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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33683021

RESUMO

Variants identified by genome-wide association studies (GWAS) are often expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs), suggesting they are proxies or are themselves regulatory. Across many data sets, analyses show that variants often affect multiple genes. Lacking data on many tissue types, developmental time points, and homogeneous cell types, the extent of this one-to-many relationship is underestimated. This raises questions on whether a disease eQTL target gene explains the genetic association or is a bystander and puts into question the direction of expression effect of on the risk, since the many variants-regulated genes may have opposing effects, imperfectly balancing each other. We used two brain gene expression data sets (CommonMind and BrainSeq) for mediation analysis of schizophrenia-associated variants. We confirm that eQTL target genes often mediate risk but the direction in which expression affects risk is often different from that in which the risk allele changes expression. Of 38 mediator genes significant in both data sets 33 showed consistent mediation direction (Chi2 test p = 6 × 10-6 ). One might expect that the expression would correlate with the risk allele in the same direction it correlates with the disease. For 15 of these 33 (45%), however, the expression change associated with the risk allele was protective, suggesting the likely presence of other target genes with overriding effects. Our results identify specific risk mediating genes and suggest caution in interpreting the biological consequences of targeted modifications of gene expression, as not all eQTL targets may be relevant to disease while those that are, might have different from expected directions.

2.
Sci Total Environ ; 771: 145381, 2021 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33548722

RESUMO

Higher land surface temperature (LST) in cities than its surrounding areas presents a major sustainability challenge for cities. Adaptation and mitigation of the increased LST require in-depth understanding of the impacts of landscape features on LST. We studied the influences of different landscape features on LST in five large cities across China to investigate how the features of a specific urban landscape (endogenous features), and neighboring environments (exogenous features) impact its LST across a continuum of spatial scales. Surprisingly, results show that the influence of endogenous landscape features (Eendo) on LST can be described consistently across all cities as a nonlinear function of grain size (gs) and neighbor size (ns) (Eendo = ßnsgs-0.5, where ß is a city-specific constant) while the influence of exogenous features (Eexo) depends only on neighbor size (ns) (Eexo = Î³-εns0.5, where γ and ε are city-specific constants). In addition, a simple relationship describing the relative strength of endogenous and exogenous impacts of landscape features on LST was found (Eendo > Eexo if ns > kgs2/5, where k is a city-specific parameter; otherwise, Eendo < Eexo). Overall, vegetation alleviates 40%-60% of the warming effect of built-up while surface wetness intensifies or reduces it depending on climate conditions. This study reveals a set of unifying quantitative relationships that effectively describes landscape impacts on LST across cities, grain and neighbor sizes, which can be instrumental towards the design of sustainable cities to deal with increasing temperature.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33534703

RESUMO

Imbalanced data distribution in crowd counting datasets leads to severe under-estimation and over-estimation problems, which has been less investigated in existing works. In this paper, we tackle this challenging problem by proposing a simple but effective locality-based learning paradigm to produce generalizable features by alleviating sample bias. Our proposed method is locality-aware in two aspects. First, we introduce a locality-aware data partition (LADP) approach to group the training data into different bins via locality-sensitive hashing. As a result, a more balanced data batch is then constructed by LADP. To further reduce the training bias and enhance the collaboration with LADP, a new data augmentation method called locality-aware data augmentation (LADA) is proposed where the image patches are adaptively augmented based on the loss. The proposed method is independent of the backbone network architectures, and thus could be smoothly integrated with most existing deep crowd counting approaches in an end-to-end paradigm to boost their performance. We also demonstrate the versatility of the proposed method by applying it for adversarial defense. Extensive experiments verify the superiority of the proposed method over the state of the arts.

