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2.
Adv Sci (Weinh) ; : e2103714, 2021 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34791832

RESUMO

In flexible electronics, appropriate inlaid structures for stress dispersion to avoid excessive deformation that can break chemical bonds are lacking, which greatly hinders the fabrication of super-foldable composite materials capable of sustaining numerous times of true-folding. Here, mimicking the microstructures of both cuit cocoon possessing super-flexible property and Mimosa leaf featuring reversible scatheless folding, super-foldable C-web/FeOOH-nanocone (SFCFe) conductive nanocomposites are prepared, which display cone-arrays on fiber structures similar to Mimosa leaf, as well as non-crosslinked junctions, slidable nanofibers, separable layers, and compressible network like cuit cocoon. Remarkably, the SFCFe can undergo over 100 000 times of repeated true-folding without structural damage or electrical conductivity degradation. The mechanism underlying this super-foldable performance is further investigated by real-time scanning electron microscopy folding characterization and finite-element simulations. The results indicate its self-adaptive stress-dispersion mechanism originating from multilevel biomimetic structures. Notably, the SFCFe demonstrates its prospect as a super-foldable anode electrode for aqueous batteries, which shows not only high capacities and satisfactory cycling stability, but also completely coincident cyclic voltammetry and galvanostatic charge-discharge curves throughout the 100 000 times of true-folding. This work reports a mechanical design considering the self-adaptive stress dispersion mechanism, which can realize a scatheless super-foldable electrode for soft-matter electronics.

3.
Adv Healthc Mater ; : e2102017, 2021 Nov 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34812594

RESUMO

Although photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a promising approach for cancer therapy, most existing photosensitizers lack selectivity for tumor cells and the overexpressed glutathione (GSH) in tumor cells reduces the PDT efficiency. Therefore, designing photosensitizers that can be selectively activated within tumor cells and combine PDT with other therapeutic modalities represents a route for precise and efficient anticancer treatment. Herein, we report an organic activatable photosensitizer, CyI-DNBS, bearing 2,4-dinitrobenzenesulfonate (DNBS) as the cage group. CyI-DNBS can be uptaken by cancer cells after which the cage group is selectively removed by the intracellular GSH, resulting in the generation of SO2 for gas therapy. The reaction also releases the activated photosensitizer, CyI-OH, that can produce singlet oxygen (1 O2 ) under red light irradiation. Therefore, CyI-DNBS targets cancer cells for both photodynamic and SO2 gas therapy treatments. The activatable photosensitizer provides a new approach for PDT and SO2 gas synergistic therapy and demonstrates excellent anticancer effect in vivo. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

4.
Adv Mater ; : e2106797, 2021 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34761453

RESUMO

Conventional photosensitizers (PSs) often show poor tumor retention and are rapidly cleared from the bloodstream, which is one of the key hindrances to guarantee precise and efficient photodynamic therapy (PDT) in vivo. In this work, we present a photosensitizer assembly nanosystem that sharply enhances tumor retention up to ∼10 days. The PSs are synthesized by meso-substituting anthracene onto the BODIPY scaffold (AN-BDP), which then self-assemble into stable nanoparticles (AN-BDP NPs) with amphiphilic block copolymers due to the strong intermolecular π-π interaction of anthracene. Additionally, the incorporated anthracene excites the PSs, producing singlet oxygen under red light irradiation. Although AN-BDP NPs could completely suppress regular test size tumor (∼100 mm3 ) by one-time radiation, only 12% tumour growth inhibition rate was observed in the case of large size tumor (∼350 mm3 ) under the same conditions. Due to the long time tumor retention, AN-BDP NPs allows single-dose injection and three-time light treatments, resulting in an over 90% inhibition rate, much more efficient than single-time radiation of conventional clinically used PSs including chlorin (Ce6) and porphyrin with poor tumor retention. The results reveal the importance of long tumor retention time of PSs for efficient PDT, which can accelerate the clinical development of nanophotosensitizers. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

