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1.
Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke Za Zhi ; 23(3): 258-265, 2020 Mar 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32192305

RESUMO

Objective: To explore the safety and efficacy of watch and wait strategy and organ preservation surgery after total neoadjuvant treatment for MRI stratified low-risk rectal cancer. Methods: A prospective single arm phase Ⅱ trial developed at Department of Gastrointestinal Cancer, Peking University Cancer Hospital & Institute was preliminarily analyzed. Subjects were enrolled from August 2016 to January 2019. Low-risk rectal cancer with following MRI features were recruited: mid-low tumor, mrT2-3b, MRF (-), EMVI (-), CRM (-), differentiation grade 1-3. Patients received intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) 50.6 Gy/22f with concurrent capecitabine and 4 cycles of consolidation CAPEOX. Patients with cCR/near-cCR confirmed by physical examination, rectal MRI, endoscopy, and serum CEA were recommended for watch & wait approach or local excision (LE). The main study outcomes were 2-year organ preservation rate (OPR) and sphincter preservation rate (SPR). Results: Thirty-eight patients were eligible for analysis, including 24 males and 14 females with median age of 56 years; 9 cases of mrT2 (23.7%), 14 cases of mrT3a (36.8%) and 15 cases of mrT3b (39.5%); 5 cases of well differentiated adenocarcinoma (13.2%), 32 cases of moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma (84.2%) and 1 case of mucinous adenocarcinoma (2.6%). Carcinoemobryonic antigen (CEA) was elevated before treatment in 1 case. One case (2.6%) of grade 3 radiation dermatitis occurred during IMRT; 18 cases (47.4%) occurred grade 3 to 4 adverse events during consolidation chemotherapy. After total neoadjuvant treatment, the cCR and near-cCR rates were 42.1% (16/38) and 23.7% (9/38), respectively, while non-cCR rate was 34.2% (13/38). Twenty patients (20/38, 52.6%) of cCR or near-cCR underwent watch & wait approach, with a local regrowth rate of 20% (4/20). Four patients received LE, including one salvage LE. Thirteen patients (4 were ypCR) received radical resection, including 10 cases of initial low anterior resections (LAR), 1 cases of initial abdominal perineal resection (APR) and 2 cases of salvage LAR, four patients refused operation. The median follow-up time was 23.5 (8.5-38.3) months. At the last interview of follow-up, the OPR and SPR were 52.6% (20/38) and 84.2% (32/38), respectively. Only one patient developed lung metastasis and no local recurrence occurred after radical resection or LE. Conclusion: Total neoadjuvant treatment for low-risk rectal cancer achieves high cCR/near-cCR rate, with increased probability of receiving watch and wait approach and organ preservation in this subgroup.


Assuntos
Terapia Neoadjuvante , Neoplasias Retais , Feminino , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia , Preservação de Órgãos , Estudos Prospectivos , Neoplasias Retais/terapia , Resultado do Tratamento , Conduta Expectante
2.
Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke Za Zhi ; 22(6): 550-559, 2019 Jun 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31238634

