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1.
BMC Genomics ; 22(1): 76, 2021 Jan 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33482734

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Though interest in human simple sequence repeats (SSRs) is increasing, little is known about the exact distributional features of numerous SSRs in human Y-DNA at chromosomal level. Herein, totally 540 maps were established, which could clearly display SSR landscape in every bin of 1 k base pairs (Kbp) along the sequenced part of human reference Y-DNA (NC_000024.10), by our developed differential method for improving the existing method to reveal SSR distributional characteristics in large genomic sequences. RESULTS: The maps show that SSRs accumulate significantly with forming density peaks in at least 2040 bins of 1 Kbp, which involve different coding, noncoding and intergenic regions of the Y-DNA, and 10 especially high density peaks were reported to associate with biological significances, suggesting that the other hundreds of especially high density peaks might also be biologically significant and worth further analyzing. In contrast, the maps also show that SSRs are extremely sparse in at least 207 bins of 1 Kbp, including many noncoding and intergenic regions of the Y-DNA, which is inconsistent with the widely accepted view that SSRs are mostly rich in these regions, and these sparse distributions are possibly due to powerfully regional selection. Additionally, many regions harbor SSR clusters with same or similar motif in the Y-DNA. CONCLUSIONS: These 540 maps may provide the important information of clearly position-related SSR distributional features along the human reference Y-DNA for better understanding the genome structures of the Y-DNA. This study may contribute to further exploring the biological significance and distribution law of the huge numbers of SSRs in human Y-DNA.

2.
BMC Biol ; 19(1): 5, 2021 Jan 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33441133

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Viruses are ubiquitous biological entities, estimated to be the largest reservoirs of unexplored genetic diversity on Earth. Full functional characterization and annotation of newly discovered viruses requires tools to enable taxonomic assignment, the range of hosts, and biological properties of the virus. Here we focus on prokaryotic viruses, which include phages and archaeal viruses, and for which identifying the viral host is an essential step in characterizing the virus, as the virus relies on the host for survival. Currently, the method for determining the viral host is either to culture the virus, which is low-throughput, time-consuming, and expensive, or to computationally predict the viral hosts, which needs improvements at both accuracy and usability. Here we develop a Gaussian model to predict hosts for prokaryotic viruses with better performances than previous computational methods. RESULTS: We present here Prokaryotic virus Host Predictor (PHP), a software tool using a Gaussian model, to predict hosts for prokaryotic viruses using the differences of k-mer frequencies between viral and host genomic sequences as features. PHP gave a host prediction accuracy of 34% (genus level) on the VirHostMatcher benchmark dataset and a host prediction accuracy of 35% (genus level) on a new dataset containing 671 viruses and 60,105 prokaryotic genomes. The prediction accuracy exceeded that of two alignment-free methods (VirHostMatcher and WIsH, 28-34%, genus level). PHP also outperformed these two alignment-free methods much (24-38% vs 18-20%, genus level) when predicting hosts for prokaryotic viruses which cannot be predicted by the BLAST-based or the CRISPR-spacer-based methods alone. Requiring a minimal score for making predictions (thresholding) and taking the consensus of the top 30 predictions further improved the host prediction accuracy of PHP. CONCLUSIONS: The Prokaryotic virus Host Predictor software tool provides an intuitive and user-friendly API for the Gaussian model described herein. This work will facilitate the rapid identification of hosts for newly identified prokaryotic viruses in metagenomic studies.

3.
Brief Bioinform ; 2020 Dec 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33313676

RESUMO

The genus Culicoides includes biting midges, some of which are vectors for viruses that cause diseases in humans and animals. Knowledge of the roles of Culicoides in viral ecology is inadequate. We collected ~300 000 samples of Culicoides and mosquitoes in 15 representative regions within Yunnan, China. Using mosquitoes as reference vectors, we designed a comparative virome strategy to study the viral composition, diversity, hosts and spatiotemporal distribution of Culicoides. A map of viromes in Culicoides and mosquitoes in Yunan province, China, was constructed. At the same locations, Culicoides and mosquitoes usually share a similar viral diversity. At least 10 important pathogenic viruses were detected from Culicoides. Many novel viruses were discovered, including 21 segmented viruses of Flaviviridae, 180 viruses of Monjiviricetes and 130 viruses of Bunyavirales. The findings demonstrate that Culicoides is an important part of viral ecology and should be studied and monitored for potentially emerging viruses.

