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1.
Med J Aust ; 211(6): 261-265, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31304600

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare rates of detectability of circulating Rh(D)-immunoglobulin (anti-D) at delivery with single and two-dose antenatal anti-D prophylaxis (RAADP) regimens; to compare compliance with the two regimens. DESIGN: Open label, randomised controlled trial between May 2013 and November 2015. SETTING, PARTICIPANTS: 277 women who attended a tertiary obstetric referral hospital in Perth for antenatal care and were at least 18 years of age, less than 30 weeks pregnant and yet to receive RAADP, Rh(D)-negative (negative antibody screen), and who intended to deliver their baby at the hospital. Exclusion criteria were prior anti-D sensitisation, any contraindication of anti-D administration, and a history of isolated IgA deficiency. INTERVENTIONS: One 1500 IU anti-D dose at 28 weeks of pregnancy (single dose regimen); two doses of 625 IU each at 28 and 34 weeks of pregnancy (two-dose regimen). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary outcome was the proportion of women with detectable anti-D levels at delivery; the secondary outcome was compliance with the allocated RAADP regimen. RESULTS: Circulating anti-D was detectable at delivery in a greater proportion of women in the two-dose group (111 of 129, 86%) than in the single dose group (70 of 125, 56%; P < 0.001). Compliance was not significantly different between the single dose (86 of 138, 61%) and two-dose groups (70 of 139, 50%; P = 0.06). CONCLUSIONS: The two-dose RAADP schedule currently recommended in Australia provides better protection against Rh(D) sensitisation than a one-dose regimen. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ACTRN12613000661774).

2.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 104(7): 3012-3024, 2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30785999

RESUMO

CONTEXT: "Accelerated aging," assessed by adult DNA methylation, predicts cardiovascular disease (CVD). Adolescent accelerated aging might predict CVD earlier. We investigated whether epigenetic age acceleration (assessed age, 17 years) was associated with adiposity/CVD risk measured (ages 17, 20, and 22 years) and projected CVD by middle age. DESIGN: DNA methylation measured in peripheral blood provided two estimates of epigenetic age acceleration: intrinsic (IEAA; preserved across cell types) and extrinsic (EEAA; dependent on cell admixture and methylation levels within each cell type). Adiposity was assessed by anthropometry, ultrasound, and dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (ages 17, 20, and 22 years). CVD risk factors [lipids, homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), blood pressure, inflammatory markers] were assessed at age 17 years. CVD development by age 47 years was calculated by Framingham algorithms. Results are presented as regression coefficients per 5-year epigenetic age acceleration (IEAA/EEAA) for adiposity, CVD risk factors, and CVD development. RESULTS: In 995 participants (49.6% female; age, 17.3 ± 0.6 years), EEAA (per 5 years) was associated with increased body mass index (BMI) of 2.4% (95% CI, 1.2% to 3.6%) and 2.4% (0.8% to 3.9%) at 17 and 22 years, respectively. EEAA was associated with increases of 23% (3% to 33%) in high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, 10% (4% to 17%) in interferon-γ-inducible protein of 10 kDa, and 4% (2% to 6%) in soluble TNF receptor 2, adjusted for BMI and HOMA-IR. EEAA (per 5 years) results in a 4% increase in hard endpoints of CVD by 47 years of age and a 3% increase, after adjustment for conventional risk factors. CONCLUSIONS: Accelerated epigenetic age in adolescence was associated with inflammation, BMI measured 5 years later, and probability of middle age CVD. Irrespective of whether this is cause or effect, assessing epigenetic age might refine disease prediction.

3.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 357, 2019 01 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30664637

RESUMO

Cranial growth and development is a complex process which affects the closely related traits of head circumference (HC) and intracranial volume (ICV). The underlying genetic influences shaping these traits during the transition from childhood to adulthood are little understood, but might include both age-specific genetic factors and low-frequency genetic variation. Here, we model the developmental genetic architecture of HC, showing this is genetically stable and correlated with genetic determinants of ICV. Investigating up to 46,000 children and adults of European descent, we identify association with final HC and/or final ICV + HC at 9 novel common and low-frequency loci, illustrating that genetic variation from a wide allele frequency spectrum contributes to cranial growth. The largest effects are reported for low-frequency variants within TP53, with 0.5 cm wider heads in increaser-allele carriers versus non-carriers during mid-childhood, suggesting a previously unrecognized role of TP53 transcripts in human cranial development.


Assuntos
Alelos , Loci Gênicos , Variação Genética , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Crânio/metabolismo , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Cefalometria , Criança , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Frequência do Gene , Genoma Humano , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Crânio/anatomia & histologia
4.
Int J Epidemiol ; 48(1): 45-57, 2019 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30541029

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Accumulating evidence suggests that breastfeeding benefits children's intelligence, possibly due to long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs) present in breast milk. Under a nutritional adequacy hypothesis, an interaction between breastfeeding and genetic variants associated with endogenous LC-PUFAs synthesis might be expected. However, the literature on this topic is controversial. METHODS: We investigated this gene × environment interaction through a collaborative effort. The primary analysis involved >12 000 individuals and used ever breastfeeding, FADS2 polymorphisms rs174575 and rs1535 coded assuming a recessive effect of the G allele, and intelligence quotient (IQ) in Z scores. RESULTS: There was no strong evidence of interaction, with pooled covariate-adjusted interaction coefficients (i.e. difference between genetic groups of the difference in IQ Z scores comparing ever with never breastfed individuals) of 0.12[(95% confidence interval (CI): -0.19; 0.43] and 0.06 (95% CI: -0.16; 0.27) for the rs174575 and rs1535 variants, respectively. Secondary analyses corroborated these results. In studies with ≥5.85 and <5.85 months of breastfeeding duration, pooled estimates for the rs174575 variant were 0.50 (95% CI: -0.06; 1.06) and 0.14 (95% CI: -0.10; 0.38), respectively, and 0.27 (95% CI: -0.28; 0.82) and -0.01 (95% CI: -0.19; 0.16) for the rs1535 variant. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings did not support an interaction between ever breastfeeding and FADS2 polymorphisms. However, subgroup analysis suggested that breastfeeding may supply LC-PUFAs requirements for cognitive development if breastfeeding lasts for some (currently unknown) time. Future studies in large individual-level datasets would allow properly powered subgroup analyses and further improve our understanding on the breastfeeding × FADS2 interaction.