RESUMO

Objective: To understand the perceptions, attitudes and treatment selection of Chinese surgeons on the "watch and wait" strategy for rectal cancer patients after achieving a clinical complete response (cCR) following neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (nCRT). Methods: A cross-sectional survey was used in this study. Selection of subjects: (1) Domestic public grade III A (provincial and prefecture-level) oncology hospitals or general hospitals possessing the radiotherapy department and the diagnosis and treatment qualifications for colorectal cancer. (2) Surgeons of deputy chief physician or above. Using the "Questionnaire Star" online survey platform to create a questionnaire about cognition, attitude and treatment choice of the "watch and wait" strategy after cCR following nCRT for rectal cancer. The questionnaire contained 32 questions, such as the basic information of doctor, the current status of rectal cancer surgery, the management of pathological complete remission (ypCR) after nCRT for rectal cancer, the selection of examination items for diagnosis of cCR, the selection of suitable people undergoing "watch and wait" approach, the nCRT mode for promotion of cCR, the choice of evaluation time point, the willingness to perform "watch and wait" approach and the treatment choice, and the risk and monitoring of "watch and wait" approach. A total of 116 questionnaires were sent to the respondents via WeChat between January 31 and February 19, 2019. Statistical analysis was performed using Fisher's exact test for categorical variables. Results: Forty-eight hospitals including 116 surgeons meeting criteria were enrolled, of whom 77 surgeons filled the questionnaire with a response rate of 66.4%. "Watch and wait" strategy was carried out in 76.6% (59/77) of surgeons. Seventy surgeons (90.9%) were aware of the ypCR rate of rectal cancer after preoperative nCRT and 49 surgeons (63.6%) knew the 3-year disease-free survival of patients with ypCR in their own hospitals. Fifty-five surgeons (71.4%) believed that patients with ypCR undergoing radical surgery met the treatment criteria and were not over-treated. Three most necessary examinations in diagnosing cCR were colonoscopy (96.1%, 74/77), digital rectal examination (DRE) (90.9%,70/77) and DWI-MRI (83.1%, 64/77). Responders preferred to consider a "watch and wait" strategy for patients with baseline characteristics as mrN0 (77.9%, 60/77), mrT2 (68.8%, 53/77) and well-differentiated adenocarcinoma (68.8%, 53/77). Sixty-six surgeons (85.7%) believed that long-term chemoradiotherapy (LCRT) with combination or without combination of induction and/or consolidation of the CapeOX regimen (capecitabine + oxaliplatin) should be the first choice as a neoadjuvant therapy to achieve cCR. Forty-one surgeons (53.2%) believed that a reasonable interval of judging cCR after nCRT should be ≥ 8 weeks. Forty-four surgeons (57.1%) routinely, or in most cases, informed patient the possibility of cCR and proposed to "watch and wait" strategy in the initial diagnosis of patients with non-metastatic rectal cancer. Thirteen surgeons (16.9%) would take the "watch and wait" strategy as the first choice after the patient having cCR. Fifty-two surgeons (67.5%) would be affected by the surgical method, that was to say, "watch and wait" approach would only be recommended to those patients who would achieve cCR and could not preserve the anus or underwent difficult anus-preservation surgery. Sixteen surgeons (20.8%) demonstrated that "watch and wait" strategy would not be recommended to patients with cCR regardless of whether the surgical procedure involved anal sphincter. Eleven surgeons (14.3%) believed that the main risk of "watch and wait" approach came from distant metastasis rather than local recurrence or regrowth. Twenty-nine of surgeons (37.7%) did not understand the difference between "local recurrence" and "local regrowth" during the period of "watch and wait". Twenty-six surgeons (33.8%) thought that the monitoring interval for the first 3 years of "watch and wait" strategy was 3 months, and the follow-up monitoring interval could be 6 months to 5 years. Surgeons from cancer specialist hospitals had higher approval rate, notification rate, and referral rate of "watch and wait" strategy than those from general hospitals. Thirty-one surgeons (42.5%) considered that the difficulty and concern of carrying out "watch and wait" approach in the future was the disease progress leading to medical disputes. Twenty-six surgeons (35.6%) demonstrated that their concern was lack of uniform evaluation standard for cCR. Conclusions: Chinese surgeons seem to have inadequate knowledge of non-operative management for rectal cancer patients achieving cCR after nCRT and show relatively conservative attitudes toward the strategy. Chinese consensus needs to be formed to guide the non-operative management in selected patients. Chinese Watch & Wait Database (CWWD) is also needed to establish and provide more evidence for the use of alternative procedure after a cCR following nCRT.


Assuntos
Quimiorradioterapia Adjuvante/métodos , Terapia Neoadjuvante , Neoplasias Retais/terapia , Conduta Expectante/métodos , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Estudos Transversais , Pesquisas sobre Serviços de Saúde , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia , Inquéritos e Questionários
3.
Opt Express ; 26(15): 18906-18919, 2018 Jul 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30114150

RESUMO

The spin texture of the surface state for topological insulators can be manipulated by the polarization of light, which might play a potential role in the applications in spintronics. However, the study so far in this direction mainly focuses on the classical light-topological-insulators interactions; TIs coupled to quantized light remains barely explored. In this paper, we develop a formalism to deal with this issue of spin texture of the surface state for topological insulators (for example Bi2Se3 and SmB6) irradiated by a quantum field, and we find that the coupling between an electron and a single-mode quantum field modulates only the arrow length that represents the spin polarization of a topological surface state. Specifically, when the photon number of a single-mode quantum field is fixed, the azimuth angle between the quantum light and the material surface manipulates the spin textures along the constant energy contour rotating (clockwise or counterclockwise) around the high symmetry point, and the polar angle controls the magnitude of the spin polarization. These results are quite different from the situation where an external field is not applied to an electron in a crystal or where a classical external field is utilized to control the spin polarization of a photoemitted electron in a vacuum. Our results have potential applications in quantum optics and condensed-matter physics.

4.
Phys Rev E ; 95(4-1): 042129, 2017 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28505737

RESUMO

The Kubo formula expresses a linear response of the quantum system to weak classical fields. Previous studies showed that the environment degrades the quantum Hall conductance. By studying the dynamics of dissipative two-band systems, in this paper we find that the formation of system-environment bound states is responsible for the Hall conductance immune to the effect of the environment. The bound states can form only when the system-environment couplings are below a threshold. Our results may be of both theoretical and experimental interest in exploring dissipative topological insulators in realistic situations, and may open new perspectives for designing active quantum Hall devices working in realistic environments.

