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1.
Oxid Med Cell Longev ; 2020: 3579143, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32190171

RESUMO

There is a distinct increase in the risk of heart disease in people exposed to ionizing radiation (IR). Radiation-induced heart disease (RIHD) is one of the adverse side effects when people are exposed to ionizing radiation. IR may come from various forms, such as diagnostic imaging, radiotherapy for cancer treatment, nuclear disasters, and accidents. However, RIHD was mainly observed after radiotherapy for chest malignant tumors, especially left breast cancer. Radiation therapy (RT) has become one of the main ways to treat all kinds of cancer, which is used to reduce the recurrence of cancer and improve the survival rate of patients. The potential cause of radiation-induced cardiotoxicity is unclear, but it may be relevant to oxidative stress. Oxidative stress, an accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), disrupts intracellular homeostasis through chemical modification and damages proteins, lipids, and DNA; therefore, it results in a series of related pathophysiological changes. The purpose of this review was to summarise the studies of oxidative stress in radiotherapy-induced cardiotoxicity and provide prevention and treatment methods to reduce cardiac damage.

2.
Int J Cancer ; 2020 Mar 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32142166

RESUMO

Chronic inflammation plays an important role in primary liver cancer (PLC) etiology and can be influenced by dietary habits. No prospective study has investigated the association of dietary inflammatory index (DII) with PLC incidence and mortality. Therefore, we used prospective data from the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial to fill this gap. The DII was calculated from a validated 137-item food frequency questionnaire in a cohort of 103,902 individuals. Cox regression was used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) for PLC incidence, and competing risk regression was used to estimate subdistribution HRs (SHRs) for PLC mortality. Restricted cubic spline regression was employed to identify the potential dose-response pattern. A total of 120 PLC cases and 102 PLC deaths were observed during follow-up. Higher DII scores from food and supplement were found to be associated with higher risks of developing PLC (HRTertile 3 vs. 1 2.05; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.23-3.41) and death from this disease (SHRTertile 3 vs. 1 1.97; 95% CI 1.13-3.41). Similar results were obtained for DII score from food only. A nonlinear dose-response pattern was identified for the aforementioned associations (all pnonlinearity < 0.05). Overall, a more pro-inflammatory diet, as suggested by higher DII scores, is associated with higher risks of PLC incidence and mortality. These findings indicate that encouraging intake of more anti-inflammatory dietary components and reducing intake of pro-inflammatory components represent an attractive strategy to reduce PLC incidence and mortality.

3.
Mikrochim Acta ; 187(4): 216, 2020 03 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32162013

RESUMO

An integrated electrochemical immunoassay is described for the determination of circulating tumor cells (CTCs). For the first time, Ketjen black (KB), which is a superconductive carbon material, was incorporated with Au nanoparticles (AuNPs) and used to modify the surface of gold electrodes. A cocktail of anti-epithelial cell adhesion molecules (EpCAM) and anti-vimentin antibodies was chosen to capture the CTCs. Palladium-iridium-boron-phosphorus alloy-modified mesoporous nanospheres (PdIrBPMNS) served as a catalytic tag to amplify the current signal. Glycine-HCl (Gly-HCl) was used as an antibody eluent to release and collect the captured CTCs from the electrodes for further clinical research without compromising cell viability. The response of the method increased linearly from 10 to 1 × 106 cells mL-1 CTCs, while the detection limit was calculated to be as low as 2 cells mL-1. This method was successfully used to determine CTCs in spiked blood samples and demonstrated good recovery. Graphical abstractKetjen black/AuNPs was incorporated in the electrochemical platform to enhance the electron transfer ability of the electrode surface. PdIrBP mesoporous nanospheres were used to amplify DPV signal in this assay. The introduction of Gly-HCl realized nondestructive recovery of circulating tumor cells.

