electrolyte interface. The proposed method is simple, and the composite materials can potentially replace conventional Pt, optimizing efficiency and reducing production cost.

7.
Dalton Trans ; 49(20): 6635-6643, 2020 May 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32367097

RESUMO

We report the synthesis of a novel heteroheptanuclear metal string complex (HMSC) [Ni3Ru2Ni2(µ7-teptra)4(NCS)2](PF6) 1 supported by tetra-pyridyl-tri-amine (H3teptra) ligands. We employed X-ray diffraction and other spectroscopic techniques to characterize the complex. The observed remarkably short Ru-Ru distance of 2.2499(3) Å for 1 is indicative of a unique metal-metal interaction in the mixed-valence [Ru2]5+ (S = 3/2) unit. The complex exhibits a relatively high magnetic moment value of 4.55 B.M. at 4 K, which increases rapidly to 6.00 B.M. at 30 K and remains at 6.11 B.M. from 50 to 300 K as shown by SQUID measurements, indicating a high spin (S≥ 3/2) system which is further supported by the analyses of EPR spectra at low temperatures. These magnetic behaviors can be ascribed to the result of spin-exchange interactions among multi-spin centers.

8.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 56(35): 4773-4776, 2020 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32232269

RESUMO

In this study imidazolium and imidazolinium centers in precursor [2]rotaxanes were deprotonated to obtain interlocked molecules featuring stabilized N-heterocyclic carbene centers. The encircling macrocyclic components enhanced the persistence of the otherwise unstable imidazolidin-2-ylidenes in solution at 253 K for more than a week in the absence of air.

9.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 59(28): 11278-11282, 2020 Jul 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32249512

RESUMO

We have prepared NHC-CuI complexes with a rotaxane structure and used them as sterically sensitive catalysts for one-pot sequential copper-catalyzed azide/alkyne cycloadditions in solutions containing all of the coupling partners premixed in unprotected form. Most notably, a photolabile and sterically encumbered complex first catalyzed the coupling of a less bulky azide/alkyne pair; after removing the protective macrocyclic component from the rotaxane structure, through irradiation with light, the exposed dumbbell-shaped NHC-CuI complex catalyzed the second click reaction of a bulkier azide/alkyne pair. Using this approach, we obtained predominantly, from a single sealed pot, a bis-triazole product (84 %) from a mixture of two sterically distinct azides and a diyne.

10.
Chemistry ; 26(50): 11511-11521, 2020 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32333427

RESUMO

Anthracene-pentiptycene hybrid systems 1-Cn, where n refers to the number of carbon atoms in the linear alkyl chain, crystallize in three different polymorphs, denoted Y (yellow), G (green), and B (blue) forms in terms of the fluorescence color. While all Y-form crystals show the same yellow-to-blue fluorescence color response to the photomechanical stress generated by the anthracene [4+4] photodimerization reaction, the four G forms exhibit distinct photomechanofluorochromism (PMFC): from green to blue for G-1-C4, to orange for G-1-C7, to red for G-1-C8, and to red then blue for G-1-C9, and the B forms show no photochromic activity. The intriguing RGB three-color PMFC and abnormal topochemical reactivity of G-1-C9 are attributed to inherent softness of the crystal lattice.

11.
Dalton Trans ; 49(22): 7299-7303, 2020 Jun 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32343295

RESUMO

Five heterometallic pentanuclear metal strings were prepared by stepwise synthesis from two to three and four kinds of metals aligned in one chain. In particular, NiPtCo2Pd(tpda)4Cl2 (5) possesses four different metals, and the SQUID measurement shows that Ni2+ is the only magnetically active center. Besides, the shortest Co(ii)-Co(ii) single bond (2.105(9) Å), so far, is reported.

12.
Chemistry ; 26(19): 4204-4208, 2020 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31944445

RESUMO

Multiple-stimuli-responsive photoluminescence films based on a ZnII -organic framework, {[Zn2 (Htpim)(3,4-pydc)2 ]⋅4 DMF⋅4 H2 O}n (1, Htpim=2,4,5-tri(4-pyridyl)imidazole, 3,4-H2 pydc=3,4-pyridinedicarboxylic acid), were fabricated. This compound consisted of a 2D corrugated layer, {Zn(3,4-pydc)}n , which was further pillared using a Y-shaped pillar N-donor ligand (Htpim) to form a 3D-pillared-layer framework with 1D open channels. The rectangular channels in the as-synthesized compound are fully occupied by guest DMF and H2 O molecules. The framework exhibits instant and reversible thermochromic properties corresponding to the removal of different H2 O and DMF guest molecules as temperature increases. The pale-yellow crystal undergoes significant redshifting to a greenish emission centered at 530 nm. Compound 1 also showed remarkable solvatochromic effects in the presence of various organic solvents without affecting its structural integrity. In addition, polycrystalline MOF films were grown on an α-Al2 O3 support for switchable and fast-response thermochromic and solvatochromic sensors.