5.
Andrologia ; 49(3)2017 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27364774

RESUMO

Male erectile dysfunction (ED) may cause anxiety and depression, while mental disorders and sleep disturbances may also be closely related to ED. However, the exact nature of their relationship remains unclear, and whether personal basic background data affect erectile function is unknown. We conducted a cross-sectional study among Chinese outpatients with ED from January 2012 to December 2014. All the men answered a questionnaire collecting information about mental health status, sleep disturbances and personal data, underwent a physical examination and had a blood sample drawn. Sleep disturbances were assessed on the basis of a 19-item version of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, which includes questions on sleep patterns during the past month. Among the 462 patients, 128 patients with alcohol abuse, diabetes, hypertension, hyperlipidaemia, psychiatric drugs, neurologic injury or abnormal hormones were excluded from the study; 86.27% and 68.66% of the patients suffered from anxiety and depression respectively. Sleep quality and anxiety symptoms significantly affected erectile function, whereas personal income and education level had no significant effects. Our study suggested that it is necessary to pay attention to the psychological status of patients with ED, especially anxiety disorder. Sleep quality may be an important factor affecting erectile function according to the personal data.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Depressão/epidemiologia , Disfunção Erétil/epidemiologia , Individualidade , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/epidemiologia , Adulto , Ansiedade/psicologia , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/psicologia , Disfunção Erétil/psicologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pacientes Ambulatoriais , Prevalência , Qualidade de Vida , Fatores de Risco , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
6.
J Invertebr Pathol ; 143: 1-10, 2017 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27823898

RESUMO

The striped stem borer, Chilo suppressalis, is a major target pest of transgenic rice expressing the Cry1Ab protein from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) in China. Evolution of resistance in this pest is a major threat to the durability of Bt rice. Since Bt exerts its activity through binding to specific receptors in the midgut of target insects, identification of functional Cry1Ab receptors in the midgut of C. suppressalis larvae is crucial to evaluate potential resistance mechanisms and develop effective strategies for delaying insect resistance. In this work, we identified the putative Cry1Ab toxin-binding protein, aminopeptidase-N (APN), in the midgut of C. suppressalis by ligand blot and mass spectrometry. After cloning the full-length cDNAs encoding APN isoforms from the C. suppressalis larval midgut, we studied their spatiotemporal expression in different gut tissues and developmental stages. Furthermore, RNA interference (RNAi) against C. suppressalis aminopeptidases (CsAPNs) was employed to illustrate a functional role for CsAPNs in Cry1Ab toxicity to C. suppressalis larvae using injection and oral delivery of Stealth™ siRNA. Down-regulating the expression of CsAPNs by RNAi was closely associated with reduced susceptibility of C. suppressalis to Cry1Ab. These data provide the first direct evidence that CsAPNs participate in the mode of Cry1Ab action and may act as the functional receptor of Cry1A in C. suppressalis larvae.


Assuntos
Antígenos CD13/metabolismo , Proteínas de Insetos/metabolismo , Resistência a Inseticidas/fisiologia , Mariposas/metabolismo , Animais , Bacillus thuringiensis , Proteínas de Bactérias , Endotoxinas , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Proteínas Hemolisinas , Controle Biológico de Vetores/métodos , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , RNA Interferente Pequeno
7.
Braz J Med Biol Res ; 49(6): e5168, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27191605

RESUMO

Polymyositis (PM) is an autoimmune disease characterized by chronic inflammation in skeletal muscle. Mean platelet volume (MPV), a marker in the assessment of systemic inflammation, is easily measured by automatic blood count equipment. However, to our knowledge, there are no data in the literature with respect to MPV levels in PM patients. Therefore, in this study we aimed to investigate MPV levels in patients with PM. This study included 92 newly diagnosed PM patients and 100 healthy individuals. MPV levels were found to be significantly lower compared with healthy controls (10.3±1.23 vs 11.5±0.74 fL, P<0.001). Interestingly, MPV was found to be positively correlated with manual muscle test (MMT) score and negatively correlated with erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) in patients with PM (r=0.239, P=0.022; r=-0.268, P=0.010, respectively). In addition, MPV was significantly lower in active PM patients compared with inactive PM patients (9.9±1.39 vs 10.6±0.92 fL, P=0.010). MPV was independently associated with PM in multivariate regression analyses, when controlling for hemoglobin and ESR (OR=0.312, P=0.031, 95%CI=0.108 to 0.899). The ROC curve analysis for MPV in estimating PM patients resulted in an area under the curve of 0.800, with sensitivity of 75.0% and specificity of 67.4%. Our results suggest that MPV is inversely correlated with disease activity in patients with PM. MPV might be a useful tool for rapid assessment of disease severity in PM patients.


