Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 12 de 12
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Base de dados
Intervalo de ano de publicação
1.
J Neural Eng ; 2020 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32413878

RESUMO

Objective Characterize the role of the beta-band (13-30 Hz) in the human hippocampus during the execution of voluntary movement. Approach We recorded electrophysiological activity in human hippocampus during a reach task using stereotactic electroencephalography (SEEG). SEEG has previously been utilized to study the theta band (3-8 Hz) in conflict processing and spatial navigation, but most studies of hippocampal activity during movement have used noninvasive measures such as fMRI. We analyzed modulation in the beta band (13-30 Hz), which is known to play a prominent role throughout the motor system including the cerebral cortex and basal ganglia. We conducted the classic "center-out" direct-reach experiment with nine patients undergoing surgical treatment for medically refractory epilepsy. Main Results In seven of the nine patients, power spectral analysis showed a statistically significant decrease in power within the beta band (13-30 Hz) during the response phase, compared to the fixation phase, of the center-out direct-reach task using the Wilcoxon signed-rank hypothesis test (p < 0.05). Significance This finding is consistent with previous literature suggesting that the hippocampus may be involved in the execution of movement, and it is the first time that changes in beta-band power have been demonstrated in the hippocampus using human electrophysiology. Our findings suggest that beta-band modulation in the human hippocampus may play a role in the execution of voluntary movement.

2.
World Neurosurg ; 2020 Apr 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32298832

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Stereotactic localization of neurosurgical targets traditionally relies on computed tomography (CT), which is considered the optimal imaging modality for geometric accuracy. However, in-depth investigations that characterize the precision and accuracy of CT images are lacking. We used a CT phantom to examine interscanner precision and interprotocol accuracy in coordinate localization. METHODS: A polymethylacrylate phantom was scanned with Toshiba Aquilion 64 and GE Healthcare LightSpeed 16 CT scanners, using both helical and incremental single-slice (SS) image acquisition protocols. The X, Y, and Z coordinates of 94 points across 6 surfaces of the phantom were physically measured. The CT scan-derived coordinates were compared with the phantom coordinates and with each other to determine accuracy and precision, respectively. RESULTS: Using the SS imaging protocol, the mean (SD) interscanner disparity in localization was 0.93 (0.39) mm, given by the average Euclidean distance between the coordinates of the 2 scanners. This discrepancy significantly varied by axis and surface, with the greatest discrepancy in the Z-axis of 0.30 mm (95% confidence interval, 0.25-0.35; P = 0.05) and on the superior surface of 1.30 mm (95% confidence interval, 1.15-1.45; P = 0.05). SS acquisition was significantly more accurate than the helical protocol. CONCLUSIONS: We found evidence of clinically relevant inconsistency between 2 CT scanners used for stereotactic localization. SS image acquisition was superior to helical scanning with respect to localization accuracy. Interscanner consistency cannot be assumed. Institutions would benefit from identifying the errors inherent in their CT scanners.

3.
J Neural Eng ; 2020 Mar 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32131064

RESUMO

The ideal modality for generating sensation in sensorimotor brain computer interfaces (BCI) has not been determined. Here we report the feasibility of using a high-density "mini"-electrocorticography (mECoG) grid in a somatosensory BCI system. Thirteen subjects with intractable epilepsy underwent standard clinical implantation of subdural electrodes for the purpose of seizure localization. An additional high-density mECoG grid was placed (Adtech, 8 by 8, 1.2-mm exposed, 3-mm center-to-center spacing) over the hand area of primary somatosensory cortex. Following implantation, cortical mapping was performed with stimulation parameters of frequency: 50 Hz, pulse-width: 250 µs, pulse duration: 4 s, polarity: alternating, and current that ranged from 0.5 mA to 12 mA at the discretion of the epileptologist. Location of the evoked sensory percepts was recorded along with a description of the sensation. The hand was partitioned into 48 distinct boxes. A box was included if sensation was felt anywhere within the box. The percentage of the hand covered was 63.9% (± 34.4%) (mean ± s.d.). Mean redundancy, measured as electrode pairs stimulating the same box, was 1.9 (± 2.2) electrodes per box; and mean resolution, measured as boxes included per electrode pair stimulation, was 11.4 (± 13.7) boxes with 8.1 (± 10.7) boxes in the digits and 3.4 (± 6.0) boxes in the palm. Functional utility of the system was assessed by quantifying usable percepts. Under the strictest classification, "dermatomally exclusive" percepts, the mean was 2.8 usable percepts per grid. Allowing "perceptually unique" percepts at the same anatomical location, the mean was 5.5 usable percepts per grid. Compared to the small area of coverage and redundancy of a microelectrode system, or the poor resolution of a standard ECoG grid, a mECoG is likely the best modality for a somatosensory BCI system with good coverage of the hand and minimal redundancy.