4.
Brief Bioinform ; 2020 Dec 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33333556

RESUMO

African swine fever virus (ASFV) poses serious threats to the pig industry. The multigene family (MGF) proteins are extensively distributed in ASFVs and are generally classified into five families, including MGF-100, MGF-110, MGF-300, MGF-360 and MGF-505. Most MGF proteins, however, have not been well characterized and classified within each family. To bridge this gap, this study first classified MGF proteins into 31 groups based on protein sequence homology and network clustering. A web server for classifying MGF proteins was established and kept available for free at http://www.computationalbiology.cn/MGF/home.html. Results showed that MGF groups of the same family were most similar to each other and had conserved sequence motifs; the genetic diversity of MGF groups varied widely, mainly due to the occurrence of indels. In addition, the MGF proteins were predicted to have large structural and functional diversity, and MGF proteins of the same MGF family tended to have similar structure, location and function. Reconstruction of the ancestral states of MGF groups along the ASFV phylogeny showed that most MGF groups experienced either the copy number variations or the gain-or-loss changes, and most of these changes happened within strains of the same genotype. It is found that the copy number decrease and the loss of MGF groups were much larger than the copy number increase and the gain of MGF groups, respectively, suggesting the ASFV tended to lose MGF proteins in the evolution. Overall, the work provides a detailed classification for MGF proteins and would facilitate further research on MGF proteins.

5.
Brief Bioinform ; 2020 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33126244

RESUMO

Accessory proteins play important roles in the interaction between coronaviruses and their hosts. Accordingly, a comprehensive study of the compositional diversity and evolutionary patterns of accessory proteins is critical to understanding the host adaptation and epidemic variation of coronaviruses. Here, we developed a standardized genome annotation tool for coronavirus (CoroAnnoter) by combining open reading frame prediction, transcription regulatory sequence recognition and homologous alignment. Using CoroAnnoter, we annotated 39 representative coronavirus strains to form a compositional profile for all of the accessary proteins. Large variations were observed in the number of accessory proteins of 1-10 for different coronaviruses, with SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV having the most (9 and 10, respectively). The variation between SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 accessory proteins could be traced back to related coronaviruses in other hosts. The genomic distribution of accessory proteins had significant intra-genus conservation and inter-genus diversity and could be grouped into 1, 4, 2 and 1 types for alpha-, beta-, gamma-, and delta-coronaviruses, respectively. Evolutionary analysis suggested that accessory proteins are more conservative locating before the N-terminal of proteins E and M (E-M), while they are more diverse after these proteins. Furthermore, comparison of virus-host interaction networks of SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV accessory proteins showed that they share multiple antiviral signaling pathways, those involved in the apoptotic process, viral life cycle and response to oxidative stress. In summary, our study provides a tool for coronavirus genome annotation and builds a comprehensive profile for coronavirus accessory proteins covering their composition, classification, evolutionary pattern and host interaction.

6.
Mol Plant ; 13(10): 1434-1454, 2020 10 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32896643

RESUMO

The molecular mechanism by which plants defend against plant root-knot nematodes (RKNs) is largely unknown. The plant receptor kinase FERONIA and its peptide ligands, rapid alkalinization factors (RALFs), regulate plant immune responses and cell expansion, which are two important factors for successful RKN parasitism. In this study, we found that mutation of FERONIA in Arabidopsis thaliana resulted in plants showing low susceptibility to the RKN Meloidogyne incognita. To identify the underlying mechanisms associated with this phenomenon, we identified 18 novel RALF-likes from multiple species of RKNs and showed that two RALF-likes (i.e., MiRALF1 and MiRALF3) from M. incognita were expressed in the esophageal gland with high expression during the parasitic stages of nematode development. These nematode RALF-likes also possess the typical activities of plant RALFs and can directly bind to the extracellular domain of FERONIA to modulate specific steps of nematode parasitism-related immune responses and cell expansion. Genetically, both MiRALF1/3 and FERONIA are required for RKN parasitism in Arabidopsis and rice. Collectively, our study suggests that nematode-encoded RALFs facilitate parasitism via plant-encoded FERONIA and provides a novel paradigm for studying host-pathogen interactions.