Assuntos
Volume Plaquetário Médio/métodos , Polimiosite/sangue , Polimiosite/patologia , Adulto , Biomarcadores/sangue , Sedimentação Sanguínea , Proteína C-Reativa/análise , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Contagem de Linfócitos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Neutrófilos , Valores de Referência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
8.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 20(4): 631-5, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26957263

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Accumulated data have indicated that bilirubin has antiinflammatory, antioxidative, and immunosuppressive properties. Polymyositis (PM) belongs to an autoimmune disease characterized by chronic inflammation in skeletal muscle. Until now, to the best of our knowledge, there are no literature investigating bilirubin levels in patients with PM. Therefore, the aim of this investigation was to assess a relationship between bilirubin and PM. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Our study included newly diagnosed 77 patients with PM who were admitted to the Affiliated Hospital of Youjiang Medical University for Nationalities (Guangxi, China) and 108 healthy subjects as controls. Clinical characteristics and laboratory parameters of patients were analyzed, retrospectively. RESULTS: The serum concentrations of total bilirubin (TB), conjugate bilirubin (CB), unconjugated bilirubin (UCB) were significantly lower in patients with PM than healthy controls. Serum concentrations of TB were negatively correlated with erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), creatine kinase (CK) and lactic dehydrogenase (LDH) in patients with PM (r=-0.494, p<0.001; r=-0.274, p=0.017; r=-0.282, p=0.014), and serum concentrations of UCB were negatively correlated with ESR and CK in PM patients (r=-0.424, p<0.001; r=-0.234, p=0.041). Both serum TB and UBC concentrations were positively correlated with manual muscle test (MMT) score in patients with PM (r=0.328, p=0.004; r=0.333, p=0.004). In multiple linear regression analysis, serum UBC levels were independently associated with MMT score (r=0.239, p=0.003). CONCLUSIONS: We observed significantly lower serum concentrations of TB, CB and UCB in patients with PM, and suggested a potential association between serum concentrations of UBC and disease activity in PM patients.


Assuntos
Bilirrubina/sangue , Polimiosite/sangue , Polimiosite/diagnóstico , Adulto , Biomarcadores/sangue , Sedimentação Sanguínea , China/epidemiologia , Creatina Quinase , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Músculo Esquelético/patologia , Polimiosite/epidemiologia
10.
Colorectal Dis ; 18(3): 255-63, 2016 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26400111

RESUMO

AIM: The aim of this study was to develop a prognostic scoring system to predict the outcome of patients with unresectable metastatic colon cancer who received primary colon tumour resection. METHOD: Patients with confirmed metastatic colon cancer treated at the Peking University Cancer Hospital between 2003 and 2012 were reviewed retrospectively. The correlation of clinicopathological factors with overall survival was analysed using the Kaplan-Meier method and the log-rank test. Independent prognostic factors were identified using a Cox proportional hazards regression model and were then combined to form a prognostic scoring system. RESULTS: A total of 110 eligible patients were included in the study. The median survival time was 10.4 months and the 2-year overall survival (OS) rate was 21.8%. Age over 70 years, an alkaline phosphatase (ALP) level over 160 IU/l, ascites, a platelet/lymphocyte ratio (PLR) above 162 and no postoperative therapy were independently associated with a shorter OS in multivariate analysis. Age, ALP, ascites and PLR were subsequently combined to form the so-called AAAP scoring system. Patients were classified into high, medium and low risk groups according to the score obtained. There were significant differences in OS between each group (P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Age, ALP, ascites, PLR and postoperative therapy were independent prognostic factors for survival of patients with metastatic colonic cancer who underwent primary tumour resection. The AAAP scoring system may be a useful tool for surgical decision making.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/sangue , Colectomia/mortalidade , Neoplasias do Colo/mortalidade , Neoplasias do Colo/cirurgia , Metástase Linfática/patologia , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Fosfatase Alcalina/análise , Ascite/patologia , Colo/patologia , Colo/cirurgia , Neoplasias do Colo/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Contagem de Linfócitos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Neutrófilos , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Taxa de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento
11.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 49(6): e5168, 2016. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-781418