4.
Neurosurg Focus ; 48(2): E2, 2020 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32006952

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Stimulation of the primary somatosensory cortex (S1) has been successful in evoking artificial somatosensation in both humans and animals, but much is unknown about the optimal stimulation parameters needed to generate robust percepts of somatosensation. In this study, the authors investigated frequency as an adjustable stimulation parameter for artificial somatosensation in a closed-loop brain-computer interface (BCI) system. METHODS: Three epilepsy patients with subdural mini-electrocorticography grids over the hand area of S1 were asked to compare the percepts elicited with different stimulation frequencies. Amplitude, pulse width, and duration were held constant across all trials. In each trial, subjects experienced 2 stimuli and reported which they thought was given at a higher stimulation frequency. Two paradigms were used: first, 50 versus 100 Hz to establish the utility of comparing frequencies, and then 2, 5, 10, 20, 50, or 100 Hz were pseudorandomly compared. RESULTS: As the magnitude of the stimulation frequency was increased, subjects described percepts that were "more intense" or "faster." Cumulatively, the participants achieved 98.0% accuracy when comparing stimulation at 50 and 100 Hz. In the second paradigm, the corresponding overall accuracy was 73.3%. If both tested frequencies were less than or equal to 10 Hz, accuracy was 41.7% and increased to 79.4% when one frequency was greater than 10 Hz (p = 0.01). When both stimulation frequencies were 20 Hz or less, accuracy was 40.7% compared with 91.7% when one frequency was greater than 20 Hz (p < 0.001). Accuracy was 85% in trials in which 50 Hz was the higher stimulation frequency. Therefore, the lower limit of detection occurred at 20 Hz, and accuracy decreased significantly when lower frequencies were tested. In trials testing 10 Hz versus 20 Hz, accuracy was 16.7% compared with 85.7% in trials testing 20 Hz versus 50 Hz (p < 0.05). Accuracy was greater than chance at frequency differences greater than or equal to 30 Hz. CONCLUSIONS: Frequencies greater than 20 Hz may be used as an adjustable parameter to elicit distinguishable percepts. These findings may be useful in informing the settings and the degrees of freedom achievable in future BCI systems.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31584102

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Three-dimensional fluoroscopy via the O-arm (Medtronic, Dublin, Ireland) has been validated for intraoperative confirmation of successful lead placement in stereotactic electrode implantation. However, its role in registration and targeting has not yet been studied. After frame placement, many stereotactic neurosurgeons obtain a computed tomography (CT) scan and merge it with a preoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan to generate planning coordinates; potential disadvantages of this practice include increased procedure time and limited scanner availability. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether the second-generation O-arm (O2) can be used in lieu of a traditional CT scan to obtain accurate frame-registration scans. METHODS: In 7 patients, a postframe placement CT scan was merged with preoperative MRI and used to generate lead implantation coordinates. After implantation, the fiducial box was again placed on the patient to obtain an O2 confirmation scan. Vector, scalar, and Euclidean differences between analogous X, Y, and Z coordinates from fused O2/MRI and CT/MRI scans were calculated for 33 electrode target coordinates across 7 patients. RESULTS: Marginal means of difference for vector (X = -0.079 ± 0.099 mm; Y = -0.076 ± 0.134 mm; Z = -0.267 ± 0.318 mm), scalar (X = -0.146 ± 0.160 mm; Y = -0.306 ± 0.106 mm; Z = 0.339 ± 0.407 mm), and Euclidean differences (0.886 ± 0.190 mm) remained within the predefined equivalence margin differences of -2 mm and 2 mm. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates that O2 may emerge as a viable alternative to the traditional CT scanner for generating planning coordinates. Adopting the O2 as a perioperative tool may offer reduced transport risks, decreased anesthesia time, and greater surgical efficiency.