4.
J Clin Nurs ; 2021 Feb 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33559184

RESUMO

AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: This study aims to gain a comprehensive understanding of the illness experience of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patients in China and the meaning they attach to those experiences. BACKGROUND: ALS is a progressive and fatal neurodegenerative disorder that significantly impacts individuals and families. There is a large number of patients with ALS in China. However, little is known about how they live with ALS. DESIGN: Phenomenological qualitative research was performed among twenty people with ALS from the neurology department of a tertiary hospital in China. Colaizzi's method was used to analyse the participants' data. The Consolidated Criteria for Reporting Qualitative Research (COREQ) was used as a guideline to secure accurate and complete reporting of the study. RESULTS: We proposed three themes and eight subthemes on the illness experience of participants: (1) life countdown: 'my body was frozen' (body out of control and inward suffering); (2) family self-help: 'we kept an eye on each other' (family warmth and hardship, and supporting the supporter); and (3) reconstruction of life: 'what was the meaning of my life' (learning to accept, rebuilding self-worth, resetting the priority list and living in the moment). CONCLUSIONS: In the family self-help model, patients are prompted to turn from negative mentalities to search for meaning in life actively. Healthcare providers need to attach importance to the family self-help model to alleviate the pressure on medical resources. RELEVANCE TO CLINICAL PRACTICE: Healthcare providers should encourage patients to play a supportive role in the family and provide more care support and professional care knowledge guidance to caregivers, to promote the formation of the family self-help model which might help to improve the experience of patients and families.

5.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res ; 40(1): 66, 2021 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33579337

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The abnormal expression of circular RNAs (circRNAs) in uveal melanoma (UM) has been revealed, but the specific underlying molecular mechanism of their association with UM development has not been fully explored. METHODS: The levels of circ_0119872, G3BP1 and miR-622 in UM cell lines and tissues were determined by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) and western blotting assays. In vitro and in vivo assays were performed to investigate the function of circ_0119872 in the tumorigenesis of UM cells. The relationships among circ_0119872, miR-622 and G3BP1 were predicted using bioinformatic tools and verified by RNA-FISH, RNA pull-down and dual-luciferase reporter assays. The effects of circ_0119872 on Wnt/ß-catenin and mTOR signalling pathways were determined by gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) and western blotting. RESULTS: We found that circ_0119872 is upregulated in UM cell lines and tissues. Moreover, overexpression of circ_0119872 promotes the malignancy of UM cells, while silencing of circ_0119872 inhibits it. In addition, circ_0119872 can directly interact with miR-622 as a miRNA sponge that regulates the expression of the miR-622 target gene G3BP1 as well as downstream Wnt/ß-catenin and mTOR signalling pathways. CONCLUSIONS: Circ_0119872 may act as an oncogene in UM through a novel circ_0119872/miR-622/G3BP1 axis, activating the Wnt/ß-catenin and mTOR signalling pathways, which in turn may provide potential biomarkers and therapeutic targets for the management of UM.

6.
Sci Total Environ ; 767: 144966, 2021 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33636764

RESUMO

Due to the massive quantity and broad phylogeny, an accurate measurement of microbial diversity is highly challenging in soil ecosystems. Initially, the deviation caused by sampling should be adequately considered. Here, we attempted to uncover the effect of different sampling strategies on α diversity measurement of soil prokaryotes. Four 1 m2 sampling quadrats in a typical grassland were thoroughly surveyed through deep 16S rRNA gene sequencing (over 11 million reads per quadrat) with numerous replicates (33 soil sampling cores with total 141 replicates per quadrat). We found the difference in diversity was relatively small when pooling soil cores before and after DNA extraction and sequencing, but they were both superior to a non-pooling strategy. Pooling a small number of soil cores (i.e., 5 or 9) combined with several technical replicates is sufficient to estimate diversities for soil prokaryotes, and there is great flexibility in pooling original samples or data at different experimental steps. Additionally, the distribution of local α diversity varies with sampling core number, sequencing depth, and abundance distribution of the community, especially for high orders of Hill diversity index (i.e., Shannon entropy and inverse Simpson index). For each grassland soil quadrat (1 m2), retaining 100,000 reads after taxonomic clustering might be a realistic option, as these number of reads can efficiently cover the majority of common species in this area. Our findings provide important guidance for soil sampling strategy, and the general results can serve as a basis for further studies.