7.
Virol Sin ; 2020 Jul 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32725480

RESUMO

The virus receptors are key for the viral infection of host cells. Identification of the virus receptors is still challenging at present. Our previous study has shown that human virus receptor proteins have some unique features including high N-glycosylation level, high number of interaction partners and high expression level. Here, a random-forest model was built to identify human virus receptorome from human cell membrane proteins with an accepted accuracy based on the combination of the unique features of human virus receptors and protein sequences. A total of 1424 human cell membrane proteins were predicted to constitute the receptorome of the human-infecting virome. In addition, the combination of the random-forest model with protein-protein interactions between human and viruses predicted in previous studies enabled further prediction of the receptors for 693 human-infecting viruses, such as the enterovirus, norovirus and West Nile virus. Finally, the candidate alternative receptors of the SARS-CoV-2 were also predicted in this study. As far as we know, this study is the first attempt to predict the receptorome for the human-infecting virome and would greatly facilitate the identification of the receptors for viruses.

8.
bioRxiv ; 2020 Mar 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32511312

RESUMO

Background: The 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV or SARS-CoV-2) has spread more rapidly than any other betacoronavirus including SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV. However, the mechanisms responsible for infection and molecular evolution of this virus remained unclear. Methods: We collected and analyzed 120 genomic sequences of 2019-nCoV including 11 novel genomes from patients in China. Through comprehensive analysis of the available genome sequences of 2019-nCoV strains, we have tracked multiple inheritable SNPs and determined the evolution of 2019-nCoV relative to other coronaviruses. Results: Systematic analysis of 120 genomic sequences of 2019-nCoV revealed co-circulation of two genetic subgroups with distinct SNPs markers, which can be used to trace the 2019-nCoV spreading pathways to different regions and countries. Although 2019-nCoV, human and bat SARS-CoV share high homologous in overall genome structures, they evolved into two distinct groups with different receptor entry specificities through potential recombination in the receptor binding regions. In addition, 2019-nCoV has a unique four amino acid insertion between S1 and S2 domains of the spike protein, which created a potential furin or TMPRSS2 cleavage site. Conclusions: Our studies provided comprehensive insights into the evolution and spread of the 2019-nCoV. Our results provided evidence suggesting that 2019-nCoV may increase its infectivity through the receptor binding domain recombination and a cleavage site insertion. One Sentence Summary: Novel 2019-nCoV sequences revealed the evolution and specificity of betacoronavirus with possible mechanisms of enhanced infectivity.

9.
Brief Bioinform ; 2020 Apr 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32349124

RESUMO

Circular RNAs (circRNAs) are covalently closed long noncoding RNAs critical in diverse cellular activities and multiple human diseases. Several cancer-related viral circRNAs have been identified in double-stranded DNA viruses (dsDNA), yet no systematic study about the viral circRNAs has been reported. Herein, we have performed a systematic survey of 11 924 circRNAs from 23 viral species by computational prediction of viral circRNAs from viral-infection-related RNA sequencing data. Besides the dsDNA viruses, our study has also revealed lots of circRNAs in single-stranded RNA viruses and retro-transcribing viruses, such as the Zika virus, the Influenza A virus, the Zaire ebolavirus, and the Human immunodeficiency virus 1. Most viral circRNAs had reverse complementary sequences or repeated sequences at the flanking sequences of the back-splice sites. Most viral circRNAs only expressed in a specific cell line or tissue in a specific species. Functional enrichment analysis indicated that the viral circRNAs from dsDNA viruses were involved in KEGG pathways associated with cancer. All viral circRNAs presented in the current study were stored and organized in VirusCircBase, which is freely available at http://www.computationalbiology.cn/ViruscircBase/home.html and is the first virus circRNA database. VirusCircBase forms the fundamental atlas for the further exploration and investigation of viral circRNAs in the context of public health.

10.
PeerJ ; 8: e8855, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32274268

RESUMO

The African swine fever virus (ASFV) has severely influenced the swine industry of the world. Unfortunately, there is currently no effective antiviral drug or vaccine against the virus. Identification of new anti-ASFV drugs is urgently needed. Here, an up-to-date set of protein-protein interactions between ASFV and swine were curated by integration of protein-protein interactions from multiple sources. Thirty-eight swine proteins were observed to interact with ASFVs and were defined as ASFV-interacting swine proteins. The ASFV-interacting swine proteins were found to play a central role in the swine protein-protein interaction network, with significant larger degree, betweenness and smaller shortest path length than other swine proteins. Some of ASFV-interacting swine proteins also interacted with several other viruses and could be taken as potential targets of drugs for broad-spectrum effect, such as HSP90AB1. Finally, the antiviral drugs which targeted ASFV-interacting swine proteins and ASFV proteins were predicted. Several drugs with either broad-spectrum effect or high specificity on ASFV-interacting swine proteins were identified, such as Polaprezinc and Geldanamycin. Structural modeling and molecular dynamics simulation showed that Geldanamycin could bind with swine HSP90AB1 stably. This work could not only deepen our understanding towards the ASFV-swine interactions, but also help for the development of effective antiviral drugs against the ASFVs.