4.
Langmuir ; 2020 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32212611

RESUMO

Scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) was utilized to disclose four novel core-modified rubyrin self-assembly behaviors on highly-oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) surface, of which N2S4-OR(1)/N2Se4-OR(2) had no phenanthrene pyrrole ring and N2S4-OR(3)/N2Se4-OR(4) had phenanthrene fused pyrrole rings and meso-aryl substituents. It was discovered that the core-modified rubyrin could self-assemble into either face-on or edge-on monolayer structures selectively at the liquid/HOPG interface in different solvents. There was an obvious solvent-dependent self-assembly for N2S4-OR(3)/N2Se4-OR(4) which adopted an edge-on and face-on structure in 1-phenyloctane and 1-heptanoic acid solvents respectively, whereas N2S4-OR(1)/N2Se4-OR(2) showed no obvious difference in the assembly structure which both adopted a face-on structure in the two solvents. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations were also utilized to reveal the relevant self-assembly mechanisms. This study shows a typical solvent effect regulating core-modified rubyrin self-assembly which is essential for porphyrin-based functional devices' design and manufacture.

5.
Oral Oncol ; 104: 104616, 2020 Mar 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32151994

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Characterisation of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILS) population for cancer prognostication has enabled deeper understanding of tumor immune interactions in cancer immunology. We aim to examine the significance of both the density and functional status of NK cells in a cohort of Epstein Barr Virus (EBV) associated Nasopharyngeal Cancer (NPC) patients. METHODS: NK TILS of 50 NPC samples were quantified on immunohistochemistry and the density of NK TILS was correlated with clinical outcomes. Next, NK cells and a panel of cytokines of 10 newly diagnosed NPC patients were characterized in both NPC tissue and peripheral circulation. Exhausted NK cells were identified using co-expression of PD-1 and/or Tim-3. Comparison of percentage of NK cells in NPC and healthy controls was performed using student t-test for two groups; and a p value of less than 0.05 values was considered significant. RESULTS: NK TILS exhibited a bimodal distribution; with the NKhigh cohort demonstrating a poorer 2-year overall survival rate (p < 0.035). In-vitro studies revealed a higher proportion of infiltrated NK cells in the NKhigh cohort co-expressed PD-1. Additionally, IL-18 levels in NPC tissue were significantly higher than in healthy nasopharynx; and IL-18 alone induced PD-1 expression on NK cells. Expectedly, plasma IL-18 concentration and percentage of circulating PD-1-expressing NK cells were similar among NPC patients and healthy controls. CONCLUSION: The cytotoxic function of NK TILS is mitigated by an elevated IL-18 levels within the NPC microenvironment. Hence, the functional status, and the density of NK cells in TILS should be considered when prognosticating NPC.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32003973

RESUMO

As the hostless nature of the conventional Li anodes with planar surfaces inevitably causes volume expansion and parasitic dendrite growth, it is essential to develop a composite electrode structure with improved Li plating/stripping behaviors to mitigate such issues. Herein, a composite Li@NF anode was successfully fabricated through lithium perfusion into the commercial nickel foam (NF) decorated with lithiophilic NiO nanosheets, demonstrating an exceptionally high areal Li loading of 53.2 mg cm-2 with suppressed Li dendrite formation and volume expansion, improved Coulombic efficiency, as well as extended cycling stability in all half, symmetric, and full cell tests. More importantly, density functional theory calculations and control studies with Fe2O3@NF, pristine NF, and Cu2O@CF reveal a linear correlation between the thermodynamics of the surface reactions and the lithiophilicity of the reaction products, attesting to a redox-driven Li perfusion process. Further, through ex situ scanning electron and in situ optical microscopy, the enhanced performance of Li@NF is mainly attributed to the mediation of Li plating/stripping through homogenizing the Li+ flux, decentralizing local charge density, and accommodating multidirectional Li deposition by the conductive 3D scaffolds. Consequently, this study offers important insights into the driving of thermal Li perfusion through appropriate material and surface design for achieving safe and stable lithium metal anodes.

7.
J Hazard Mater ; 388: 121774, 2020 04 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32001102

RESUMO

While increasing evidence has shown that prenatal bisphenol A (BPA) exposure is adversely associated with child neurodevelopment, little is known about the neurodevelopmental effects of BPA alternatives, such as bisphenol S (BPS) and bisphenol F (BPF). We aimed to evaluate the relationships of repeated measurements of bisphenol exposure during pregnancy with child neurodevelopment. From 2014-2015, 456 mother-child pairs were included in the present study. Each had a spot urine sample in the first, second, and third trimester, respectively, during pregnancy for BPA, BPS, and BPF measurements. Children's neurodevelopment was assessed using the Bayley Scales of Infant Development at 2 years. In adjusted models, children's psychomotor development index scores decreased across quartiles of BPS concentrations [-5.52 (95 % CI: -10.06, -0.99) in the 4th quartile vs. 1 st quartile, P-trend = 0.01]. Each 10-fold increase in BPA concentrations was related to lower mental development index scores only in the second trimester [-2.87 (95 % CI: -4.98, -0.75), Ptrimester-int = 0.04]. However, prenatal BPF exposure was not significantly associated with child neurodevelopment. We provide evidence that prenatal exposure to BPA and BPS may affect child neurodevelopment.