6.
J Clin Neurosci ; 68: 13-19, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31375306

RESUMO

Implantable neurostimulation devices provide a direct therapeutic link to the nervous system and can be considered brain-computer interfaces (BCI). Under this definition, BCI are not simply science fiction, they are part of existing neurosurgical practice. Clinical BCI are standard of care for historically difficult to treat neurological disorders. These systems target the central and peripheral nervous system and include Vagus Nerve Stimulation, Responsive Neurostimulation, and Deep Brain Stimulation. Recent advances in clinical BCI have focused on creating "closed-loop" systems. These systems rely on biomarker feedback and promise individualized therapy with optimal stimulation delivery and minimal side effects. Success of clinical BCI has paralleled research efforts to create BCI that restore upper extremity motor and sensory function to patients. Efforts to develop closed loop motor/sensory BCI is linked to the successes of today's clinical BCI.


Assuntos
Interfaces Cérebro-Computador/tendências , Estimulação Encefálica Profunda/tendências , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/terapia , Estimulação do Nervo Vago/tendências , Estimulação Encefálica Profunda/instrumentação , Estimulação Encefálica Profunda/métodos , Humanos , Estimulação do Nervo Vago/instrumentação , Estimulação do Nervo Vago/métodos
7.
Front Neurosci ; 13: 832, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31440133

RESUMO

Recently, efforts to produce artificial sensation through cortical stimulation of primary somatosensory cortex (PSC) in humans have proven safe and reliable. Changes in stimulation parameters like frequency and amplitude have been shown to elicit different percepts, but without clearly defined psychometric profiles. This study investigates the functionally useful limits of frequency changes on the percepts felt by three epilepsy patients with subdural electrocorticography (ECoG) grids. Subjects performing a hidden target task were stimulated with parameters of constant amplitude, pulse-width, and pulse-duration, and a randomly selected set of two frequencies (20, 30, 40, 50, 60, and 100 Hz). They were asked to decide which target had the "higher" frequency. Objectively, an increase in frequency differences was associated with an increase in perceived intensity. Reliable detection of stimulation occurred at and above 40 Hz with a lower limit of detection around 20 Hz and a just-noticeable difference estimated at less than 10 Hz. These findings suggest that frequency can be used as a reliable, adjustable parameter and may be useful in establishing settings and thresholds of functionality in future BCI systems.

8.
J Clin Neurosci ; 64: 214-219, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31023574

RESUMO

Previous work in directional tuning for brain machine interfaces has primarily relied on algorithm sorted neuronal action potentials in primary motor cortex. However, local field potential has been utilized to show directional tuning in macaque studies, and inferior parietal cortex has shown increased neuronal activity in reaching tasks that relied on MRI imaging. In this study we utilized local field potential recordings from a human subject performing a delayed reach task and show that high frequency band (76-100 Hz) spectral power is directionally tuned to different reaching target locations during an active reach. We also show that during the delay phase of the task, directional tuning is present in areas of the inferior parietal cortex, in particular, the supramarginal gyrus.


Assuntos
Potenciais de Ação/fisiologia , Lobo Parietal/fisiologia , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Adulto , Humanos , Masculino , Córtex Motor/fisiologia , Neurônios/fisiologia
9.
Neurosurg Clin N Am ; 30(2): 275-281, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30898278

RESUMO

Brain-computer interfaces (BCI) are implantable devices that interface directly with the nervous system. BCI for quadriplegic patients restore function by reading motor intent from the brain and use the signal to control physical, virtual, and native prosthetic effectors. Future closed-loop motor BCI will incorporate sensory feedback to provide patients with an effective and intuitive experience. Development of widely available BCI for patients with neurologic injury will depend on the successes of today's clinical BCI. BCI are an exciting next step in the frontier of neuromodulation.