Assuntos
Microbiologia do Solo , Solo , Bactérias/genética , Ecossistema , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética
7.
Res Vet Sci ; 135: 96-105, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33461120

RESUMO

The purpose of the study was to evaluate the protective effects of polygonatum sibiricum polysaccharide (PP), an important component of rhizome polygonatum, on cyclophosphamide (CY) induced immunosuppressed chickens. Four hundred and eighty one-day-old Erlang mountainous chickens were randomly allocated into four treatments. The main factors consisted of dietary supplement (PP at 0 or 800 mg/kg of diet) and immunosuppressive challenge (birds challenged with CY or treated with sterile saline). The results showed that PP enhanced chickens' growth performance via elevating daily weight gain (DWG), serum protein production, and decreasing feed conversion ratio (FCR). Moreover, physical measurements revealed that PP accelerated recovery of relative weights of immune organs and maintained their structure and function. Biochemical analysis indicated that PP significantly stimulated immunoglobulin and antioxidant indexes in serum, and improved the proliferation of peripheral blood T lymphocytes. In addition, PP promoted immune organs cells to enter into S and G2/M phases as well as inhibited the apoptosis in the spleen, thymus, and bursa of Fabricius. PP up regulated the expression of IL-2, IL-6 and IFN-γ genes. Therefore, PP performs a profile in antagonizing Cy-induced immunosuppression in chickens, and it seems that PP can be used as a potential immunostimulant agent.

8.
Schizophr Res ; 228: 324-326, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33497908

RESUMO

Antipsychotics are known to modulate dopamine and other neurotransmitters which is often thought to be the mechanism underlying their therapeutic effects. Nevertheless, other less studied consequences of antipsychotics on neuronal function may contribute to their efficacy. Revealing the complete picture behind their action is of paramount importance for precision medicine and accurate drug selection. Progress in cell engineering allows the generation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) and their differentiation to a variety of neuronal types, providing new tools to study antipsychotics. Here we use excitatory cortical neurons derived from iPSCs to explore their response to therapeutic levels of Clozapine as measured by their transcriptomic output, a proxy for neuronal homeostasis. To our surprise, but in agreement with the results of many investigators studying glial-like cells, Clozapine had a very strong effect on cholesterol metabolism. More than a quarter (12) of all annotated cholesterol genes (46) in the genome were significantly changed at FDR < 0.1, all upregulated. This is a 35-fold enrichment with an adjusted p = 8 × 10-11. Notably no other functional category showed evidence of enrichment. Cholesterol is a major component of the neuronal membrane and myelin but it does not cross the blood brain barrier, it is produced locally mostly by glia but also by neurons. By singling out increased expression of cholesterol metabolism genes as the main response of cortical excitatory neurons to antipsychotics, our work supports the hypothesis that cholesterol metabolism may be a contributing mechanism to the beneficial effects of Clozapine and possibly other antipsychotics.

9.
Magn Reson Med ; 85(6): 3299-3307, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33421224

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To develop a robust, accurate, and accelerated T1ρ quantification solution for submillimeter in vivo whole-brain imaging. METHODS: A multislice T1ρ mapping solution (MS-T1ρ ) was developed based on a two-acquisition scheme using turbo spin echo with RF cycling to allow for whole-brain coverage with 0.8-mm in-plane resolution. A compressed sensing-based fast imaging method, SCOPE, was used to accelerate the MS-T1ρ acquisition time to a total scan time of 3 minutes 31 seconds. A phantom experiment was conducted to assess the accuracy of MS-T1ρ by comparing the T1ρ value obtained using MS-T1ρ with the reference value obtained using the standard single-slice T1ρ mapping method. In vivo scans of 13 volunteers were acquired prospectively to validate the robustness of MS-T1ρ . RESULTS: In the phantom study, the T1ρ values obtained with MS-T1ρ were in good agreement with the reference T1ρ values (R2 = 0.9991) and showed high consistency throughout all slices (coefficient of variation = 2.2 ± 2.43%). In the in vivo experiments, T1ρ maps were successfully acquired for all volunteers with no visually noticeable artifacts. There was no significant difference in T1ρ values between MS-T1ρ acquisitions and fully sampled acquisitions for all brain tissues (p-value > .05). In the intraclass correlation coefficient and Bland-Altman analyses, the accelerated T1ρ measurements show moderate to good agreement to the fully sampled reference values. CONCLUSION: The proposed MS-T1ρ solution allows for high-resolution whole-brain T1ρ mapping within 4 minutes and may provide a potential tool for investigating neural diseases.