8.
Int J Cancer ; 2020 Feb 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32105342

RESUMO

Epidemiological studies on magnesium intake and primary liver cancer (PLC) are scarce, and no prospective studies have examined the associations of magnesium intake with PLC incidence and mortality. We sought to clarify whether higher magnesium intake from diet and supplements was associated with lower risks of PLC incidence and mortality in the US population. Magnesium intake from diet and supplements was evaluated through a food frequency questionnaire in a cohort of 104,025 participants. Cox regression was employed to calculate hazard ratios for PLC incidence and competing risk regression was employed to calculate subdistribution hazard ratios for PLC mortality. Restricted cubic spline regression was employed to test nonlinearity. We documented 116 PLC cases during 1,193,513.5 person-years of follow-up and 100 PLC deaths during 1,198,021.3 person-years of follow-up. Total (diet + supplements) magnesium intake was found to be inversely associated with risks of PLC incidence (hazard ratiotertile 3 vs. 1 : 0.44; 95% confidence interval: 0.24, 0.80; ptrend = 0.0065) and mortality (subdistribution hazard ratiotertile 3 vs. 1 : 0.37; 95% confidence interval: 0.19, 0.71; ptrend = 0.0008). Similar results were obtained for dietary magnesium intake. Nonlinear inverse dose-response associations with PLC incidence and mortality were observed for both total and dietary magnesium intakes (all pnonlinearity < 0.05). In summary, in the US population, a high magnesium intake is associated with decreased risks of PLC incidence and mortality in a nonlinear dose-response manner. These findings support that increasing the consumption of foods rich in magnesium may be beneficial in reducing PLC incidence and mortality.

9.
Orthop Surg ; 2020 Feb 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32087620

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is one of the most universal and effective means for treating terminal stage osteoarthritis (OA) of knee. Accurate intramedullary guide of femur is the basis for the distal femoral cuts. Determining the surgical transepicondylar axis (sTEA) is the key to reconstruction of the femoral rotational alignment, because the correct rotational alignment can place the femoral component in the right position, balance the flexion gap so that the inner and outer tension is equal, get stability during the flexion process of the knee, and enhance the quality of life of patients. With the development of three-dimensional printing (3DP) technology in the medical domain, the application of patient-specific instrumentation (PSI) in arthroplasty has become more common. The aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of a novel 3D-printed patient-specific intramedullary guide to control femoral component rotation in TKA. METHODS: Eighty patients (65 females and 15 males) with knee OA were included in this prospective randomized study. The patients were divided into two groups by random number table method, 40 in each group. TKA assisted by PSI (PSI group) and conventional TKA (conventional group) was performed respectively. Clinical outcomes [operation time, postoperative drainage volume, duration of drainage, Hospital for Special Surgery knee score (HSS), American Knee Society knee score (AKS)] and radiological outcomes [hip-knee-ankle angle (HKA), posterior condylar angle (PCA), patella transverse axis-femoral transepicondylar axis angle (PFA), depth of intramedullary guide] were compared between and within the two groups. RESULTS: PSI group had less postoperative drainage volume but longer operation time than the conventional group (P < 0.05). The AKS and HSS scores after surgery were improved compared with those before surgery in each group (P < 0.05). However, there was no significant difference in the duration of drainage and range of motion (ROM) after surgery between the two groups. For the radiological results, the HKA and PFA were improved after surgery in both groups (P < 0.05).The postoperative PFA and PCA of the PSI group were closer to 0°, which was better than that of the conventional group (P < 0.05). The depth of intramedullary guide in the PSI group was less than the conventional group (P < 0.05). But there was no significant difference in HKA before and after surgery between the two groups as well as the preoperative PFA. CONCLUSION: The short-term clinical efficacy of TKA assisted by PSI was similar to the conventional TKA. Although TKA assisted by PSI spent more time during operation, it could assist in intramedullary guide and align femoral rotation more accurately.