RESUMO

Polymyositis (PM) is an autoimmune disease characterized by chronic inflammation in skeletal muscle. Mean platelet volume (MPV), a marker in the assessment of systemic inflammation, is easily measured by automatic blood count equipment. However, to our knowledge, there are no data in the literature with respect to MPV levels in PM patients. Therefore, in this study we aimed to investigate MPV levels in patients with PM. This study included 92 newly diagnosed PM patients and 100 healthy individuals. MPV levels were found to be significantly lower compared with healthy controls (10.3±1.23 vs 11.5±0.74 fL, P<0.001). Interestingly, MPV was found to be positively correlated with manual muscle test (MMT) score and negatively correlated with erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) in patients with PM (r=0.239, P=0.022; r=−0.268, P=0.010, respectively). In addition, MPV was significantly lower in active PM patients compared with inactive PM patients (9.9±1.39 vs 10.6±0.92 fL, P=0.010). MPV was independently associated with PM in multivariate regression analyses, when controlling for hemoglobin and ESR (OR=0.312, P=0.031, 95%CI=0.108 to 0.899). The ROC curve analysis for MPV in estimating PM patients resulted in an area under the curve of 0.800, with sensitivity of 75.0% and specificity of 67.4%. Our results suggest that MPV is inversely correlated with disease activity in patients with PM. MPV might be a useful tool for rapid assessment of disease severity in PM patients.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Volume Plaquetário Médio/métodos , Polimiosite/sangue , Polimiosite/patologia , Biomarcadores/sangue , Sedimentação Sanguínea , Proteína C-Reativa/análise , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Contagem de Linfócitos , Análise Multivariada , Neutrófilos , Valores de Referência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
12.
Andrologia ; 47(9): 1020-7, 2015 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25385280

RESUMO

Corpus cavernosum smooth muscle cells (CCSMCs) are important functional cells for penile erection. We evaluated the effect of transforming growth factor ß1 (TGFß1) and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) on the viability and apoptosis of CCSMCs in vitro. CCSMCs from healthy male Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups: a negative control group, a TGFß1 group, a HGF group and a HGF+ TGFß1 group. Differences in cell viability and apoptosis among groups were observed by 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5 diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and flow cytometry. Western blot was used to detect the change of apoptosis-related proteins. The level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was detected by colorimetry. In the TGFß1 group, the MTT values were obviously decreased at 12 h, 24 h, 48 h-0.320, 0.383 and 0.432 respectively. However, compared with the normal group, the apoptosis index was markedly increased, reaching 26.86% at the 48-h time point. After TGFß1 treatment, the levels of cleaved caspase-3 and p-Smad2 were increased in the cells, but the levels of Bcl-xL, Bcl-2 and p-Akt were significantly lower. However, HGF co-treatment partially reversed these changes and could decrease the intracellular ROS level while increasing the Akt phosphorylation level. These results indicate that TGFß1 might induce apoptosis of CCSMCs in vitro and that HGF could interfere with the above process through downregulation of apoptosis signalling and oxidative stress reaction.


Assuntos
Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Fator de Crescimento de Hepatócito/farmacologia , Miócitos de Músculo Liso/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Pênis/citologia , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1/farmacologia , Animais , Western Blotting , Caspase 3/efeitos dos fármacos , Caspase 3/metabolismo , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Técnicas In Vitro , Masculino , Fosforilação/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/metabolismo , Ratos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Proteína Smad2/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteína Smad2/metabolismo , Proteína bcl-X/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteína bcl-X/metabolismo
13.
Environ Entomol ; 43(5): 1453-63, 2014 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25203669

RESUMO

A 2-yr field trial was conducted to assess the impacts of two new transgenic Bt rice lines, T1C-19 expressing Cry1C protein and T2A-1 expressing Cry2A protein, on the arthropod community sampled via vacuum. All the arthropods were classified into five guilds, including herbivores, parasitoids, predators, detritivores, and others. The seasonal density and dominance distribution of each guild and community-level indices (species richness, Shannon-Wiener diversity index, Simpson diversity index, and evenness index) were compared among rice types. Principal response curves were used to investigate the differences of entire arthropod community of Bt rice plots relative to non-Bt rice plots. The results showed no significant difference was detected in the community-level indices and dominance distribution of guilds between Bt and non-Bt rice plots. The seasonal density of herbivores, detritivores, and others as well as density of the arthropod overall community were also not significantly affected by rice types in either year, although the density of predators and parasitoids in Bt rice plots was significantly lower than those in non-Bt rice plots. The lower abundances of Braconidae, Eulophidae, Cyrtorhinus lividipennis (Reuter) (Hemiptera: Miridae), and Theridiidae in Bt rice plots are likely attributed to the lower abundances of prey species or hosts. Principal response curves revealed that arthropod community in Bt was similar with that in non-Bt rice plots. In conclusion, our findings indicate that these two tested Bt rice lines had no marked negative effects on the arthropod community in the paddy fields.