5.
Chem Sci ; 12(41): 13809-13816, 2021 Oct 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34760166

RESUMO

Highly efficient triplet photosensitizers (PSs) have attracted increasing attention in cancer photodynamic therapy where photo-induced reactive oxygen species (ROSs, such as singlet oxygen) are produced via singlet-triplet intersystem crossing (ISC) of the excited photosensitizer to kill cancer cells. However, most PSs exhibit the fatal defect of a generally less-than-1% efficiency of ISC and low yield of ROSs, and this defect strongly impedes their clinical application. In the current work, a new strategy to enhance the ISC and high phototherapy efficiency has been developed, based on the molecular design of a thio-pentamethine cyanine dye (TCy5) as a photosensitizer. The introduction of an electron-withdrawing group at the meso-position of TCy5 could dramatically reduce the singlet-triplet energy gap (ΔE st) value (from 0.63 eV to as low as 0.14 eV), speed up the ISC process (τ ISC = 1.7 ps), prolong the lifetime of the triplet state (τ T = 319 µs) and improve singlet oxygen (1O2) quantum yield to as high as 99%, a value much higher than those of most reported triplet PSs. Further in vitro and in vivo experiments have shown that TCy5-CHO, with its efficient 1O2 generation and good biocompatibility, causes an intense tumor ablation in mice. This provides a new strategy for designing ideal PSs for cancer photo-therapy.

6.
Sci China Mater ; : 1-10, 2021 Sep 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34603825

RESUMO

The emergence of antibiotic resistance in bacteria is a major public-health issue. Synthesis of efficient antibiotic-free material is very important for fighting bacterial infection-related diseases. Herein, red-carbon dots (R-CDs) with a broad range of spectral absorption (350-700 nm) from organic bactericides or intermediates were synthesized through a solvothermal route. The prepared R-CDs not only had intrinsic antibacterial activities, but also could kill multidrug-resistant bacteria (multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (MRAB) and multidrug-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)) effectively by generating reactive oxygen species. Furthermore, R-CDs could eliminate and inhibit the formation of MRAB biofilms, while conferring few side effects on normal cells. A unique property of R-CDs was demonstrated upon in vivo treatment of antibiotic-sensitive MRAB-induced infected wounds. These data suggested that this novel R-CDs-based strategy might enable the design of next-generation agents to fight drug-resistant bacteria. Electronic Supplementary Material: Supplementary material is available for this article at 10.1007/s40843-021-1770-0 and is accessible for authorized users.

7.
Adv Sci (Weinh) ; : e2103334, 2021 Oct 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34664422

RESUMO

The synergistic combination of chemotherapy and photodynamic therapy has attracted considerable attention for its enhanced antitumoral effects; however, it remains challenging to successfully delivery photosensitizers and anticancer drugs while minimizing drug leakage at off-target sites. A red-light-activatable metallopolymer, Poly(Ru/PTX), is synthesized for combined chemo-photodynamic therapy. The polymer has a biodegradable backbone that contains a photosensitizer Ru complex and the anticancer drug paclitaxel (PTX) via a singlet oxygen (1 O2 ) cleavable linker. The polymer self-assembles into nanoparticles, which can efficiently accumulate at the tumor sites during blood circulation. The distribution of the therapeutic agents is synchronized because the Ru complex and PTX are covalently conjugate to the polymer, and off-target toxicity during circulation is also mostly avoided. Red light irradiation at the tumor directly cleaves the Ru complex and produces 1 O2 for photodynamic therapy. Sequentially, the generated 1 O2 triggers the breakage of the linker to release the PTX for chemotherapy. Therefore, this novel sequential dual-model release strategy creates a synergistic chemo-photodynamic therapy while minimizing drug leakage. This study offers a new platform to develop smart delivery systems for the on-demand release of therapeutic agents in vivo.