10.
Biomed Res Int ; 2020: 1710452, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31998781

RESUMO

Background: This study aims to investigate the coronary microcirculatory resistance and prognosis of patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) concomitant with hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy) after an elective percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Methods: A total of 101 patients that underwent elective PCI between May 2015 and July 2018 due to AMI were consecutively enrolled in this study. Patients were divided into a HHcy group (53) and a normal Hcy group (control; 48) based on their plasma homocysteine concentration. The characteristics of coronary angiography, the index of microcirculatory resistance (IMR) of infarct-related vessels (IRV), changes in left ventricular end diastolic diameter (LVEDd) and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) before and after PCI, and the incidence of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) three months after PCI were compared between these groups. Results: Compared to the results from the Hcy group, the HHcy group had a higher IMR. The HHcy group had significantly higher LVEDd and a lower LVEF than the Hcy group 3 months after PCI. Additionally, the incidence of MACE at three months after PCI was higher in the HHcy group than in the Hcy group. Pearson correlation analysis revealed a positive correlation with IMR in the HHcy group. Furthermore, there was a difference in the LVEDd measured at one day after PCI and at three months after PCI in the HHcy group. Conclusion: AMI patients concomitant with HHcy that undergo elective PCI are prone to coronary microcirculatory dysfunction and have a poor cardiac function and poor prognosis at three months after PCI.

11.
Abdom Radiol (NY) ; 45(3): 851-864, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31897684

RESUMO

Obstructive azoospermia (OA) is caused by excurrent duct obstruction, which can occur anywhere along the course of the male reproductive tract and is classically characterized by normal spermatogenesis. To be familiar with the imaging anatomy of normal and abnormal male genital ducts is essential to the diagnosis of OA. In some circumstances, OA can also be related to some specific syndromes; thus, making an accurate diagnosis may require an integral view of the whole abdomen and pelvis. MR is a great complementary imaging modality either for the detection of obstructive factors, especially for characterization of those indeterminate features on ultrasound, or for the identification of specific syndromes related to OA. In this article, a series of patients with OA caused by different kinds of lesions in and out of the pelvic cavity (abdomen) shown on MR imaging were included, and some cases of specific syndromes related to OA were also reviewed.

12.
Eur J Public Health ; 2020 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31965163

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It has been reported that current smoking, overweight/obesity and physical inactivity are significant modifiable risk factors of all-cause mortality, cardiovascular disease and cancer. However, the effects of age, period and cohort on the prevalence of the three lifestyle factors among Australian adults are still unclear. METHODS: Our study analysed data from 2004 to 2005, 2007 to 2008, 2011 to 2012, 2014 to 2015 and 2017 to 2018 National Health Survey. We employed the age-period-cohort models to analyze the individual effects of age, period and cohort on the prevalence of current smoking, overweight/obesity and physical inactivity among Australian adults. RESULTS: A total of 76 489 adults were included. Age, period and cohort all showed significant independent effects on prevalence of current smoking, overweight/obesity and physical inactivity (P < 0.01) except the cohort effect on physical inactivity in females (P = 0.31). The prevalence of current smoking decreased with age and period, and it first increased with birth cohort and then declined. For overweight/obesity prevalence, it increased with age until early-60s and then dropped. We found a positive period effect on overweight/obesity; however, the prevalence of overweight/obesity experienced several shifts with birth cohort. Physical activity prevalence raised with age, and it has several fluctuations for curves of period and cohort. CONCLUSION: Age effects showed a distinct pattern for the prevalence of the three lifestyle factors. The prevalence of overweight/obesity continued to rise during the study period. The raised physical inactivity prevalence in recent study cycles is also concerning. Recent birth cohorts may be at increased risk of overweight/obesity and physical inactivity.