10.
Poult Sci ; 100(3): 100803, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33516464

RESUMO

Ammonia (NH3) at a high concentration has been recognized as a highly poisonous pollutant affecting both air and water quality. NH3, as a stimulus, exerts negative impact on broiler growth and production, but the molecular mechanisms are not clear yet. This study was designed to evaluate the effects of dietary supplementation of Bupleurum falcatum L saikosaponins (SP) on the growth and ileum health status in broilers exposed to NH3. Day-old Arbor Acers broilers (n = 480) were randomly allocated into 1 of 4 treatments. The main factors were dietary SP supplementation (0 or 80 mg/kg of diet) and NH3 challenge (with or without 70 ± 5 ppm NH3). The data of growth, intestinal morphology, and mRNA expression related to ileal function were collected from broilers exposed to NH3 for 7 d. Results showed that NH3 remarkably suppressed growth performance and intestinal development as well as induced biological injuries in the ileum of broilers, resulting from oxidative stress, mucous barrier damage, and immune dysfunction as well as upregulated apoptosis. These negative effects of NH3 were alleviated by the SP supplement. In conclusion, dietary supplementation of SP may be helpful in alleviating the detrimental effects of NH3 on the ileum development in broilers.

11.
Pharmacol Res ; 165: 105444, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33493657

RESUMO

With the development of high-throughput screening and bioinformatics technology, natural products with a range of pharmacological targets in multiple diseases have become important sources of new drug discovery. These compounds are derived from various plants, including the dried root of Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi, which is often used as a traditional Chinese herb named Huangqin, a popular medication used for thousands of years in China. Many studies have shown that baicalin, an extract from Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi, exerts various protective effects on liver and gut diseases. Baicalin plays a therapeutic role mainly by mediating downstream apoptosis and immune response pathways induced by upstream oxidative stress and inflammation. During oxidative stress regulation, PI3K/Akt/NRF2, Keap-1, NF-κB and HO-1 are key factors associated with the healing effects of baicalin on NAFLD/NASH, ulcerative colitis and cholestasis. In the inflammatory response, IL-6, IL-1ß, TNF-α, MIP-2 and MIP-1α are involved in the alleviation of NAFLD/NASH, cholestasis and liver fibrosis by baicalin, as are TGF-ß1/Smads, STAT3 and NF-κB. Regarding the apoptosis pathway, Bax, Bcl-2, Caspase-3 and Caspase-9 are key factors related to the suppression of hepatocellular carcinoma and attenuation of liver injury and colorectal cancer. In addition to immune regulation, PD-1/PDL-1 and TLR4-NF-κB are correlated with the alleviation of hepatocellular carcinoma, ulcerative colitis and colorectal cancer by baicalin. Moreover, baicalin regulates intestinal flora by promoting the production of SCFAs. Furthermore, BA is involved in the interactions of the liver-gut axis by regulating TGR5, FXR, bile acids and the microbiota. In general, a comprehensive analysis of this natural compound was conducted to determine the mechanism by which it regulates bile acid metabolism, the intestinal flora and related signaling pathways, providing new insights into the pharmacological effects of baicalin. The mechanism linking the liver and gut systems needs to be elucidated to draw attention to its great clinical importance.