8.
Chemistry ; 2021 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34648222

RESUMO

Upconversion luminescent (UCL) triggered photodynamic therapy (PDT) affords superior outcome for cancer treatment. However, conventional UCL materials which all work by a multiphoton absorption (MPA) process inevitably need extremely high power density far over the maximum permissible exposure (MPE) to laser. Here, a one-photon absorption molecular upconversion sensitizer Cy5.5-Br based on frequency upconversion luminescent (FUCL) is designed for PDT. The unusual super heavy atom effect (SHAE) in Cy5.5-Br strongly enhances its spin-orbit coupling (0.23 cm-1 ), triplet quantum yield (11.1 %) and triplet state lifetime (18.8 µs) while the potential hot-band absorption of Cy5.5-Br is well maintained. Importantly, Cy5.5-Br can efficiently target the tumour site and kill cancer cells by destroying mitochondria under a biosafety MPE to 808 nm laser. The photostability and antitumor results are obviously superior to that of a Stokes process. This work provides a design criterion for FUCL dyes to realize effective PDT upon a biosafety optical density, possibly bringing more clinical benefits than conventional MPA materials.

10.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 13(43): 51414-51425, 2021 Nov 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34689563

RESUMO

Inkless printing based on rewritable papers has recently made great progress because it can improve the utilization rate of papers, which is of great significance for saving resources and protecting the environment. Among them, light-responsive rewritable papers (LRPs) are a hot research topic because light is clean, easily available, wavelength and intensity adjustable, and noncontacting. However, the photochromic material, as the imaging substance of LRPs, is easily affected by environmental conditions, resulting in insufficient time to read the information. In view of this, we designed and constructed an acid/base tunable diarylethene molecular system that can effectively adjust the photochromic properties by reversibly changing the electron density of the diarylethene photoreaction center through protonation and demonstrated its potential as an imaging material with a longer legible time. What makes us more satisfied is that the acidification can not only extend the legible time of carrying information but also bring a clear and stable absorption/fluorescence imaging dual mode, which can better reflect details and improve contrast. Therefore, we believe that this tunable photochromic diarylethene molecule is a potential imaging material for the development of new LRPs.

11.
Biomaterials ; 278: 121167, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34624752

RESUMO

Immune checkpoint blockade (ICB) therapy currently considered as to be effective way to cure cancer in clinic. However, the insufficient tumor immunogenicity and the immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment always result in diminished efficacy of immunotherapy. Herein, we report the synthesis of an organic photo-immune activator NBS-1MT, the combination of photosensitizer and Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) inhibitor effectively stimulates lysosomes oxidative stress the releases inflammatory cytokines. This process triggers pyroptosis for the considerable immunogenic cell death (ICD) while reversing suppressive tumor microenvironment. The photo-immune drug shows outstanding potential to activate caspase-1and then remove gasdermin-D (GSDMD), which could stimulate pyroptosis and also inhibit the tumor growth successfully in both primary and distant tumor. Furthermore, pyroptosis activated by photodynamic therapy (PDT) promotes the immune related factors release, and enhance the intratumoral infiltration of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) with the induction of ICD of tumor cells and the cascaded synergize with IDO inhibitor, so the general antitumor immune response could be strengthened effectively. Our research confirms that the use of NBS-1MT is a promising strategy to boost the immune response and eventually to inhibit tumor growth.


Assuntos
Morte Celular Imunogênica , Neoplasias , Humanos , Imunoterapia , Indolamina-Pirrol 2,3,-Dioxigenase , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Piroptose , Microambiente Tumoral
12.
J Am Chem Soc ; 143(43): 17891-17909, 2021 11 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34677069