Assuntos
Artrópodes/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Toxinas Bacterianas/metabolismo , Biota/efeitos dos fármacos , Oryza/genética , Animais , Artrópodes/fisiologia , Bacillus thuringiensis/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Toxinas Bacterianas/genética , Biota/fisiologia , Herbivoria , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Oryza/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/metabolismo , Dinâmica Populacional , Comportamento Predatório , Estações do Ano
14.
Environ Entomol ; 43(1): 209-17, 2014 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24472210

RESUMO

Transgenic rice expressing Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner (Bt) protein can effectively control target insects including stem borers and leaf folders. However, the potential effects of Bt rice on nontarget organisms including nontarget herbivores have not been fully evaluated. In the current study, ecological fitness parameters of the nontarget herbivore, Nephotettix cincticeps (Uhler) (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae), fed on T1C-19 (Cry1C) or T2A-1 (Cry2A) rice were compared with non-Bt rice (MH63) under laboratory conditions. A 2-yr field trial was also conducted to monitor the population dynamics of N. cincticeps in the Bt and control rice plots using the vacuum-suction machine and yellow sticky card traps. Laboratory results showed that there were no significant differences in some of biological parameters including egg developmental duration, adult fresh weight, adult longevity, and oviposition period when N. cincticeps fed on Bt or non-Bt rice was compared. However, the survival rate of N. cincticeps nymphs fed on T2A-1 Bt rice plants was significantly higher than that on the control. When N. cincticeps fed on T1C-19 Bt rice plants, its nymphal duration was significantly longer and fecundity significantly lower compared with those fed on both T2A-1 Bt and non-Bt rice plants; the preoviposition period of N. cincticeps fed on T1C-19 and T2A-1 Bt rice was also significantly shorter than those on non-Bt rice. Nonetheless, both seasonal density and population dynamics of N. cincticeps adults and nymphs were similar between Bt (T1C-19 and T2A-1) and non-Bt rice plots under field conditions. In conclusion, our results indicate that our two tested Bt rice lines would not lead to higher population of N. cincticeps. Long-term experiments to monitor the population dynamics of N. cincticeps at large scale need to be carried out to confirm the current results.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/toxicidade , Endotoxinas/toxicidade , Hemípteros/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Hemolisinas/toxicidade , Inseticidas/toxicidade , Oryza/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Animais , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Endotoxinas/genética , Feminino , Hemípteros/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Proteínas Hemolisinas/genética , Masculino , Ninfa/efeitos dos fármacos , Ninfa/genética , Densidade Demográfica , Dinâmica Populacional , Reprodução/efeitos dos fármacos , Reprodução/genética
15.
Colorectal Dis ; 16(1): 33-9, 2014 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23848511

RESUMO

AIM: To evaluate the role of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) in predicting the response to and prognosis for locally advanced rectal cancer treated with 30 Gy neoadjuvant radiotherapy (nRT) in 10 fractions (30 Gy/10 f). METHOD: This retrospective study involved 240 patients with locally advanced rectal cancer who underwent 30 Gy/10 f nRT (biologically equivalent dose 36 Gy) followed by total mesorectal excision between August 2003 and 2009. Serum CEA level was determined before administration of nRT. The prognostic value of serum CEA level on tumour downstaging and 3-year disease-free survival was analysed. RESULTS: Ninety out of 240 (37.5%) patients had elevated CEA levels before nRT. The incidence of T downstaging in patients decreased significantly as the pretreatment CEA levels became more elevated (< 5 ng/ml, 50.7%; 5-10 ng/ml, 39.5%; > 10 ng/ml, 17.3%; P = 0.00014). Downstaging to ypCR or ypStage I occurred in 46.7% (66/150) of patients with a CEA level of < 5 ng/ml and 34.2% (13/38) of patients with a CEA level of 5-10 ng/ml. In contrast, just 13.5% (7/52) of those with a CEA level > 10 ng/ml downstaged to ypStage I and none of them achieved ypCR, with statistical difference (P = 0.001). A significantly higher incidence of early metastasis (within 6 postoperative months) was observed with increasing CEA level: 2.0% (3/150), 5.4% (2/38) and 11.5% (6/52) in patients with CEA level < 5 ng/ml, 5-10 ng/ml or > 10 ng/ml, respectively (P = 0.018). CONCLUSION: Pretreatment CEA level cannot only predict tumour downstaging and ypTNM stage for rectal cancer following 30 Gy/10 f nRT, but also promisingly suggests a high incidence of early occurring distant metastasis. These findings may be used to select patients with nRT resistance and occult metastasis and make alternative treatment strategies.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/sangue , Biomarcadores Tumorais/sangue , Antígeno Carcinoembrionário/sangue , Neoplasias Retais/sangue , Adenocarcinoma/patologia , Adenocarcinoma/radioterapia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Terapia Neoadjuvante , Metástase Neoplásica , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Prognóstico , Radioterapia Adjuvante , Neoplasias Retais/patologia , Neoplasias Retais/radioterapia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
16.
Genet Mol Res ; 12(4): 6103-19, 2013 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24338404