12.
Mol Ecol ; 30(4): 1072-1085, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33320382

RESUMO

Although many studies have investigated the spatial scaling of microbial communities living in surface soils, very little is known about the patterns within deeper strata, nor is the mechanism behind them. Here, we systematically assessed spatial scaling of prokaryotic biodiversity within three different strata (Upper: 0-20 cm, Middle: 20-40 cm, and Substratum: 40-100 cm) in a typical grassland by examining both distance-decay (DDRs) and species-area relationships (SARs), taxonomically and phylogenetically, as well as community assembly processes. Each layer exhibited significant biogeographic patterns in both DDR and SAR (p < .05), with taxonomic turnover rates higher than phylogenetic ones. Specifically, the spatial turnover rates, ß and z values, respectively, ranged from 0.016 ± 0.005 to 0.023 ± 0.005 and 0.065 ± 0.002 to 0.077 ± 0.004 across soil strata, and both increased with depth. Moreover, the prokaryotic community in grassland soils assembled mainly according to deterministic rather than stochastic mechanisms. By using normalized stochasticity ratio (NST) based on null model, the relative importance of deterministic ratios increased from 48.0 to 63.3% from Upper to Substratum, meanwhile a phylogenetic based method revealed average ßNTI also increased with depth, from -5.29 to 19.5. Using variation partitioning and distance approaches, both geographic distance and soil properties were found to strongly affect biodiversity structure, the proportions increasing with depth, but spatial distance was always the main underlying factor. These indicated increasingly deterministic proportions in accelerating turnover rates for spatial assembly of prokaryotic biodiversity. Our study provided new insights on biogeography in different strata, revealing importance of assembly patterns and mechanisms of prokaryote communities in below-surface soils.

13.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 31(9): 3111-3118, 2020 Sep 15.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33345513

RESUMO

Sedum plumbizincicola is a Cd and Zn hyperaccumulator, widely used for the phytoremediation of Cd-contaminated soil. Bacillus megaterium, a phosphate-solubilizing bacteria, can promote plant growth and improve the bioavailability of heavy metals in soil, and thus has a strengthening effect on the remediation of heavy metal-contaminated soil. Here, a pot experiment was carried out with S. plumbizincicola as a hyperaccumulator to investigate the effects of different inoculation amounts (10-60 mL) of B. megaterium on the phytoremediation efficiency of Cd-contaminated farmland soils. The results showed that inoculation of B. megaterium increased soil available Cd content by 15.0%-45.0% compared with the CK. Biomass of shoots and roots of S. plumbizincicola increased by 8.7%-66.7% and 13.6%-81.8%, respectively. Shoot Cd concentration was significantly increased by the application of B. megaterium by 29.2%-60.4%. Under the conditions of S. plumbizincicola inoculated with B. megaterium, Cd removal rate of soil reached 26.7%-42.9%. In conclusion, application of B. megaterium in phytoremediation significantly enhanced the Cd removal efficiency and increased plant biomass, which promoted Cd remediation efficiency.


Assuntos
Bacillus megaterium , Sedum , Poluentes do Solo , Biodegradação Ambiental , Cádmio , Fazendas , Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Zinco
14.
J Cell Mol Med ; 2020 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33009725

RESUMO

Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is a serious kidney disease resulted from diabetes. Dys-regulated proliferation and extracellular matrix (ECM) accumulation in mesangial cells contribute to DN progression. In this study, we tested expression level of MIAT in DN patients and mesangial cells treated by high glucose (HG). Up-regulation of MIAT was observed in DN. Then, functional assays displayed that silence of MIAT by siRNA significantly repressed the proliferation and cycle progression in mesangial cells induced by HG. Meanwhile, we found that collagen IV, fibronectin and TGF-ß1 protein expression was obviously triggered by HG, which could be rescued by loss of MIAT. Then, further assessment indicated that MIAT served as sponge harbouring miR-147a. Moreover, miR-147a was decreased in DN, which exhibited an antagonistic effect of MIAT on modulating mesangial cell proliferation and fibrosis. Moreover, bioinformatics analysis displayed that E2F transcription factor 3 (E2F3) could act as direct target of miR-147a. We demonstrated that E2F3 was greatly increased in DN and the direct binding association between miR-147a and E2F3 was evidenced using luciferase reporter assay. In summary, our data explored the underlying mechanism of DN pathogenesis validated that MIAT induced mesangial cell proliferation and fibrosis via sponging miR-147a and regulating E2F3.