RESUMO

The emergence of multi-drug-resistant pathogens threatens the healthcare systems world-wide. Recent advances in phototherapy (PT) approaches mediated by photo-antimicrobials (PAMs) provide new opportunities for the current serious antibiotic resistance. During the PT treatment, reactive oxygen species or heat produced by PAMs would react with the cell membrane, consequently leaking cytoplasm components and effectively eradicating different pathogens like bacteria, fungi, viruses, and even parasites. This Perspective will concentrate on the development of different organic photo-antimicrobials (OPAMs) and their application as practical therapeutic agents into therapy for local infections, wound dressings, and removal of biofilms from medical devices. We also discuss how to design highly efficient OPAMs by modifying the chemical structure or conjugating with a targeting component. Moreover, this Perspective provides a discussion of the general challenges and direction for OPAMs and what further needs to be done. It is hoped that through this overview, OPAMs can prosper and will be more widely used for microbial infections in the future, especially at a time when the global COVID-19 epidemic is getting more serious.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/química , Desenho de Fármacos , Fototerapia/métodos , Animais , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Anti-Infecciosos/uso terapêutico , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Biofilmes/efeitos da radiação , Corantes/química , Corantes/farmacologia , Equipamentos e Provisões/microbiologia , Equipamentos e Provisões/virologia , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Escherichia coli/fisiologia , Oftalmopatias/tratamento farmacológico , Oftalmopatias/patologia , Fungos/efeitos dos fármacos , Grafite/química , Luz , Nanopartículas/química , Nanopartículas/toxicidade , Fármacos Fotossensibilizantes/química , Fármacos Fotossensibilizantes/farmacologia , Fármacos Fotossensibilizantes/uso terapêutico , Teoria Quântica , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Vírus/efeitos dos fármacos
13.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 13(39): 46353-46360, 2021 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34559529

RESUMO

Rational manipulation of nonradiative decay channels is of crucial significance to improve photothermal conversion efficiency (PCE) and design photothermal agents. We first used the "internal and external combined" nonradiative decay strategy to enhance PCE. Specifically, organic IR-Y6 NPs with strong NIR absorption and high molar extinction coefficient were prepared and characterized. By means of TD-DFT calculations and fs-TA spectroscopy, the dual nonradiative decay channels composed of the free rotor (external strategy) and ultrafast dark excited states (DESs) between S0 and S1 states (internal strategy) were proved, which significantly enhanced PCE, up to 66%. IR-Y6 NPs were applied to a mice tumor model for photoacoustic image-guided photothermal therapy, showing complete tumor ablation ability and good biocompatibility for the normal organs. This work is of significance to deeply understand the nonradiation decay mechanism and rational design of high-performance PTT agents.

14.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 13(38): 45259-45268, 2021 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34533937

RESUMO

Efficiency of standard chemotherapy is dramatically hindered by intrinsic multidrug resistance (MDR). Recently, to amplify therapeutic efficacy, photodynamic therapy (PDT)-induced mitochondrial dysfunction by decorating targeting moieties on nanocarriers has obtained considerable attention. Nevertheless, low targeting efficiency, complex synthesis routes, and difficulty in releasing contents become the major obstacles in further clinical application. Herein, an ingenious liposomal-based nanomedicine (L@BP) was fabricated by encapsulating a mitochondria-anchored photosensitizer (Cy-Br) and paclitaxel (PTX) for realizing enhanced cooperation therapy. At the cellular level, L@BP could hurdle endosomal traps to localize and implement PDT in mitochondria. Intriguingly, the PDT-induced in situ mitochondrial dysfunction led to intracellular ATP reduction, which triggered the downregulated P-glycoprotein transportation capacity and thus resulted in diminishing the efflux of chemotherapeutic agents and increasing drug uptake by drug-resistant cells. The prepared nanomedicine eminently accumulated in the tumor site and acquired enhanced therapeutic efficiency on PTX-resistant lung cancer cells, which possessed great potential in circumventing MDR tumors.