11.
Bioinformatics ; 36(10): 3251-3253, 2020 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32049310

RESUMO

MOTIVATION: Newly emerging influenza viruses keep challenging global public health. To evaluate the potential risk of the viruses, it is critical to rapidly determine the phenotypes of the viruses, including the antigenicity, host, virulence and drug resistance. RESULTS: Here, we built FluPhenotype, a one-stop platform to rapidly determinate the phenotypes of the influenza A viruses. The input of FluPhenotype is the complete or partial genomic/protein sequences of the influenza A viruses. The output presents five types of information about the viruses: (i) sequence annotation including the gene and protein names as well as the open reading frames, (ii) potential hosts and human-adaptation-associated amino acid markers, (iii) antigenic and genetic relationships with the vaccine strains of different HA subtypes, (iv) mammalian virulence-related amino acid markers and (v) drug resistance-related amino acid markers. FluPhenotype will be a useful bioinformatic tool for surveillance and early warnings of the newly emerging influenza A viruses. AVAILABILITY AND IMPLEMENTATION: It is publicly available from: http://www.computationalbiology.cn : 18888/IVEW. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.


Assuntos
Vírus da Influenza A , Influenza Humana , Orthomyxoviridae , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Glicoproteínas de Hemaglutininação de Vírus da Influenza , Humanos , Vírus da Influenza A/genética
12.
Cell Host Microbe ; 27(3): 325-328, 2020 03 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32035028

RESUMO

An in-depth annotation of the newly discovered coronavirus (2019-nCoV) genome has revealed differences between 2019-nCoV and severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) or SARS-like coronaviruses. A systematic comparison identified 380 amino acid substitutions between these coronaviruses, which may have caused functional and pathogenic divergence of 2019-nCoV.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/classificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Genoma Viral , Filogenia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Substituição de Aminoácidos , China , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio , Pandemias , Vírus da SARS
13.
Bioinformatics ; 36(10): 2975-2979, 2020 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32096819

RESUMO

MOTIVATION: Receptors on host cells play a critical role in viral infection. How phages select receptors is still unknown. RESULTS: Here, we manually curated a high-quality database named phageReceptor, including 427 pairs of phage-host receptor interactions, 341 unique viral species or sub-species and 69 bacterial species. Sugars and proteins were most widely used by phages as receptors. The receptor usage of phages in Gram-positive bacteria was different from that in Gram-negative bacteria. Most protein receptors were located on the outer membrane. The phage protein receptors (PPRs) were highly diverse in their structures, and had little sequence identity and no common protein domain with mammalian virus receptors. Further functional characterization of PPRs in Escherichia coli showed that they had larger node degrees and betweennesses in the protein-protein interaction network, and higher expression levels, than other outer membrane proteins, plasma membrane proteins or other intracellular proteins. These findings were consistent with what observed for mammalian virus receptors reported in previous studies, suggesting that viral protein receptors tend to have multiple interaction partners and high expressions. The study deepens our understanding of virus-host interactions. AVAILABILITY AND IMPLEMENTATION: phageReceptor is publicly available from: http://www.computationalbiology.cn/phageReceptor/index.html. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.


Assuntos
Bacteriófagos , Receptores Virais , Animais , Bacteriófagos/genética , Escherichia coli , Proteínas de Membrana , Proteínas Virais
14.
Arch Virol ; 164(12): 3151-3155, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31616994

RESUMO

Astroviruses (AstVs) have a very wide range of hosts and are associated with enteric and extra-enteric disease in mammals and birds. Cross-species transmission of AstVs has been observed frequently. In the present study, the genome of a novel astrovirus from Amur tigers (Panthera tigris) from a zoo in China was characterized and was found to have the typical genomic features of other mammal AstVs. It showed the highest nucleotide sequence similarity (46.1-87.3% identity) to AstVs from cats, indicating a close phylogenetic relationship and possible cross-species transmission between them. To our knowledge, this is the first identification and characterization of AstV from tigers, and this virus is the third astrovirus identified in hosts of the family Felidae. The results of this study will be helpful for understanding the origin, genetic diversity, and cross-species transmission of AstV.