RESUMO

Twenty-five populations of Oryza rufipogon from China and 144 cultivars of Oryza sativa were selected for this study. Based on the DNA fragment of Ehd1-4 and subspecies-specific sequence-tagged site markers in different chromosomes, intraspecific differentiation in O. rufipogon from China was analyzed. The introgression from O. sativa to O. rufipogon was also analyzed based on simple sequence repeat markers. The results revealed that the DNA fragment of Ehd1-4 could distinguish the O. sativa subspecies japonica and indica. Furthermore, although significant indica-japonica differentiation did not occur in most O. rufipogon populations from China, O. rufipogon varieties from Hainan Island and from the mainland of China showed differentiation tendencies. Japonica-like O. rufipogon varieties were predominant in Mainland China. However, more indica-like O. rufipogon varieties were found in Hainan Island. Finally, although cultivar-specific alleles were found in most of the O. rufipogon varieties from Hainan Island and Guangdong Province, some varieties remain pure and non-introgressive.


Assuntos
Flores/genética , Genoma de Planta , Oryza/genética , China , Evolução Molecular , Flores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fluxo Gênico , Loci Gênicos , Mutação INDEL , Repetições de Microssatélites , Tipagem de Sequências Multilocus , Oryza/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Polimorfismo Genético , Especificidade da Espécie
17.
Environ Entomol ; 42(1): 173-80, 2013 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23339799

RESUMO

As a key component of ecological risk assessments, nontarget effects of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) rice have been tested under laboratory and field conditions for various organisms. A 2-yr field experiment was conducted to observe the nontarget effects of six transgenic rice lines (expressing the Cry1Ab or fused protein of Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac) on four nontarget thrips species including Frankliniella intonsa (Trybom), F. tenuicornis (Uzel), Haplothrips aculeatus (F.), and H. tritici (Kurd), as compared with their rice parental control lines. Two sampling methods including the beat plate and plastic bag method were used to monitor the population densities of the four thrips species for 2 yr. The results showed that the seasonal average densities of four tested thrips species in Bt rice plots were significantly lower than or very similar to those in the non-Bt rice plots depending on rice genotypes, sampling methods, and years. Among all six tested Bt rice lines, transgenic B1 and KMD2 lines suppressed the population of these tested thrips species the most. Our results indicate that the tested Bt rice lines are unlikely to result in high population pressure of thrips species in comparison with non-Bt rice. In some cases, Bt rice lines could significantly suppress thrips populations in the rice ecosystem. In addition, compatibility of Bt rice, with rice host plant resistance to nontarget sucking pests is also discussed within an overall integrated pest management program for rice.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/efeitos adversos , Endotoxinas/efeitos adversos , Proteínas Hemolisinas/efeitos adversos , Oryza/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/efeitos adversos , Tisanópteros , Animais , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Endotoxinas/genética , Proteínas Hemolisinas/genética , Herbivoria , Densidade Demográfica , Estações do Ano
18.
J Econ Entomol ; 106(6): 2548-56, 2013 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24498757

RESUMO

The Asian corn borer, Ostrinia furnacalis (GuenCe), is a major pest of maize in China. Transgenic Bt maize could provide an effective way to control this pest. However, the potential of resistance evolution has been documented in the laboratory-a CrylAb-resistant strain of Asian corn borer (Asian corn borer-AbR) could survive well on two Bt maize events, that is, MON810 and Bt11. Pyramided transgenic crops with multiple dissimilar Bt insecticidal proteins offer a superior route for pests control compared with that with one Bt single gene. In this study, two novel transgenic Bt maize events (N30 and V3), which contained a fused gene Cry1Ab/Cry2Aj and CrylAb /Vip3DA, respectively, were evaluated for their efficacy on protection against CrylAb-susceptible Asian corn borer (Asian corn borer-BtS) as well as their potential for dealing with the Asian corn borer-AbR. In laboratory bioassay, no neonate larvae of Asian corn borer-BtS fed on the whorl leaves, tassels, husks, silks, and kernels of N30 and V3 could survive at 96 h after infestation. In contrast, only 2.0-8.7% larvae died as they fed on non-Bt maize tissues. As Asian corn borer-AbR neonate larvae fed on N30 and V3 silks and kernels, 95.0% even more larvae were killed at 96 h after infestation, and all died at 168 h after infestation, while 10.0-11.67% larvae survived on non-Bt control. In the field test under artificial infestation at middle whorl leaf and silking stages of maize, there were no significant leaf, silk, and stalk damage on Bt maize plants by comparison with severe leaf feeding, stalk born, and ear damage in control, in addition, the expression profiles of a fused protein of CrylAb/Cry2Aj or CrylAb/Vip3DA in different tissues of N30 and V3 were also confirmed. In conclusion, it is clear that both Bt maize events (N30 and V3) show great potential for protecting maize from attack by Asian corn borer that has resistance to Cry1Ab protein.