15.
Anal Chem ; 93(40): 13539-13547, 2021 10 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34581571

RESUMO

Monitoring the tumor oxygen level when implementing photodynamic therapy (PDT) on malignant cancer has vital significance but remains challenging yet. Herein, by structurally manipulating a 2,4-dimethylpyrrole-engineered asymmetric BODIPY scaffold with different kinds, numbers, and positions of halogen atoms, we rationally designed several monochromophore-based bifunctional photosensitizers, named BDPs (BDP-I, BDP-II, and BDP-III), with self-sensitized photooxidation characteristics for accurate oxygen reporting and photodynamic tumor ablation. We show that different ways of halogen regulation allow available tuning of BDPs' oxygen-dependent ratiometric fluorescence turn-ons upon light irradiation as well as type-II PDT efficiencies before and after self-sensitized photooxidation. Encouragingly, measuring the specific ratiometric signals of the most promising BDP-II enabled the direct observation of initial oxygen concentration in both living 4T1 cells and a tumor-bearing mice model, affording an alternative way for evaluating oxygen supplementation strategies. Meanwhile, the "always on" PDT effect of BDP-II ensured efficient tumor ablation via apoptosis. Our research was thus believed to be of instructive significance for future application of oxygen-related auxiliary strategies and the design of unimolecular multifunctional PDT agents for cancer precision therapy.


Assuntos
Neoplasias , Fotoquimioterapia , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Camundongos , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Oxigênio , Fármacos Fotossensibilizantes/farmacologia , Fármacos Fotossensibilizantes/uso terapêutico
16.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 57(72): 9100-9103, 2021 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34498645

RESUMO

A rigid hemicyanine CSZ-J and a flexible molecule ESZ-J were synthesized. In particular, the conformationally restrained CSZ-J had higher fluorescence quantum yields, longer fluorescence lifetimes and higher triplet state quantum yields. CSZ-J could generate highly cytotoxic ROS simultaneously via type I and type II processes. This will contribute to the design and development of new photosensitizers in the future.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Carbocianinas/farmacologia , Fotoquimioterapia , Fármacos Fotossensibilizantes/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/química , Carbocianinas/química , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Ensaios de Seleção de Medicamentos Antitumorais , Humanos , Células MCF-7 , Conformação Molecular , Fármacos Fotossensibilizantes/química , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo
17.
Adv Healthc Mater ; 10(20): e2101008, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34515401

RESUMO

Although the combination of photothermal/chemodynamic therapy (PTT/CDT) based on various inorganic nanomaterials has promising anticancer effects, poor biocompatibility and biodegradability of inorganic nanoplatforms pose obstacles to their use in clinic. On the contrary, nanoscale metal-organic particles are considered to be a promising platform because of their biocompatibility and efficient metabolism. Herein, HA@Cy-Cu NPs are prepared using the coordination-driven assembly of cyanine dyes with Cu2+ ions. HA@Cy-Cu NPs demonstrate excellent synergistic PTT/CDT, a high photothermal conversion efficiency (43%), and enhanced photostability. Moreover, Cu2+ in the NPs can be reduced to Cu+ by glutathione (GSH) and can transform H2 O2 to •OH, which down-regulates intracellular GSH levels and up-regulates significant oxidative damage. Therefore, promising in vivo tumor ablation is observed at a low dose of HA@Cy-Cu, suggesting that the combination of PTT/CDT greatly improved the antitumor performance. HA@Cy-Cu can further improve organic nano-systems for anti-tumor therapy by integrating PTT and CDT.


Assuntos
Hipertermia Induzida , Nanopartículas , Nanoestruturas , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Corantes , Glutationa , Terapia Fototérmica
18.
Adv Healthc Mater ; 10(21): e2101049, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34494723

RESUMO

Tumor hypoxia is a typical characteristic of tumor microenvironment (TME), which seriously compromises the therapeutic effect of photodynamic therapy (PDT). The development of nanozymes with oxygen-generation ability is a promising strategy to overcome the oxygen-dependent of PDT but remained a great challenge. Herein, a dual-nanozymes based cascade reactor HAMF is proposed to alleviate tumor hypoxia for enhanced PDT. The hollow mesoporous silica nanoparticles (HMSNs) are constructed as an excellent nanocarrier to load ultra-small gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) and manganese dioxide (MnO2 ) shell via in situ reduction method, and further coordination with an efficient photosensitizer 4-DCF-MPYM (4-FM), a thermally activated delayed fluorescence (TADF) fluorescein derivative. With the response to TME, MnO2 can catalyze endogenous H2 O2 into O2 and subsequently accelerating glucose oxidation by Au NPs to produce additional H2 O2 , which is reversely used as the substrate for MnO2 -catalyzed reaction, thereby constantly producing singlet oxygen (1 O2 ) for enhanced PDT upon light irradiation. This work proposed a cascade reactor based on dual-nanozyme to relieve tumor hypoxia for effective tumor suppression, which may enrich the application of multi-nanozymes in biomedicine.