Assuntos
Animais de Zoológico/virologia , Infecções por Astroviridae/veterinária , Astroviridae/isolamento & purificação , Tigres/virologia , Animais , Astroviridae/classificação , Astroviridae/genética , Infecções por Astroviridae/virologia , Gatos , China , Fezes/virologia , Filogenia , Análise de Sequência de DNA
15.
J Virol ; 93(23)2019 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31534045

RESUMO

Type A and type B influenza viruses (FluA and FluB viruses) are two major human pathogens that share common structural and functional features. FluA and FluB viruses can reassort within each type but never between the types. Here, we bioinformatically analyzed all promoter sequences of FluA and FluB viruses and confirmed the presence of the type-specific promoter elements. We then studied the promoter elements with cell-based in vivo assays and an in vitro replication initiation assay. Our results identified, for the first time, a type-specific promoter element-the nucleotide at position 5 in the 3' end of the viral RNA (vRNA)-that plays a key role(s) in modulating polymerase activity in a type-specific manner. Interestingly, swapping the promoter element between FluA and FluB recombinant viruses showed different tolerances: the replacement of FluA virus-specific U5 with FluB virus-specific C5 in influenza virus A/WSN/33 (H1N1) could be reverted to U5 after 2 to 3 passages, while the replacement of FluB virus-specific C5 with FluA virus-specific U5 in influenza virus B/Yamagata/88 could be maintained, but with significantly reduced replication efficiency. Therefore, our findings indicate that the nucleotide variation at position 5 in the 3' end of the vRNA promoter between FluA and FluB viruses contributes to their RNP incompatibility, which may shed new light on the mechanisms of intertypic exclusion of reassortment between FluA and FluB viruses.IMPORTANCE Genetic reassortment of influenza virus plays a key role in virus evolution and the emergence of pandemic strains. The reassortment occurs extensively within either FluA or FluB viruses but never between them. Here, we bioinformatically compared available promoter sequences of FluA and FluB viruses and confirmed the presence of the type-specific promoter elements. Our in vivo and in vitro mutagenesis studies showed that a type-specific promoter element-the nucleotide at position 5 in the 3' end of vRNA promoters-plays key roles in modulating polymerase activity. Interestingly, FluA and FluB viruses showed different tolerances upon key promoter element swapping in the context of virus infections. We concluded that the nucleotide at position 5 in the 3' end of the vRNA promoters of FluA and FluB viruses is a critical type-specific determinant. This work has implications for further elucidating the mechanisms of the intertypic exclusion of reassortment between FluA and FluB viruses.


Assuntos
Vírus da Influenza A/genética , Vírus da Influenza A/isolamento & purificação , Vírus da Influenza B/genética , Vírus da Influenza B/isolamento & purificação , RNA Viral/genética , Sequência de Bases , Humanos , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1/genética , Influenza Humana/virologia , Mutação , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Proteínas Virais/genética , Replicação Viral
16.
Vet Microbiol ; 236: 108380, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31500735

RESUMO

The African swine fever virus (ASFV) has severely influenced the swine industry of the world. Currently, there is no effective vaccine or drugs against the ASFV. How to effectively control the virus is challenging. In this study, we have analyzed all the publicly available ASFV genomes and demonstrated that there was a large genetic diversity of ASFV genomes. Interestingly, the genetic diversity was mainly caused by extensive genomic insertions and/or deletions (indels) instead of the point mutations. Further analyses showed that the indels may be attributed much to the homologous recombination, as supported by significant associations between the occurrence of extensive recombination events and the indels in the ASFV genomes. Besides, the homologous recombination also led to changes of gene content of ASFVs. Finally, repeated elements of dozens of nucleotides in length were observed to widely distribute and cluster in the adjacent positions of ASFV genomes, which may facilitate the occurrence of homologous recombination. This work highlighted the importance of homologous recombination in shaping the genetic diversity of the ASFVs, and could help understand the evolution of the virus.