13.
Cancer Biol Ther ; 21(2): 189-196, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31684807

RESUMO

The combination of some parameters, including the neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR), platelet to lymphocyte ratio (PLR), lymphocyte to monocyte ratio (LMR) and neutrophil to monocyte ratio (NMR), which are associated with patient prognosis, our goal is to find the best indicator to predict the efficacy of neoadjuvant chemotherapy(NAC)in breast cancer patients. A cohort of 808 breast cancer patients treated with NAC and subsequent surgery was analyzed retrospectively. In addition, 2424 people without breast cancer served as the normal group, which included three-fold more individuals compared with the breast cancer group. Receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curves were used to determine the optimal cutoff values of inflammatory markers and compare their predictive capacity. No significant differences in age, PLR, LMR and NMR were noted between the normal group and the patient group. However, the mean value of the NLR was significantly increased in breast cancer patients (2.28) compared with the normal population (2.04) (P < .05). The LMR was significantly associated with age (P = .003), menopausal status (P = .004), cT category (P = .017), cN category (P = .024) and response to NAC (P = .001). The multivariate analysis indicated that among these inflammatory markers, the LMR (6.1 < vs ≥ 6.1) was the only independent predictive factor for the efficacy of NAC (OR = 1.771, 95% CI = 1.273-2.464, P = .001). A low LMR is considered a favorable predicative factor of the efficacy of NAC in breast cancer patients.

14.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 59(1): 286-294, 2020 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31638312

RESUMO

Reversible oxygen conversion is important for various green energy technologies. Herein we synthesize a series of bimetallic coordination polymers by varying the Ni/Co ratio and using HITP (HITP=2,3,6,7,10,11-hexaiminotriphenylene) as the ligand, to interrogate the role of metal centres in modulating the activity of the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). Co3 HITP2 and Ni3 HITP2 are compared. Unpaired 3d electrons in Co3 HITP2 result in less coplanarity but more radical character. Thus, despite of a reduced crystallinity and conductivity, the best ORR activity, comparable to 20 % Pt/C, is obtained for Co3 HITP2 , showing the 3d orbital configuration of the metal centre promotes ORR. Experimental and DFT studies show a transition of ORR pathway from four-electron for Co3 HITP2 to two-electron for Ni3 HITP2 . Rechargeable zinc-air batteries using Co3 HITP2 as the air cathode catalyst demonstrate excellent energy efficiency and stability.

15.
Curr Microbiol ; 77(1): 1-10, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31624868

RESUMO

Legumes interact with symbiotic rhizobia to produce nitrogen-fixation root nodules under nitrogen-limiting conditions. The contribution of glutathione (GSH) to this symbiosis and anti-oxidative damage was investigated using the M. huakuii gshB (encoding GSH synthetase) mutant. The gshB mutant grew poorly with different monosaccharides, including glucose, sucrose, fructose, maltose, or mannitol, as sole sources of carbon. The antioxidative capacity of gshB mutant was significantly decreased by these treatments with H2O2 under the lower concentrations and cumene hydroperoxide (CUOOH) under the higher concentrations, indicating that GSH plays different roles in response to organic peroxide and inorganic peroxide. The gshB mutant strain displayed no difference in catalase activity, but significantly lower levels of the peroxidase activity and the glutathione reductase activity than the wild type. The same level of catalase activity could be associated with upregulation of the transcriptional activity of the catalase genes under H2O2-induced conditions. The nodules infected by the gshB mutant were severely impaired in abnormal nodules, and showed a nodulation phenotype coupled to a 60% reduction in the nitrogen fixation capacity. A 20-fold decrease in the expression of two nitrogenase genes, nifH and nifD, is observed in the nodules induced by gshB mutant strain. The symbiotic deficiencies were linked to bacteroid early senescence.

16.
Clin Exp Metastasis ; 37(1): 145-158, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31541326

RESUMO

Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is considered to secrete various factors in order to promote peritoneal dissemination through cell-to-cell interaction between cancer and mesothelial cells. We previously revealed that TGF-ß secreted from EOC induces normal human peritoneal mesothelial cells (HPMCs) to differentiate into cancer-associated mesothelial cells (CAMCs). However, the relationship between tumor cells and CAMCs in EOC is still unclear. We hypothesized that CAMCs also secrete chemokines that attract cancer cells and induce peritoneal dissemination of EOC. We examined chemokines secreted from HPMCs and CAMCs by human chemokine array, and revealed that conditioned medium of CAMCs (CAMCs-CM) included many types of chemokines. The signals of CCL2 were the highest compared with other chemokines. The secretion and relative expression of CCL2 were significantly higher in CAMCs. Recombinant CCL2 promoted trans-mesothelial migration of HPMCs and the migration and invasion by EOC cells. In addition, CCL2 secreted from CAMCs promoted invasion of EOC cells. Furthermore, the neutralizing antibody of CCL2 reduced invasion by EOC. Clinical outcomes of patients whose tissue expressed higher CCR2 were significantly poorer than in patients whose tissue expression was lower. CCL2 activated the phosphorylation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). In addition, CAMCs-CM activated the p38 MAPK pathway. Phosphorylation of p38 MAPK reduced with the presence of neutralizing antibody of CCL2. In conclusion, these data indicate CCL2 in CAMCs-CM promoted the malignant potential of EOC. CCL2 plays a crucial role in the tumor microenvironment of EOC.