15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33090960

RESUMO

Cross-modal retrieval (CMR) enables flexible retrieval experience across different modalities (e.g., texts versus images), which maximally benefits us from the abundance of multimedia data. Existing deep CMR approaches commonly require a large amount of labeled data for training to achieve high performance. However, it is time-consuming and expensive to annotate the multimedia data manually. Thus, how to transfer valuable knowledge from existing annotated data to new data, especially from the known categories to new categories, becomes attractive for real-world applications. To achieve this end, we propose a deep multimodal transfer learning (DMTL) approach to transfer the knowledge from the previously labeled categories (source domain) to improve the retrieval performance on the unlabeled new categories (target domain). Specifically, we employ a joint learning paradigm to transfer knowledge by assigning a pseudolabel to each target sample. During training, the pseudolabel is iteratively updated and passed through our model in a self-supervised manner. At the same time, to reduce the domain discrepancy of different modalities, we construct multiple modality-specific neural networks to learn a shared semantic space for different modalities by enforcing the compactness of homoinstance samples and the scatters of heteroinstance samples. Our method is remarkably different from most of the existing transfer learning approaches. To be specific, previous works usually assume that the source domain and the target domain have the same label set. In contrast, our method considers a more challenging multimodal learning situation where the label sets of the two domains are different or even disjoint. Experimental studies on four widely used benchmarks validate the effectiveness of the proposed method in multimodal transfer learning and demonstrate its superior performance in CMR compared with 11 state-of-the-art methods.

16.
Vet Med Sci ; 2020 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33118702

RESUMO

In order to assess the effects of chitosan supplementation on immune function, antioxidant enzyme activities and histological changes in Leiothrix lutea exposed to acute heat stress, 80 healthy adult birds were randomly divided into five experimental groups. The normal-temperature group (NTG) was maintained at 21°C and fed the basic diet. The treatment groups were fed the basic diet supplemented with 0%, 0.1%, 0.5% and 1.0% chitosan, respectively, in normal-temperature environment for 30 days and then exposed to heat (35°C and 40% relative humidity) for 3 hr. The results showed that the immune function and anti-oxidative enzyme activities in L. lutea in heat-stressed environment were enhanced by chitosan supplementation, whereas oxidative damage of tissues and cells were alleviated. The results revealed that addition of 0.5% chitosan to the diet may be optimal, playing a key role in meeting the demands of captive-bred L. lutea in high-temperature environments. This may constitute a useful feeding strategy in accordance with the behavioural selection of wild L. lutea, and could effectively promote ex situ conservation.

17.
IEEE Trans Cybern ; PP2020 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33119532

RESUMO

Thanks to the low storage cost and high query speed, cross-view hashing (CVH) has been successfully used for similarity search in multimedia retrieval. However, most existing CVH methods use all views to learn a common Hamming space, thus making it difficult to handle the data with increasing views or a large number of views. To overcome these difficulties, we propose a decoupled CVH network (DCHN) approach which consists of a semantic hashing autoencoder module (SHAM) and multiple multiview hashing networks (MHNs). To be specific, SHAM adopts a hashing encoder and decoder to learn a discriminative Hamming space using either a few labels or the number of classes, that is, the so-called flexible inputs. After that, MHN independently projects all samples into the discriminative Hamming space that is treated as an alternative ground truth. In brief, the Hamming space is learned from the semantic space induced from the flexible inputs, which is further used to guide view-specific hashing in an independent fashion. Thanks to such an independent/decoupled paradigm, our method could enjoy high computational efficiency and the capacity of handling the increasing number of views by only using a few labels or the number of classes. For a newly coming view, we only need to add a view-specific network into our model and avoid retraining the entire model using the new and previous views. Extensive experiments are carried out on five widely used multiview databases compared with 15 state-of-the-art approaches. The results show that the proposed independent hashing paradigm is superior to the common joint ones while enjoying high efficiency and the capacity of handling newly coming views.