Assuntos
Vírus da Febre Suína Africana/genética , Variação Genética , Vírus Reordenados/genética , DNA Viral/genética , Genoma Viral
17.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 66(6): 2517-2522, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31373773

RESUMO

Viruses have caused much mortality and morbidity to humans and pose a serious threat to global public health. The virome with the potential of human infection is still far from complete. Novel viruses have been discovered at an unprecedented pace as the rapid development of viral metagenomics. However, there is still a lack of methodology for rapidly identifying novel viruses with the potential of human infection. This study built several machine learning models to discriminate human-infecting viruses from other viruses based on the frequency of k-mers in the viral genomic sequences. The k-nearest neighbor (KNN) model can predict the human-infecting viruses with an accuracy of over 90%. The performance of this KNN model built on the short contigs (≥1 kb) is comparable to those built on the viral genomes. We used a reported human blood virome to further validate this KNN model with an accuracy of over 80% based on very short raw reads (150 bp). Our work demonstrates a conceptual and generic protocol for the discovery of novel human-infecting viruses in viral metagenomics studies.


Assuntos
Genoma Viral , Vírus/genética , Animais , Sangue/virologia , Análise por Conglomerados , DNA Viral/sangue , Humanos , Aprendizado de Máquina , Metagenômica
18.
Mol Biol Evol ; 36(6): 1172-1186, 2019 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30851115

RESUMO

Seasonal influenza viruses undergo frequent mutations on their surface hemagglutinin (HA) proteins to escape the host immune response. In these mutations, a few key amino acid sites are associated with significant antigenic cluster transitions. To recognize the cluster-transition determining sites of seasonal influenza A/H3N2 and A/H1N1 viruses systematically and quickly, we developed a computational model named RECDS (recognition of cluster-transition determining sites) to evaluate the contribution of a specific amino acid site on the HA protein in the whole history of antigenic evolution. In RECDS, we ranked all of the HA sites by calculating the contribution scores derived from the forest of gradient boosting classifiers trained by various sequence- and structure-based features. With the RECDS model, we found out that the sites determining influenza antigenicity were mostly around the receptor-binding domain both for the influenza A/H3N2 and A/H1N1 viruses. Specifically, half of the cluster-transition determining sites of the influenza A/H1N1 virus were located in the vestigial esterase domain and basic path area on the HA, which indicated that the differential driving force of the antigenic evolution of the A/H1N1 virus refers to the A/H3N2 virus. Beyond that, the footprints of substitutions responsible for antigenic evolution were inferred according to the phylogenetic trees for the cluster-transition determining sites. The monitoring of genetic variation occurring at these cluster-transition determining sites in circulating influenza viruses on a large scale will potentially reduce current assay workloads in influenza surveillance and the selection of new influenza vaccine strains.


Assuntos
Antígenos Virais/genética , Evolução Molecular , Hemaglutininas/genética , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1/genética , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H3N2/genética , Algoritmos , Técnicas Genéticas , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1/imunologia , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H3N2/imunologia , Software
19.
Database (Oxford) ; 20192019 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30624654

RESUMO

High-throughput reporter assays have been recently developed to directly and quantitatively assess enhancer activity for thousands of regulatory elements. However, there is still no database to collect these enhancers. We developed RAEdb, the first database to collect enhancers identified by high-throughput reporter assays. RAEdb includes 538 320 enhancers derived from eight studies, most of which were from six human cell lines. An activity score was assigned to each enhancer based on reporter assays. Based on these enhancers, 7658 epromoters (promoters with enhancer activity) were identified and stored in the database. RAEdb provides two ways of searches: the first is to search studies by species and cell line; the other is to search enhancers or epromoters by position, activity score, sequence and gene. RAEdb also provides a genome browser to query, visualize and compare enhancers. All data in RAEdb is freely available for download.


Assuntos
Sistemas de Gerenciamento de Base de Dados , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Elementos Facilitadores Genéticos/genética , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , Humanos
20.
Bioinformatics ; 35(5): 723-728, 2019 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30102334

RESUMO

MOTIVATION: Receptor mediated entry is the first step for viral infection. However, the question of how viruses select receptors remains unanswered. RESULTS: Here, by manually curating a high-quality database of 268 pairs of mammalian virus-host receptor interaction, which included 128 unique viral species or sub-species and 119 virus receptors, we found the viral receptors are structurally and functionally diverse, yet they had several common features when compared to other cell membrane proteins: more protein domains, higher level of N-glycosylation, higher ratio of self-interaction and more interaction partners, and higher expression in most tissues of the host. This study could deepen our understanding of virus-receptor interaction. AVAILABILITY AND IMPLEMENTATION: The database of mammalian virus-host receptor interaction is available at http://www.computationalbiology.cn: 5000/viralReceptor. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.


Assuntos
Viroses , Animais , Glicosilação , Mamíferos , Proteínas de Membrana , Internalização do Vírus , Vírus
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