Assuntos
Interfaces Cérebro-Computador , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Quadriplegia/reabilitação , Humanos , Quadriplegia/fisiopatologia
10.
Exp Brain Res ; 237(5): 1155-1167, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30796470

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Restoration of somatosensory deficits in humans requires a clear understanding of the neural representations of percepts. To characterize the cortical response to naturalistic somatosensation, we examined field potentials in the primary somatosensory cortex of humans. METHODS: Four patients with intractable epilepsy were implanted with subdural electrocorticography (ECoG) electrodes over the hand area of S1. Three types of stimuli were applied, soft-repetitive touch, light touch, and deep touch. Power in the alpha (8-15 Hz), beta (15-30 Hz), low-gamma (30-50 Hz), and high-gamma (50-125 Hz) frequency bands were evaluated for significance. RESULTS: Seventy-seven percent of electrodes over the hand area of somatosensory cortex exhibited changes in these bands. High-gamma band power increased for all stimuli, with concurrent alpha and beta band power decreases. Earlier activity was seen in these bands in deep touch and light touch compared to soft touch. CONCLUSIONS: These findings are consistent with prior literature and suggest a widespread response to focal touch, and a different encoding of deeper pressure touch than soft touch.


Assuntos
Ondas Encefálicas/fisiologia , Eletrocorticografia/métodos , Mãos/fisiologia , Córtex Somatossensorial/fisiologia , Adulto , Estimulação Elétrica , Eletrodos Implantados , Epilepsia/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
11.
J Neurosurg ; : 1-7, 2019 Jan 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30684944

RESUMO

Closed-loop brain-responsive neurostimulation via the RNS System is a treatment option for adults with medically refractory focal epilepsy. Using a novel technique, 2 RNS Systems (2 neurostimulators and 4 leads) were successfully implanted in a single patient with bilateral parietal epileptogenic zones. In patients with multiple epileptogenic zones, this technique allows for additional treatment options. Implantation can be done successfully, without telemetry interference, using proper surgical planning and neurostimulator positioning.Trajectories for the depth leads were planned using neuronavigation with CT and MR imaging. Stereotactic frames were used for coordinate targeting. Each neurostimulator was positioned with maximal spacing to avoid telemetry interference while minimizing patient discomfort. A separate J-shaped incision was used for each neurostimulator to allow for compartmentalization in case of infection. In order to minimize surgical time and risk of infection, the neurostimulators were implanted in 2 separate surgeries, approximately 3 weeks apart.The neurostimulators and leads were successfully implanted without adverse surgical outcomes. The patient recovered uneventfully, and the early therapy settings over several months resulted in preliminary decreases in aura and seizure frequency. Stimulation by one of the neurostimulators did not result in stimulation artifacts detected by the contralateral neurostimulator.

12.
J Community Health ; 42(1): 21-29, 2017 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27449122

RESUMO

Community health workers (CHWs) are increasingly utilized to reach low-resource communities. A critical domain influencing success is the CHWs' ability to create and maintain a therapeutic relationship with the participants they serve. A limited evidence base exists detailing this construct, and evaluating CHW-participant relationships in the context of CHW-led programs. In a longitudinal study design, data on this therapeutic relationship were collected [as captured using The Scale to Assess the Therapeutic Relationship in Community Mental Health Care (STAR)] on 141 participants who had been assigned to a CHW during their perinatal period. Results indicate that therapeutic relationship was associated with the participant's psychosocial health, and independently predicted study adherence in the longitudinal intervention. Changes in therapeutic relationship over the months following birth were strongly associated with changes in anxiety and depression symptoms. A trustful relationship is critical in ensuring CHWs can effectively reach the population they serve. The findings offer additional psychometric evidence of the uses and benefits of STAR outside of the traditional clinical setting in the context of public health research.


Assuntos
Agentes Comunitários de Saúde , Serviços Comunitários de Saúde Mental/estatística & dados numéricos , Cooperação do Paciente , Relações Profissional-Paciente , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Cooperação do Paciente/psicologia , Gravidez , Psicologia , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Confiança , Adulto Jovem
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA