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1.
Preprint em Inglês | medRxiv | ID: ppmedrxiv-21268499

RESUMO

BackgroundThe increased coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) breakthrough cases pose the need of booster vaccinations. In this study, we reported the safety and immunogenicity of a heterologous boost with a recombinant COVID-19 vaccine (CHO cells), named NVSI-06-07, as a third dose in participants who have previously received two doses of the inactivated vaccine (BBIBP-CorV) at pre-specified time intervals. Using homologous boost with BBIBP-CorV as control, the safety and immunogenicity of the heterologous boost with NVSI-06-07 against various SARS-CoV-2 strains, including Omicron, were characterized. MethodsThis study is a single-center, randomised, double-blinded, controlled phase 2 trial for heterologous boost of NVSI-06-07 in BBIBP-CorV recipients from the United Arab Emirates (UAE). Healthy adults (aged [≥]18 years) were enrolled and grouped by the specified prior vaccination interval of BBIBP-CorV, i.e., 1-3 months, 4-6 months or [≥]6 months, respectively, with 600 individuals per group. For each group, participants were randomly assigned at 1:1 ratio to receive either a heterologous boost of NVSI-06-07 or a homologous booster dose of BBIBP-CorV. The primary outcome was to comparatively assess the immunogenicity between heterologous and homologous boosts at 14 and 28 days post-boosting immunization, by evaluation of the geometric mean titers (GMTs) of IgG and neutralizing antibodies as well as the corresponding seroconversion rate ([≥]4-fold rise in antibody titers). The secondary outcomes were the safety profile of the boosting strategies within 30 days post vaccination. The exploratory outcome was the immune efficacy against Omicron and other variants of concern (VOCs) of SARS-CoV-2. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT05033847. FindingsA total of 1800 individuals who have received two doses of BBIBP-CorV were enrolled, of which 899 participants received a heterologous boost of NVSI-06-07 and 901 received a homologous boost for comparison. No vaccine-related serious adverse event (SAE) and no adverse events of special interest (AESI) were reported. 184 (20{middle dot}47%) participants in the heterologous boost groups and 177 (19{middle dot}64%) in the homologous boost groups reported at least one adverse reaction within 30 days. Most of the local and systemic adverse reactions reported were grades 1 (mild) or 2 (moderate), and there was no significant difference in the overall safety between heterologous and homologous boosts. Immunogenicity assays showed that the seroconversion rates in neutralizing antibodies against prototype SARS-CoV-2 elicited by heterologous boost were 89{middle dot}96% - 97{middle dot}52% on day 28 post-boosting vaccination, which was much higher than what was induced by homologous boost (36{middle dot}80% - 81{middle dot}75%). Similarly, in heterologous NVSI-06-07 booster groups, the neutralizing geometric mean titers (GMTs) against the prototype strain increased by 21{middle dot}01 - 63{middle dot}85 folds from baseline to 28 days post-boosting vaccination, whereas only 4{middle dot}20 - 16{middle dot}78 folds of increases were observed in homologous BBIBP-CorV booster group. For Omicron variant, the neutralizing antibody GMT elicited by the homologous boost of BBIBP-CorV was 37{middle dot}91 (95%CI, 30{middle dot}35-47{middle dot}35), however, a significantly higher level of neutralizing antibodies with GMT 292{middle dot}53 (95%CI, 222{middle dot}81-384{middle dot}07) was induced by the heterologous boost of NVSI-06-07, suggesting that it may serve as an effective boosting strategy combating the pandemic of Omicron. The similar results were obtained for other VOCs, including Alpha, Beta and Delta, in which the neutralizing response elicited by the heterologous boost was also significantly greater than that of the homologous boost. In the participants primed with BBIBP-CorV over 6 months, the largest increase in the neutralizing GMTs was obtained both in the heterologous and homologous boost groups, and thus the booster vaccination with over 6 months intervals was optimal. InterpretationOur findings indicated that the heterologous boost with NVSI-06-07 was safe, well-tolerated and immunogenic in adults primed with a full regimen of BBIBP-CorV. Compared to homologous boost with a third dose of BBIBP-CorV, incremental increases in immune responses were achieved by the heterologous boost with NVSI-06-07 against SARS-CoV-2 prototype strain, Omicron variant, and other VOCs. The heterologous BBIBP-CorV/NVSI-06-07 prime-boosting vaccination may be valuable in preventing the pandemic of Omicron. The optimal booster strategy was the heterologous boost with NVSI-06-07 over 6 months after a priming with two doses of BBIBP-CorV. Research in contextO_ST_ABSEvidence before this studyC_ST_ABSWe searched PubMed for clinical trials or prospective/cohort studies involving heterologous booster vaccination in non-immunocompromised population published up to Dec 25, 2021, using the term "(COVID) AND (vaccin*) AND (clinical trial OR cohort OR prospective) AND (heterologous) AND (booster OR prime-boost OR third dose)" with no language restrictions. Nine studies of heterologous prime-boost vaccinations with adenovirus-vector vaccines (ChAdOx1 nCov-19, Oxford-AstraZeneca, Ad26.COV2.S, Janssen) and mRNA vaccines (BNT162b2, Pfizer-BioNtech; mRNA1273, Moderna) were identified. The adenovirus-vector and mRNA heterologous prime-boost vaccination was found to be well tolerated and immunogenic. In individuals primed with adenovirus-vector vaccine, mRNA booster vaccination led to greater immune response than homologous boost. However, varied results were obtained on whether heterologous boost was immunogenically superior to the homologous mRNA prime-boost vaccination. Besides that, A preprint trial in population previously immunized with inactivated vaccines (CoronaVac, Sinovac Biotech) showed that the heterologous boost with adenovirus-vector vaccine (Convidecia, CanSino Biologicals) was safe and induced higher level of live-virus neutralizing antibodies than by the homogeneous boost. A pilot study reported that boosting with BNT162b2 in individuals primed with two doses of inactivated vaccines (BBIBP-CorV) was significantly more immunogenic than homologous vaccination with two-dose of BNT162b2. In addition, a preprint paper demonstrated that heterologous boost of ZF2001, a recombinant protein subunit vaccine, after CoronaVac or BBIBP-CorV vaccination potently improved the immunogenicity. But only a small size of samples was tested in this study and the live-virus neutralization was not detected. Till now, it is still lacking a formal clinical trial to evaluate the immunogenicity and safety of the heterologous prime-boost vaccination with an inactivated vaccine followed by a recombinant protein subunit-based vaccine. Added value of this studyTo our knowledge, this is the first reported result of a large-scale randomised, controlled clinical trial of heterologous prime-boost vaccination with an inactivated vaccine followed by a recombinant protein subunit vaccine. This trial demonstrated that the heterologous prime-booster vaccination with BBIBP-CorV/NVSI-06-07 is safe and immunogenic. Its immunoreactivity is similar to that of homologous vaccination with BBIBP-CorV. Compared to homologous boost, heterologous boost with NVSI-06-07 in BBIBP-CorV recipients elicited significantly higher immunogenicity not only against the SARS-CoV-2 prototype strain but also against Omicron and other variants of concern (VOCs). Implications of all the available evidenceBooster vaccination is considered an effective strategy to improve the protection efficacy of COVID-19 vaccines and control the epidemic waves of SARS-CoV-2. Data from our trial suggested that the booster vaccination of NVSI-06-07 in BBIBP-CorV recipients significantly improved the immune responses against various SARS-CoV-2 strains, including Omicron. Due to no Omicron-specific vaccine available currently, the BBIBP-CorV/NVSI-06-07 heterologous prime-boost might serve as an effective strategy combating Omicron variant. Besides that, BBIBP-CorV has been widely inoculated in population, and thus further boosting vaccination with NVSI-06-07 is valuable in preventing the COVID-19 pandemic. But further studies are needed to assess the long-term protection of BBIBP-CorV/NVSI-06-07 prime-booster vaccination.

4.
Redox Biol ; 50: 102229, 2022 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35026701

RESUMO

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease in which oxidative stress and neuroinflammation were demonstrated to be associated with neuronal loss and cognitive deficits. However, there are still no specific treatments that can prevent the progression of AD. In this study, a screening of anti-inflammatory hits from 4207 natural compounds of two different molecular libraries indicated 1,6-O,O-diacetylbritannilactone (OABL), a 1,10-seco-eudesmane sesquiterpene lactone isolated from the herb Inula britannica L., exhibited strong anti-inflammatory activity in vitro as well as favorable BBB penetration property. OABL reduced LPS-induced neuroinflammation in BV-2 microglial cells as assessed by effects on the levels of inflammatory mediators including NO, PGE2, TNF-α, iNOS, and COX-2, as well as the translocation of NF-κB. Besides, OABL also exhibited pronounced neuroprotective effects against oxytosis and ferroptosis in the rat pheochromocytoma PC12 cell line. For in vivo research, OABL (20 mg/kg B.W., i.p.) for 21 d attenuated the impairments in cognitive function observed in 6-month-old 5xFAD mice, as assessed with the Morris water maze test. OABL restored neuronal damage and postsynaptic density protein 95 (PSD95) expression in the hippocampus. OABL also significantly reduced the accumulation of amyloid plaques, the Aß expression, the phosphorylation of Tau protein, and the expression of BACE1 in AD mice brain. In addition, OABL attenuated the overactivation of microglia and astrocytes by suppressing the expressions of inflammatory cytokines, and increased glutathione (GSH) and reduced malondialdehyde (MDA) and super oxide dismutase (SOD) levels in the 5xFAD mice brain. In conclusion, these results highlight the beneficial effects of the natural product OABL as a novel treatment with potential application for drug discovery in AD due to its pharmacological profile.

5.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 101(3): e28652, 2022 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35060557

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Peripapillary hyperreflective ovoid mass-like structures (PHOMS) and dome-shaped macula (DSM) are 2 optical coherence tomography findings reported in 2018 and 2008, respectively. To date, there have been no ophthalmic case reports of concomitant PHOMS and DSM. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 19-year-old woman presented to our clinic with complaints of decreased vision in both eyes. DIAGNOSIS: The patient was diagnosed with PHOMS and a dome-shaped macula complicated by subretinal fluid in both eyes. INTERVENTIONS: A micropulse laser under the guidance of Indocyanine green angiography was applied to the hyperfluorescent areas and drugs to improve retinal microcirculation. OUTCOMES: No response to any intervention over the 41 months of follow-up, her visual acuity remained the same, and the subretinal fluid often recurred. LESSONS: PHOMS and DSM are associated with myopia; myopia may be a mediator between PHOMS and DSM. Dome-like structural changes may occur in different parts of the retina (optic disc and macula), caused by asymmetric myopic posterior scleral growth.

6.
Nat Cell Biol ; 24(1): 88-98, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35027735

RESUMO

The accumulation of lipid peroxides is recognized as a determinant of the occurrence of ferroptosis. However, the sensors and amplifying process of lipid peroxidation linked to ferroptosis remain obscure. Here we identify PKCßII as a critical contributor of ferroptosis through independent genome-wide CRISPR-Cas9 and kinase inhibitor library screening. Our results show that PKCßII senses the initial lipid peroxides and amplifies lipid peroxidation linked to ferroptosis through phosphorylation and activation of ACSL4. Lipidomics analysis shows that activated ACSL4 catalyses polyunsaturated fatty acid-containing lipid biosynthesis and promotes the accumulation of lipid peroxidation products, leading to ferroptosis. Attenuation of the PKCßII-ACSL4 pathway effectively blocks ferroptosis in vitro and impairs ferroptosis-associated cancer immunotherapy in vivo. Our results identify PKCßII as a sensor of lipid peroxidation, and the lipid peroxidation-PKCßII-ACSL4 positive-feedback axis may provide potential targets for ferroptosis-associated disease treatment.

7.
Org Lett ; 2021 Dec 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34881899

RESUMO

Aspersteroid A (1), a highly rearranged 1(10 → 6)-abeo-18,22-cyclosterol, together with two new 18,22-cyclosterols (2 and 3), was isolated from the culture extract of Aspergillus ustus NRRL 275. Their structures were determined by spectroscopic analysis, X-ray diffraction, modified Mosher's method, and Rh2(OCOCF3)4-induced electronic circular dichroism experiments. Compound 1 represents a new carbon skeleton with an uncommon 6/6/6/5/5 ring system, which is presumably biosynthesized from A-ring scission, double 1,2-shifts, and C-18/C-22 cyclization. Compound 1 exhibited potent immunosuppressive and antimicrobial activities.

8.
Front Genet ; 12: 756506, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34868231

RESUMO

Purpose: To investigate the prognostic significance of tumor mutational burden (TMB) combined with specific prognosis-related gene mutations in immunotherapy for recurrent and metastatic head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (r/m HNSCC). Methods: One hundred thirty-two r/m HNSCC patients from the Morris and Allen cohorts had undergone immunotherapy. We constructed the immunotherapy-related gene prognostic index TP-PR combining TMB and PIK3CA, TP53, or ROS1 mutation. And we analyzed the differences in overall survival (OS) and immune cell infiltration between samples in different groups. The association of each signature's single-sample gene set enrichment analysis scores with TP-PR was tested using Spearman's correlation test. Results: The median OS of the patients with high TMB (TMB ≥10 mut/Mb) who received immunotherapy for r/m HNSCC was 2.5 times as long as that of the patients with low TMB (25 vs. 10 months). More importantly, the high TP-PR (TP-PR >0) group had better median OS (25 vs. 8 months) than the low TP-PR (TP-PR ≤0) group. CD8+ T cells and activated memory CD4+ T cells in the tissues of the patients with high TP-PR were higher than those in the patients with low TP-PR. Results showed that TP-PR stratification had a higher area under the curve (AUC) value (0.77, 95% CI 0.86-0.68) compared with TMB stratification (0.56, 95% CI 0.68-0.44). The differential gene expression in the high and low TP-PR groups mainly influenced metabolism-related signaling pathways. Conclusion: TP-PR was an effective predictor of immunotherapy outcome for r/m HNSCC, which might be better than TMB alone. Patients with high TP-PR had a better survival benefit than had the patients with low TP-PR.

9.
Front Bioeng Biotechnol ; 9: 790539, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34869298

RESUMO

Elucidating the chemical and structural characteristics of hemicelluloses and lignin in the p-coumarate 3-hydroxylase (C3H) down-regulated poplar wood will be beneficial to the upstream gene validation and downstream biomass conversion of this kind of transgenic poplar. Herein, the representative hemicelluloses and lignin with unaltered structures were prepared from control (CK) and C3H down-regulated 84K poplars. Modern analytical techniques, such as 13C NMR, 2D-HSQC NMR, and gel chromatography (GPC), were performed to better delineate the structural changes of hemicelluloses and lignin caused by transgenesis. Results showed that both the hemicelluloses (H-CK and H-C3H) extracted from control and C3H down-regulated poplar wood have a chain backbone of (1→4)-ß-D-Xylan with 4-O-Me-α-D-GlcpA as side chain, and the branch degree of the H-C3H is higher than that of H-CK. With regarding to the lignin macromolecules, NMR results demonstrated that the syringyl/guaiacyl (S/G) ratio and dominant substructure ß-O-4 linkages in C3H down-regulated poplar were lower than those of control poplar wood. By contrast, native lignin from C3H down-regulated poplar wood exhibited higher contents of p-hydroxybenzoate (PB) and p-hydroxyphenyl (H) units. In short, C3H down-regulation resulted in the chemical and structural changes of the hemicelluloses and lignin in these poplar wood. The identified structures will facilitate the downstream utilization and applications of lignocellulosic materials in the biorefinery strategy. Furthermore, this study could provide some illuminating results for genetic breeding on the improvement of wood properties and efficient utilization of poplar wood.

10.
Front Psychol ; 12: 712703, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34858254

RESUMO

Cyberchondria is considered "the anxiety-amplifying effects of online health-related searches." During the COVID-19 pandemic, people are likely to search health-related information online for reassurance because of fear and related physical symptoms, while cyberchondria may be triggered due to the escalation of health anxiety, different online seeking behavior preference, information overload, and insufficient e-health literacy. This study aimed to investigate the status and influencing factors of cyberchondria in residents in China during the epidemic period of COVID-19. The participants were 674 community residents of Nanyang city surveyed from February 1 to 15, 2020. We administered online measures, including the Chinese Short Form of the Cyberchondria Severity Scale (C-CSS-12), Short Health Anxiety Inventory (SHAI), eHealth Literacy Scale (eHEALS), Patient Health Questionnaire-15 (PHQ-15), and COVID-19-related online information seeking behavior questionnaire. In our study, the average C-CSS-12 total score of residents was 30.65 ± 11.53 during the virus epidemic; 25% of participants scored 22 or below, 50% scored 23 to 38, and 21.9% scored 39 to 60. The SHAI total score (ß = 0.598 > 0, P < 0.001), the use of general search engines (ß = 1.867 > 0, P = 0.039), and searching for information on how to diagnose COVID-19 (ß = 2.280 > 0, P = 0.020) were independent risk factors for cyberchondria, while searching lasting less than 10 min each (ß = -2.992 < 0, P = 0.048), the use of traditional media digital platforms (ß = -1.650 < 0, P = 0.024) and professional medical communication platforms (ß = -4.189 < 0, P = 0.007) were independent protective factors. Our findings showed that nearly a quarter of the participants scored 39 or higher on the C-CSS-12 in Nanyang city during the pandemic, which should be taken seriously. Health anxiety and COVID-19-related online information seeking behavior including online duration, topics and choice on different information channels were important influencing factors of cyberchondria. These findings have implications for further research and clinical practice on cyberchondria in China.

11.
Dose Response ; 19(4): 15593258211057768, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34887716

RESUMO

Background: Brain exposure to ionizing radiation during the radiotherapy of brain tumor or metastasis of peripheral cancer cells to the brain has resulted in cognitive dysfunction by reducing neurogenesis in hippocampus. The water extract of Lycium barbarum berry (Lyc), containing water-soluble Lycium barbarum polysaccharides and flavonoids, can protect the neuronal injury by reducing oxidative stress and suppressing neuroinflammation. Reseach Design: To demonstrate the long-term radioprotective effect of Lyc, we evaluated the neurobehavioral alterations and the numbers of NeuN, calbindin (CB), and parvalbumin (PV) immunopositive hippocampal neurons in BALB/c mice after acute 5.5 Gy radiation with/without oral administration of Lyc at the dosage of 10 g/kg daily for 4 weeks. Results: The results showed that Lyc could improve irradiation-induced animal weight loss, depressive behaviors, spatial memory impairment, and hippocampal neuron loss. Immunohistochemistry study demonstrated that the loss of NeuN-immunopositive neuron in the hilus of the dentate gyrus, CB-immunopositive neuron in CA1 strata radiatum, lacunosum moleculare and oriens, and PV-positive neuron in CA1 stratum pyramidum and stratum granulosum of the dentate gyrus after irradiation were significantly improved by Lyc treatment. Conclusion: The neuroprotective effect of Lyc on those hippocampal neurons may benefit the configuration of learning related neuronal networks and then improve radiation induced neurobehavioral changes such as cognitive impairment and depression. It suggests that Lycium barbarum berry may be an alternative food supplement to prevent radiation-induced neuron loss and neuropsychological disorders.

12.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 6(1): 414, 2021 Dec 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34873151

RESUMO

Azvudine (FNC) is a nucleoside analog that inhibits HIV-1 RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp). Recently, we discovered FNC an agent against SARS-CoV-2, and have taken it into Phase III trial for COVID-19 patients. FNC monophosphate analog inhibited SARS-CoV-2 and HCoV-OC43 coronavirus with an EC50 between 1.2 and 4.3 µM, depending on viruses or cells, and selective index (SI) in 15-83 range. Oral administration of FNC in rats revealed a substantial thymus-homing feature, with FNC triphosphate (the active form) concentrated in the thymus and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). Treating SARS-CoV-2 infected rhesus macaques with FNC (0.07 mg/kg, qd, orally) reduced viral load, recuperated the thymus, improved lymphocyte profiles, alleviated inflammation and organ damage, and lessened ground-glass opacities in chest X-ray. Single-cell sequencing suggested the promotion of thymus function by FNC. A randomized, single-arm clinical trial of FNC on compassionate use (n = 31) showed that oral FNC (5 mg, qd) cured all COVID-19 patients, with 100% viral ribonucleic acid negative conversion in 3.29 ± 2.22 days (range: 1-9 days) and 100% hospital discharge rate in 9.00 ± 4.93 days (range: 2-25 days). The side-effect of FNC is minor and transient dizziness and nausea in 16.12% (5/31) patients. Thus, FNC might cure COVID-19 through its anti-SARS-CoV-2 activity concentrated in the thymus, followed by promoted immunity.

13.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 6(1): 401, 2021 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34848680

RESUMO

Met tyrosine kinase, a receptor for a hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), plays a critical role in tumor growth, metastasis, and drug resistance. Mitochondria are highly dynamic and undergo fission and fusion to maintain a functional mitochondrial network. Dysregulated mitochondrial dynamics are responsible for the progression and metastasis of many cancers. Here, using structured illumination microscopy (SIM) and high spatial and temporal resolution live cell imaging, we identified mitochondrial trafficking of receptor tyrosine kinase Met. The contacts between activated Met kinase and mitochondria formed dramatically, and an intact HGF/Met axis was necessary for dysregulated mitochondrial fission and cancer cell movements. Mechanically, we found that Met directly phosphorylated outer mitochondrial membrane protein Fis1 at Tyr38 (Fis1 pY38). Fis1 pY38 promoted mitochondrial fission by recruiting the mitochondrial fission GTPase dynamin-related protein-1 (Drp1) to mitochondria. Fragmented mitochondria fueled actin filament remodeling and lamellipodia or invadopodia formation to facilitate cell metastasis in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells both in vitro and in vivo. These findings reveal a novel and noncanonical pathway of Met receptor tyrosine kinase in the regulation of mitochondrial activities, which may provide a therapeutic target for metastatic HCC.

14.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; : e202115649, 2021 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34913229

RESUMO

Uncontrolled growth of Zn dendrites and side reactions are the major restrictions for the commercialization of Zn metal anodes. Herein, we develop a TiOx /Zn/N-doped carbon inverse opal (denoted as TZNC IO) host to regulate the Zn deposition. Amorphous TiOx and Zn/N-doped carbon can serve as the zincophilic nucleation sites to prevent the parasitic reactions. More importantly, the highly ordered IO host homogenizes the local current density and electric field to stabilize Zn deposition. Furthermore, the three-dimensional open networks could regulate Zn ion flux to enable stable cycling performance at large current densities. Owing to the abundant zincophilic sites and the open structure, granular Zn deposits could be realized. As expected, the TZNC IO host guarantees the steady Zn plating/stripping with a long-term stability over 450 h at the current density of 1 mA cm-2 . As a proof-of-concept demonstration, a TZNC@Zn||V2 O5 full cell shows long lifespan over 2000 cycles at 5.0 A g-1 .

15.
Front Microbiol ; 12: 766138, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34956129

RESUMO

Purpose: Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO-NPs) have exerted antimicrobial properties. However, there is insufficient evaluation regarding the in vivo antifungal activity of ZnO-NPs. This study aimed to investigate the efficacy and mechanism of ZnO-NPs in controlling Candida albicans in the invertebrate Galleria mellonella. Methods: Galleria mellonella larvae were injected with different doses of ZnO-NPs to determine their in vivo toxicity. Non-toxic doses of ZnO-NPs were chosen for prophylactic injection in G. mellonella followed by C. albicans infection. Then the direct in vitro antifungal effect of ZnO-NPs against C. albicans was evaluated. In addition, the mode of action of ZnO-NPs was assessed in larvae through different assays: quantification of hemocyte density, morphology observation of hemocytes, characterization of hemocyte aggregation and phagocytosis, and measurement of hemolymph phenoloxidase (PO) activity. Results: Zinc oxide nanoparticles were non-toxic to the larvae at relatively low concentrations (≤20 mg/kg). ZnO-NP pretreatment significantly prolonged the survival of C. albicans-infected larvae and decreased the fungal dissemination and burden in the C. albicans-infected larvae. This observation was more related to the activation of host defense rather than their fungicidal capacities. Specifically, ZnO-NP treatment increased hemocyte density, promoted hemocyte aggregation, enhanced hemocyte phagocytosis, and activated PO activity in larvae. Conclusion: Prophylactic treatment with lower concentrations of ZnO-NPs protects G. mellonella from C. albicans infection. The innate immune response primed by ZnO-NPs may be part of the reason for the protective effects. This study provides new evidence of the capacity of ZnO-NPs in enhancing host immunity and predicts that ZnO-NPs will be attractive for further anti-infection applications.

16.
Zhonghua Nan Ke Xue ; 27(3): 226-230, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34914304

RESUMO

Objective: To observe the clinical effect of prostatic artery embolization (PAE) in the treatment of high-risk patients with BPH. METHODS: Nine high-risk patients with BPH underwent PAE in the Third Affiliated Hospital of Anhui Medical University from January 2016 to June 2018. We followed up the patients and obtained their IPSS, quality of life score (QOL), postvoid residual urine volume (PVR), maximum urinary flow rate (Qmax), prostate volume (PV), hours of undisturbed sleep (HUS), Self-Rating Anxiety Scale score (SAS) and incidence of postoperative complications before and at 6, 12 and 24 months or longer after surgery, followed by comparative analysis of the parameters. RESULTS: Compared with baseline, IPSS, QOL, PVR, Qmax, PV, HUS and SAS were all significantly improved in the patients at 6, 12 and ≥24 months after PAE (P < 0.05). Only 1 case complained of mild numbness in the buttocks, which was gradually relieved after acupuncture therapy. CONCLUSIONS: Prostatic artery embolization is definitely effective for the treatment of high-risk patients with BPH with the bladder volume ≥200 ml, with few postoperative complications, and can be used as an effective therapeutic supplementary for improving the urination symptoms of the patients.


Assuntos
Embolização Terapêutica , Hiperplasia Prostática , Artérias , Humanos , Masculino , Próstata/cirurgia , Hiperplasia Prostática/terapia , Qualidade de Vida
17.
Infect Drug Resist ; 14: 5335-5349, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34934329

RESUMO

Herpes simplex viruses (HSVs) often cause latent infection for a lifetime, leading to repeated recurrence. HSVs have been engineered as oncolytic HSVs. The mechanism of the latent infection and recurrence remains largely unknown, which brings great challenges and limitations to eliminate HSVs in clinic and engineer safe oHSVs. Here, we systematically reviewed the latest development of the multi-step complex process of HSV latency and reactivation. Significantly, we first summarized the three HSV latent infection pathways, analyzed the structure and expression of the LAT1 and LAT2 of HSV-1 and HSV-2, proposed the regulation of LAT expression by four pathways, and dissected the function of LAT mediated by five LAT products of miRNAs, sRNAs, lncRNAs, sncRNAs and ORFs. We further analyzed that application of HSV LAT deletion mutants in HSV vaccines and oHSVs. Our review showed that deleting LAT significantly reduced the latency and reactivation of HSV, providing new ideas for the future development of safe and effective HSV therapeutics, vaccines and oHSVs. In addition, we proposed that RNA silencing or RNA interference may play an important role in HSV latency and reactivation, which is worth validating in future.

18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34909668

RESUMO

Objective: In vivo studies have reported several beneficial metabolic effects of ß-adrenergic receptor agonist administration in skeletal muscle, including increased glucose uptake, fatty acid metabolism, lipolysis and mitochondrial biogenesis. Although these effects have been widely studied in vivo, the in vitro data are limited to mouse and rat cell lines. Therefore, we sought to discover the effects of the ß2-adrenergic receptor agonist terbutaline on metabolism and protein synthesis in human primary skeletal muscle cells. Methods: Human cultured myotubes were exposed to terbutaline in various concentrations (0.01-30 â€‹µM) for 4 or 96 â€‹h. Thereafter uptake of [14C]deoxy-D-glucose, oxydation of [14C]glucose and [14C]oleic acid were measured. Incorporation of [14C]leucine, gene expression by qPCR and proteomics analyses by mass spectrometry by the STAGE-TIP method were performed after 96 â€‹h exposure to 1 and 10 â€‹µM of terbutaline. Results: The results showed that 4 â€‹h treatment with terbutaline in concentrations up to 1 â€‹µM increased glucose uptake in human myotubes, but also decreased both glucose and oleic acid oxidation along with oleic acid uptake in concentrations of 10-30 â€‹µM. Moreover, administration of terbutaline for 96 â€‹h increased glucose uptake (in terbutaline concentrations up to 1 â€‹µM) and oxidation (1 â€‹µM), as well as oleic acid oxidation (0.1-30 â€‹µM), leucine incorporation into cellular protein (1-10 â€‹µM) and upregulated several pathways related to mitochondrial metabolism (1 â€‹µM). Data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD024063. Conclusion: These results suggest that ß2-adrenergic receptor have direct effects in human skeletal muscle affecting fuel metabolism and net protein synthesis, effects that might be favourable for both type 2 diabetes and muscle wasting disorders.

19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34909682

RESUMO

Background and objective: A number of studies have highlighted muscle-specific mechanisms of thermogenesis involving futile cycling of Ca2+ driven by sarco (endo)plasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase (SERCA) and generating heat from ATP hydrolysis to be a promising strategy to counteract obesity and metabolic dysfunction. However, to the best of our knowledge, no experimental studies concerning the metabolic effects of pharmacologically targeting SERCA in human skeletal muscle cells have been reported. Thus, in the present study, we aimed to explore the effects of SERCA-activating compound, CDN1163, on energy metabolism in differentiated human skeletal muscle cells (myotubes). Methods: In this study, we used primary myotube cultures derived from muscle biopsies of the musculus vastus lateralis and musculi interspinales from lean, healthy male donors. Energy metabolism in myotubes was studied using radioactive substrates. Oxygen consumption rate was assessed with the Seahorse XF24 bioanalyzer, whereas metabolic genes and protein expressions were determined by qPCR and immunoblotting, respectively. Results: Both acute (4 â€‹h) and chronic (5 days) treatment of myotubes with CDN1163 showed increased uptake and oxidation of glucose, as well as complete fatty acid oxidation in the presence of carbonyl cyanide 4-(trifluromethoxy)phenylhydrazone (FCCP). These effects were supported by measurement of oxygen consumption rate, in which the oxidative spare capacity and maximal respiration were enhanced after CDN1163-treatment. In addition, chronic treatment with CDN1163 improved cellular uptake of oleic acid (OA) and fatty acid ß-oxidation. The increased OA metabolism was accompanied by enhanced mRNA-expression of carnitine palmitoyl transferase (CPT) 1B, pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase (PDK) 4, as well as increased AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)Thr172 phosphorylation. Moreover, following chronic CDN1163 treatment, the expression levels of stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD) 1 was decreased together with de novo lipogenesis from acetic acid and formation of diacylglycerol (DAG) from OA. Conclusion: Altogether, these results suggest that SERCA activation by CDN1163 enhances energy metabolism in human myotubes, which might be favourable in relation to disorders that are related to metabolic dysfunction such as obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus.

20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34909683

RESUMO

Sentrin-specific protease (SENP) 2 has been suggested as a possible novel drug target for the treatment of obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus after observations of a palmitate-induced increase in SENP2 that lead to increased fatty acid oxidation and improved insulin sensitivity in skeletal muscle cells from mice. However, no precedent research has examined the role of SENP2 in human skeletal muscle cells. In the present work, we have investigated the impact of SENP2 on fatty acid and glucose metabolism as well as insulin sensitivity in human skeletal muscle using cultured primary human myotubes. Acute (4 â€‹h) oleic acid oxidation was reduced in SENP2-knockdown (SENP2-KD) cells compared to control cells, with no difference in uptake. After prelabeling (24 â€‹h) with oleic acid, total lipid content and incorporation into triacylglycerol was decreased, while incorporation into other lipids, as well as complete oxidation and ß-oxidation was increased in SENP2-KD cells. Basal glucose uptake (i.e., not under insulin-stimulated conditions) was higher in SENP2-KD cells, whereas oxidation was similar to control myotubes. Further, basal glycogen synthesis was not different in SENP2-KD myotubes, but both insulin-stimulated glycogen synthesis and AktSer473 phosphorylation was completely blunted in SENP2-KD cells. In conclusion, SENP2 plays an important role in fatty acid and glucose metabolism in human myotubes. Interestingly, it also appears to have a pivotal role in regulating myotube insulin sensitivity. Future studies should examine the role of SENP2 in regulation of insulin sensitivity in other tissues and in vivo, defining the potential for SENP2 as a drug target.

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