Assuntos
Nanopartículas Metálicas , Nanopartículas , Fotoquimioterapia , Catálise , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Ouro/farmacologia , Humanos , Hipóxia , Compostos de Manganês/farmacologia , Óxidos/farmacologia , Fármacos Fotossensibilizantes/farmacologia , Hipóxia Tumoral , Microambiente Tumoral
19.
Chem Sci ; 12(31): 10522-10531, 2021 Aug 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34447545

RESUMO

In recent years, the use of aggregation-induced emission luminogens (AIEgens) for biological imaging and phototherapy has become an area of intense research. However, most traditional AIEgens suffer from undesired aggregation in aqueous media with "always on" fluorescence, or their targeting effects cannot be maintained accurately in live cells with the microenvironment changes. These drawbacks seriously impede their application in the fields of bio-imaging and antitumor therapy, which require a high signal-to-noise ratio. Herein, we propose a molecular design strategy to tune the dispersity of AIEgens in both lipophilic and hydrophilic systems to obtain the novel near-infrared (NIR, ∼737 nm) amphiphilic AIE photosensitizer (named TPA-S-TPP) with two positive charges as well as a triplet lifetime of 11.43 µs. The synergistic effects of lipophilicity, electrostatic interaction, and structure-anchoring enable the wider dynamic range of AIEgen TPA-S-TPP for mitochondrial targeting with tolerance to the changes of mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨ m). Intriguingly, TPA-S-TPP was difficult for normal cells to be taken up, indicative of low inherent toxicity for normal cells and tissues. Deeper insight into the changes of mitochondrial membrane potential and cleaved caspase 3 levels further revealed the mechanism of tumor cell apoptosis activated by AIEgen TPA-S-TPP under light irradiation. With its advantages of low dark toxicity and good biocompatibility, acting as an efficient theranostic agent, TPA-S-TPP was successfully applied to kill cancer cells and to efficiently inhibit tumor growth in mice. This study will provide a new avenue for researchers to design more ideal amphiphilic AIE photosensitizers with NIR fluorescence.

20.
Anal Chem ; 93(30): 10528-10537, 2021 08 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34293854

RESUMO

Direct-infusion nanoelectrospray ionization high-resolution mass spectrometry (DI-nESI-HRMS) is an alternative approach to chromatography-MS-based techniques for nontargeted metabolomics, offering a high sample throughout. However, its annotation accuracy of analytes is still full of challenges. In this study, we proposed a strategy for the annotation and quantitation of nontargeted metabolomic data using a spectral-stitching DI-nESI-HRMS with data-independent acquisition. The metabolite annotation strategy included the isotopic distribution, MS/MS spectrum similarity, and precursor and product ion correlation as well as matching of the extracted metabolite features along with the targeted metabolite precursors. Two groups of mixed standard solutions containing 40 and 79 metabolites were, respectively, used to establish the metabolite annotation strategy and validate its reliability. The results showed that the detected standards could be well annotated at top three explanations and total qualitative percentages were 100% (40 of 40) for the standard solution and 94.9% (74 of 78) for the standards spiked into the serum matrix. The intensity of the precursor ions was used for quantitation except for isomers, which were quantified by the intensities of the characteristic product ions if available. Finally, the strategy was applied to study serum metabolomics in diabetes, and the results demonstrated that it is promising for a large-scale cohort metabolomic study.


Assuntos
Metabolômica , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Humanos , Íons , Padrões de Referência , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
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