Assuntos
Bacillus thuringiensis/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Endotoxinas/genética , Proteínas Hemolisinas/genética , Resistência a Inseticidas , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Mariposas/efeitos dos fármacos , Zea mays/genética , Animais , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Endotoxinas/metabolismo , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Proteínas Hemolisinas/metabolismo , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos , Controle Biológico de Vetores , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Pupa/efeitos dos fármacos
19.
Eur Surg Res ; 47(4): 254-9, 2011.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22067579

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is no standard treatment available for gastric cancer patients whose sole 'non-curative factor' is positivecytological findings in peritoneal washings (CFPW). The aim of this study was to examine the safety, pharmacokinetics and efficacy for free intraperitoneal cancer cells of intraperitoneal chemotherapy with paclitaxel after gastrectomy with en bloc D2 lymph node dissection in cases of gastric cancer with positive CFPW. METHODS: Ten patients with gastric cancer who underwent gastrectomy and systemic lymphadenectomy with D2 dissection, without any other non-curative factors besides positive CFPW, were treated with early postoperative intraperitoneal paclitaxel. Intra-chemotherapeutic toxicity and operative complications were measured using NCI-CTC version 3.0. Intraperitoneal and plasma paclitaxel concentrations were measured using a high-performance liquid chromatographic assay. RESULTS: Grade 3/4 toxic effects included anemia (20%) and neutropenia (10%) that required no treatment. Operative complications were, for example, superficial surgical site infections (10%) that were treated with antibiotics. No viable cancer cells were observed in the intra-abdominal fluid 24 h after intraperitoneal administration of paclitaxel. The intraperitoneal/plasma area under the drug concentration-time curve ratio was 2,003.3:1. CONCLUSION: Intraperitoneal chemotherapy with paclitaxel is a safe and effective treatment modality for free intraperitoneal cancer cells.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/tratamento farmacológico , Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias Gástricas/tratamento farmacológico , Adenocarcinoma/mortalidade , Adenocarcinoma/patologia , Adenocarcinoma/cirurgia , Idoso , Antineoplásicos/farmacocinética , Antineoplásicos/toxicidade , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica , Feminino , Humanos , Infusões Parenterais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Cavidade Peritoneal/patologia , Lavagem Peritoneal , Estudos Prospectivos , Neoplasias Gástricas/mortalidade , Neoplasias Gástricas/patologia , Neoplasias Gástricas/cirurgia
20.
Oncology ; 80(5-6): 307-13, 2011.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21778771

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is refractory to current therapeutic regimens and more effective therapies are imperative. To this end, we conducted a multicenter phase I/II trial of docetaxel, cisplatin, and fluorouracil (DCF) combination chemotherapy for ESCC. METHODS: The study subjects were 46 patients with advanced or recurrent ESCC. Treatment included docetaxel at 60, 70, and 75 mg/m(2), cisplatin at 70 mg/m(2) on day 1, and daily fluorouracil at 700 mg/m(2) on days 1 through 5. The recommended dose of docetaxel was determined in phase I, while the response rate (RR) and progression-free survival rates were analyzed in phase II. RESULTS: The recommended dose was determined to be 70 mg/m(2) in phase I. In phase II, the RR was 72.5%. Interim analysis showed median and 1-year progression-free survival of 14 months and 55.6%, respectively. Grade 3/4 toxicities of leukopenia and neutropenia occurred in 72.5 and 90% of patients, respectively. No treatment-related death was recorded. Surgical resection was subsequently performed in 20 patients after chemotherapy, and curative resection was achieved in 19. CONCLUSION: DCF was tolerable and effective for advanced and recurrent ESCC. Such findings might encourage a change in the treatment strategy for ESCC.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/secundário , Neoplasias Esofágicas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Esofágicas/patologia , Adulto , Idoso , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Cisplatino/administração & dosagem , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Docetaxel , Esquema de Medicação , Feminino , Fluoruracila/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Hepáticas/secundário , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/secundário , Metástase Linfática , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva , Taxoides/administração & dosagem , Resultado do Tratamento
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