13.
Org Biomol Chem ; 18(5): 975-982, 2020 02 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31932827

RESUMO

A new method for the preparation of 2-amino-3-cyanoquinolines from readily available aryldiazonium salts, 2-aminoarylketones, and malononitrile via a cascade reaction is reported. This one-pot approach involves the in situ generation of an N-arylnitrilium intermediate from the direct reaction of aryldiazonium salts and malononitrile, which undergoes intermolecular amination, Knoevenagel condensation, and then aromatization to yield the desired compound in moderate to good yields. This methodology features a quick assembly of C2 and C3 functionalized quinolines.

14.
ACS Omega ; 4(3): 5327-5334, 2019 Mar 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31459703

RESUMO

The facet-dependent redox reactions of diruthenium metal-string complexes by gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) are explored by using the surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) technique. Gold nano-rhombic dodecahedrons (AuRDs), gold nanocubes (AuNCs), and gold octahedrons (AuOhs) with exclusive facets {110}, {100}, and {111}, respectively, were synthesized. These AuNPs linked face-to-face by metal-string complexes Ru2M(dpa)4Cl2 (dpa = dipyridyl amino, M = Ni, Cu) with chloride axial ligands serve as both SERS substrates and reducing agents in the reactions. We employ the diruthenium core in these complexes with multiple redox states to study the reduction ability of varied AuNP facets upon plasmonic excitation. In Ru2Ni(dpa)4Cl2, the Ru-Ru stretching mode νRu-Ru str. lies at 327 cm-1 on the SERS substrate AuOh, but this band shifts to 313 cm-1 on the AuRD and AuNC. The diruthenium moiety was reduced to [Ru2]4+ by the AuRD facet {110} and the AuNC {100}. The gold nanorods in the solution prepared with metal-string complexes bridging head-to-head on {111} facets were used for the SERS substrate. The SERS curves of the complexes in these self-assembled head-to-head rods display νRu-Ru str. at 327 cm-1, which is assigned to having an [Ru2]5+ core. Hence, facets {110} and {100} have a reduction reactivity greater than that of {111}. In Ru2Cu(dpa)4Cl2, the νRu-Ru str. is observed to lie at 312 cm-1 on AuRD, but shifts to 320 cm-1 on the AuNC and AuOh. In the latter cases, the diruthenium moiety was reduced to having a charge of 4+ with electronic configuration π*2δ*2, whereas the former case band at 312 cm-1 with a weaker Ru-Ru bonding is also attributed to [Ru2]4+ but with electron configuration π*4. π*4 lies at an energy greater than π*2δ*2. The electrochemical SERS spectra of diruthenium complexes were recorded to verify their oxidation states. Conclusively, these results yield the reduction reactivity of the following facet: {110} > {100} > {111}. According to the results of the redox reactions, the valence states of the diruthenium metal-string complexes are verified. In the [Ru2] n+ core, n = 4 π*4, 4 π*2δ*2, 5 π*2δ*, and 6 π*δ*, and the νRu-Ru str. is 312, 320, 327, and 337 cm-1, respectively.

15.
Org Lett ; 21(14): 5708-5712, 2019 07 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31283244

RESUMO

The absolute configurations of the two enantiomers of a topologically chiral [2]catenane were determined unambiguously based on HPLC resolution and X-ray crystal analysis. Although structurally dissimilar to simple amino acids, the optical rotations of these separated [2]catenanes share the Clough-Lutz-Jirgensons behavior of amino acids: the optical rotation flips direction in the presence of acid and base, the first example of such behavior for a mechanically interlocked topologically chiral catenane.

16.
Dalton Trans ; 48(31): 11732-11742, 2019 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31298242

RESUMO

Treatment of [Ru]-C[triple bond, length as m-dash]CPh (1, [Ru] = (η5-C5H5)(dppe)Ru, dppe = Ph2PCH2CH2PPh2) with trimethylsilyl azide afforded the cationic nitrile complex {[Ru]NCCH2Ph}[N3] (2) and the further cycloaddition of 2 with trimethylsilyl azide at 60 °C afforded the N(2)-bound tetrazolato complex [Ru]N4CCH2Ph (3). The regiospecific alkylation of 3 gave a series of cationic N(2)-bound N(4)-alkylated-5-benzyl tetrazolato complexes {[Ru]N4(CH2R)CCH2Ph}[Br] (4a, R = C6F5; 4b, R = Ph; 4c, R = 4-CN-C6H4; 4d, R = 2,6-F2-C6H3; 4e, R = 6-CH2Br-C5NH3) and the subsequent cleavage of the Ru-N bond of 4a-4e gave N(1)-alkylated-5-benzyl tetrazoles N4(CH2R)CCH2Ph (5a-5e) in good to excellent yields and [Ru]-Br, which, on reacting with phenylacetylene, resulted in the formation of 1 thus forming a reaction cycle. The structures of 2, 3, 4a, 4c and 5a were confirmed by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis.