18.
BMC Vet Res ; 16(1): 404, 2020 Oct 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33109179

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Disease prevention and control is a significant part in the ex-situ conservation of the endangered red panda (Ailurus fulgens), being bacterial infection is one of the most important health threats to the captive population. To date, studies about the infection caused by Escherichia coli in the red panda are scarce. This study was conducted to determine the cause of death of a captive red panda through clinical symptoms, complete blood count, biochemical analysis, pathological diagnosis and bacterial whole genome sequencing. CASE PRESENTATION: The following report describes a case of a 1.5 year old captive red panda (Ailurus fulgens) that was found lethargic and anorectic. She was moved to the quarantine area for daily treatment with 50 mg of Cefpodoxime Proxetil. During the three-day treatment, she did not eat or defecate, and then died. Clinical hematology revealed the values of neutrophils, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) were significantly higher. Histological analysis demonstrated major pathological damage in the kidneys, liver and lungs, characterized by hyperemia, parenchymal cell degeneration and necrosis and inflammatory cell infiltration which were predominantly neutrophilic. A bacterial strain confirmed as Escherichia coli was isolated post mortem. Whole genome sequencing of the E. coli showed the complete genome size was 4.99 Mbp. PapA, PapC, OmpA, OmpU and other virulence factors which specific to Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) were found in the isolate. Among the virulence factors, P pili, type I pili and related factors of the iron uptake system were associated with nephrotoxicity. CONCLUSION: The red panda died of bacterial infection caused by an uropathogenic strain of Escherichia coli. The pathogenic mechanisms of the strain are closely related to the expression of specific virulence genes.

19.
BioData Min ; 13: 11, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32863886

RESUMO

Background: Non-alcoholic fatty liver (NAFLD) is a chronic disease worldwide, which poses a huge threat to human health. Xiaochaihu decoction is a well-known traditional Chinese medicine prescription. It has been proven effective in treating NAFLD but its mechanism is still unclear. Objective: Multiple mechanisms of Xiaochaihu decoction are explored by identifying and connecting potential targets and active ingredients in the treatment of NAFLD. Methods: Active ingredients and related targets of seven herbs were collected from TCMSP database. The related targets of NAFLD were obtained from Genes cards database, TDD and OMIM database. The intersected targets of disease targets and drug targets were input into STRING database to construct protein-protein interaction network. DAVID database was used for GO enrichment analysis and KEGG enrichment analysis. Results: After screening and removal of duplicates, a total of 145 active ingredients and 105 potential targets were obtained. PPI network manifested that AKT1, IL6, JUN MAPK8 and STAT3 were the key target proteins. The results of GO enrichment analysis mainly involved cytokine receptor binding, cytokine activity, and heme binding. The results of KEGG analysis suggested that the mechanism mainly involved in AGE-RAGE signaling pathway in diabetic complications, Hepatitis C, fluid shear stress and atherosclerosis. The signaling pathways were further integrated as network manner, including AGE-RAGE signaling pathway in diabetic complications, Fluid shear stress and atherosclerosis, Insulin resistance, HIF-1 signaling pathway, Th17 cell differentiation and IL-17 signaling pathway. The network contained immunity regulation, metabolism regulation and oxidative stress regulation. Conclusion: Xiaochaihu decoction plays a key role in the treatment of NAFLD with multiple targets and pathways. Immunity regulation, metabolism regulation and oxidative stress regulation consist of the crucial regulation cores in mechanism. Graphical abstract: Design and workflow of this study.

20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32809939

RESUMO

In this paper, we study two less-touched challenging problems in single image dehazing neural networks, namely, how to remove haze from a given image in an unsupervised and zeroshot manner. To the ends, we propose a novel method based on the idea of layer disentanglement by viewing a hazy image as the entanglement of several "simpler" layers, i.e., a hazy-free image layer, transmission map layer, and atmospheric light layer. The major advantages of the proposed ZID are two-fold. First, it is an unsupervised method that does not use any clean images including hazy-clean pairs as the ground-truth. Second, ZID is a "zero-shot" method, which just uses the observed single hazy image to perform learning and inference. In other words, it does not follow the conventional paradigm of training deep model on a large scale dataset. These two advantages enable our method to avoid the labor-intensive data collection and the domain shift issue of using the synthetic hazy images to address the real-world images. Extensive comparisons show the promising performance of our method compared with 15 approaches in the qualitative and quantitive evaluations. The source code could be found at www.pengxi.me.

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