17.
Soft Matter ; 16(1): 54-63, 2020 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31712788

RESUMO

Supramolecular self-assembly behaviors on solid substrates have been widely investigated in the last few decades. Owing to the complexity of interfacial assembly systems, the precise regulation of supramolecular nanostructures is still challenging and waits to be solved. The supramolecular nanostructures are governed by non-covalent bonds, so they can be disrupted and influenced by an external environment. In this review, the dynamic supramolecular nanostructures that are mediated by external stimuli containing guest species, light irradiation, temperature and electric field are discussed in detail. The research studies mentioned in this article are all accomplished by STM, and the effects of these external stimuli on the assembled nanostructures have been elucidated exhaustively here.

19.
J Hazard Mater ; 381: 120916, 2020 01 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31387075

RESUMO

Toxic gases released from lithium-ion battery (LIB) fires pose a very large threat to human health, yet they are poorly studied, and the knowledge of LIB fire toxicity is limited. In this paper, the thermal and toxic hazards resulting from the thermally-induced failure of a 68 Ah pouch LIB are systematically investigated by means of the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and 1/2 ISO full scale test room. The LIBs with higher state of charge (SOC) are found to have greater fire risks in terms of their burning behavior, normalized heat release rate, and fire radiation, as well as the concentration of toxic gases. Specifically, the thermal hazards are evaluated by combining the effects of convective and radiative heat. The major toxic gases detected from the online analysis are CO, HF, SO2, NO2, NO and HCl. Furthermore, Fractional Effective Dose (FED) and Fractional Effective Concentration (FEC) models are used to quantitatively assess the overall gas toxicity. Results show that the effects of irritant gases are much more significant than those of asphyxiant gases. HF and SO2 have much greater toxicity than the other fire gases. The maximum FEC value is approaching the critical threshold in such fire scenarios.

20.
Front Genet ; 10: 1083, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31798623

RESUMO

Background: Nasal polyp (NP) is a chronic upper airway inflammatory disease that is frequently triggered by defective host-defense. However, the mechanisms underlying the impaired barrier function such as cilia-mediated mucociliary clearance remain poorly understood. Objective: To assess ciliary ultrastructural and ciliogenesis marker expression and the phenotypes of ciliated cells in NP. Methods: NP biopsy samples were obtained from 97 NP patients and inferior turbinate from 32 healthy controls. Immunofluorescence staining, quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and single-cell cytospin staining were performed. We classified the patterns of radial spoke head protein (RSPH) 1, 4A (RSPH4A), 9 (RSPH9), and dynein axonemal heavy chain 5 (DNAH5) localization. A semi-quantitative scoring system was developed to assess their expression patterns and associations with ciliogenesis markers [centrosomal protein 110 (CP110) and forkhead box j1 (FOXJ1)]. Results: Median scores of RSPH1, RSPH4A, RSPH9, and DNAH5 were significantly higher in NP than in healthy controls, particularly in eosinophilic NPs. Expression pattern scores of RSPH1, RSPH4A, RSPH9, and DNAH5 correlated positively with each other in both groups. In primary-cell specimens, abnormal expression patterns were significantly more common in NP. The total fluorescence intensity of CP110 and FOXJ1 was significantly higher in NPs and correlated positively with expression pattern scores of RSPH1, RSPH4A, RSPH9, and DNAH5. A trend towards lengthened cilia was observed in NP. Conclusion: In the chronic airway inflammatory milieu, the up-regulated ciliogenesis correlates with the abnormal expression of ciliary ultrastructural markers (i.e., DNAH5) in NP (particularly eosinophilic NP).

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