17.
Dalton Trans ; 48(27): 9912-9915, 2019 Jul 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31233062

RESUMO

A novel trinuclear complex [Ni3(µ3-dbay)4Cl2]I3 (1) with a mixed-valence state was prepared by reacting the tridentate ligand 1,13,14-triaza-dibenz[a,j]anthracene (dibenzanthyridine = dbay) with anhydrous NiCl2 and sodium tetraphenylborate. The title compound provides the first example of a trinuclear nickel-anthyridine-based string complex in which the metal framework of complex 1 consists of NiII-NiI-NiII. X-ray crystallography, magnetic susceptibility and detailed EPR measurements were performed to characterize the structure and magnetic properties of this unique complex.

18.
Dalton Trans ; 48(23): 8464-8477, 2019 Jun 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31116203

RESUMO

We report the syntheses, characterization, electronic structures and magnetic properties of four redox pairs of novel nickel-extended metal-atom chain (EMAC) complexes containing pyridine-, naphthyridine- and sulfonyl-containing ligands (H2Tspnda and H2Mspnda) (1-2 and 5-6). We further study the corresponding phenyl-substituted ligands (H2Tsphpnda and H2Msphpnda) (3-4 and 7-8) to examine the details of ligand effects. The X-ray structure of one-electron-reduced [Ni5]9+ complexes shows shorter Ni-Ni bond distances (2.2646(6) for 1, 2.2943(7) for 3, 2.2436(11) for 5 and 2.2322(8) Å for 7) in comparison with an average Ni-Ni distance of 2.3187(8) Å for these complexes, indicative of a partial metal-metal bond interaction in the mixed-valence [Ni2]3+ (S = 3/2) unit. The most striking result is that the [Ni2]3+ site migrates from Ni(1)-Ni(2) to Ni(2)-Ni(3) when we replace the p-tolyl-sulfonyl group with methyl-sulfonyl group. These complexes present a rare example of the effect of crystal packing on the symmetric molecular structure yielding unsymmetric electronic distribution. Cyclic voltammetry measurements show four reversible redox waves and display the lower potentials of the [Ni5]9+ complexes. These unusual lower potentials facilitate one-electron oxidation of these four complexes to [Ni5]10+-core forms. We applied the magnetic susceptibility and EPR measurements to examine the magnetic properties of these four [Ni5]9+-core pentanickel complexes and study the bonding nature of these mixed-valence [Ni2]3+ units. Indeed, the results of EPR measurements reflect the migration of the mixed-valence site and the change of symmetry. Surprisingly, the oxidized [Ni5]10+ counterparts behave differently: complex 2 exhibits an antiferromagnetic interaction with J = -13.59 cm-1 between the two terminal Ni ions, while the others (4, 6 and 8) display diamagnetic properties as all of the Ni2+ ions are in low-spin (S = 0) states. These three complexes, to the best of our knowledge, are the first examples of all Ni2+ ions in a null spin configuration for pentanickel chains. Even though the structures of these complexes are similar to each other, their corresponding electronic structure and oxidized products show drastic changes in their magnetic properties and bonding nature. These differences of the properties and bonding nature of these pentanickel complexes are attributed to the ligand effects.

19.
Dalton Trans ; 48(6): 1950-1954, 2019 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30644928

RESUMO

An SHG-active noncentrosymmetric (3,4)-connected Zn(ii)-organic framework, {[Zn2(4-abpt)(3,4-pydc)2]·2DMAc·3MeOH·H2O}n (1-Zn), was synthesized using a mixed-ligand system. The 1-Zn framework undergoes metal metathesis, with the complete exchange of the tetrahedrally coordinated ZnII ions with CuII ions while retaining the integrity of the network.

20.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 11(4): 4084-4092, 2019 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30604616

RESUMO

During the last two decades, spectacular development of light-emitting diodes (LEDs) has been achieved owing to their widespread application possibilities. However, traditional LEDs suffer from unavoidable energy loss because of the down conversion of photons, toxicity due to the involvement of rare-earth materials in their production, higher manufacturing cost, and reduced thermal stability that prevent them from all-inclusive applications. To address the existing challenges associated with current commercially available white LEDs, herein, we report a broad-band emission originating from an intrinsic lanthanide-free single-molecule-based LED. Self-assembly of a butterfly-shaped strontium-based compound {[Sr(H2btc)2(MeOH)(H2O)2]·2H2O} (1) was achieved through the reaction of Sr(NO3)2 with 1,2,3-benzenetricarboxylic acid hydrate (1,2,3-H3btc) under hydrothermal conditions. A white LED based on this single molecule exhibited a remarkable broad-band luminescence spectrum with Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage (CIE) coordinates at (0.33, 0.32) under 30 mA current injection. Such a broad luminescence spectrum can be attributed to the simultaneous existence of several emission lines originating from the intramolecular interactions within the structure. To further examine the nature of the observed transitions, density functional theory (DFT) calculations were carried out to explore the geometric and electronic properties of the complex. Our study thus paves the way toward a key step for developing a basic understanding and the development of high performance broad-band light-emitting devices with environment-friendly characteristics based on organic-inorganic supramolecular materials.

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