5.
Med J Aust ; 209(9): 394-400, 2018 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30282563

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate prevalence rates and the risk of ante- and intrapartum stillbirth in Western Australia with respect to maternal country of birth and ethnic origin. DESIGN, SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Whole population retrospective cohort analysis of de-identified, linked routinely collected birth, perinatal and mortality data for all births to non-Indigenous women in WA during 2005-2013. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Crude and adjusted odds ratios (aORs) with 95% confidence intervals were estimated by logistic regression and adjusted for confounding factors, for all stillbirths, antepartum stillbirths and intrapartum stillbirths, stratified by migrant status and ethnic background (white, Asian, Indian, African, Maori, other). RESULTS: Women born overseas were more likely to have a stillbirth than Australian-born women (aOR, 1.26; 95% CI, 1.09-1.37). There was no significant difference for any type of stillbirth between Australian-born women of white and non-white backgrounds, but non-white migrant women were more likely than white migrants to have a stillbirth (OR, 1.42; 95% CI, 1.19-1.70). Compared with Australian-born women, migrants of Indian (aOR, 1.71; 95% CI, 1.17-2.47), African (aOR, 2.12; 95% CI, 1.46-3.08), and "other" ethnic origins (aOR, 1.43; 95% CI, 1.06-1.93) were more likely to have antepartum stillbirths; women of African (aOR, 5.08; 95% CI, 3.14-8.22) and "other" (aOR, 1.86; 95% CI, 1.15-3.00) background were more likely to have an intrapartum stillbirth. CONCLUSIONS: Immigrants of African or Indian background appear to be at greater risk of ante- and intrapartum stillbirth in WA. Specific strategies are needed reduce the prevalence of stillbirth in these communities.

6.
Mol Psychiatry ; 2018 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29988085

RESUMO

Macronutrient intake, the proportion of calories consumed from carbohydrate, fat, and protein, is an important risk factor for metabolic diseases with significant familial aggregation. Previous studies have identified two genetic loci for macronutrient intake, but incomplete coverage of genetic variation and modest sample sizes have hindered the discovery of additional loci. Here, we expanded the genetic landscape of macronutrient intake, identifying 12 suggestively significant loci (P < 1 × 10-6) associated with intake of any macronutrient in 91,114 European ancestry participants. Four loci replicated and reached genome-wide significance in a combined meta-analysis including 123,659 European descent participants, unraveling two novel loci; a common variant in RARB locus for carbohydrate intake and a rare variant in DRAM1 locus for protein intake, and corroborating earlier FGF21 and FTO findings. In additional analysis of 144,770 participants from the UK Biobank, all identified associations from the two-stage analysis were confirmed except for DRAM1. Identified loci might have implications in brain and adipose tissue biology and have clinical impact in obesity-related phenotypes. Our findings provide new insight into biological functions related to macronutrient intake.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29922230

RESUMO

Phthalates are ubiquitous environmental endocrine-disrupting chemicals suspected to interfere with developmental androgen action leading to adverse effects on male reproductive function. Prenatal exposure studies in rodents show cryptorchidism, hypospadias and reduced testicular volume (TV), testosterone and anogenital distance in males. It is postulated that there is a developmental window in utero when phthalate exposure has the most potent adverse effects. Some human studies show associations between prenatal phthalate exposure and reduced calculated "free" serum testosterone in infant boys and shorter anogenital distance. However, there are no data available yet which link antenatal exposure to long-term effects in men. We aimed to correlate antenatal phthalate exposure with adult TV, semen parameters and serum reproductive hormone concentrations. 913 men from the Western Australian (Raine) Pregnancy Cohort were contacted aged 20-22 years. 423 (56%) agreed to participate; 404 underwent testicular ultrasound examination; 365 provided semen samples, and reproductive hormones were measured in 384. Maternal antenatal serum phthalate metabolite measurements were available for 185 and 111 men, who provided serum and semen, respectively. Maternal serum collected at 18 and 34 weeks gestation, stored at -80°C, was pooled and analyzed for 32 phthalate metabolites by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. TV was calculated, semen analysis performed by WHO approved methods, and serum concentrations of gonadotrophins, inhibin B, and testosterone measured. Eleven phthalate metabolites were detected. Primary and secondary metabolites of di-(2-ethyl-hexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and di-iso-nonyl phthalate (DiNP) were positively correlated. After correction for adult height, BMI, presence of a varicocele and exposure to maternal smoking mono-iso-nonyl phthalate (MiNP) (r = -0.22) and sums of DEHP and DiNP metabolites (r = -0.24) and the sum of the metabolites of the high molecular weight phthalates (r = -0.21) were negatively correlated with TV (all p < 0.05). After adjustment for BMI adult serum total testosterone was positively associated with exposure to the following antenatal serum phthalate metabolites: mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (r = 0.26), MiNP (r = 0.18), the sum of metabolites for DEHP (r = 0.21) and DiNP (r = 0.18), and the sum of high molecular phthalates (r = 0.20) (p = 0.0005 to p = 0.02). Given sample size, storage duration and confounding through postnatal exposures, further studies are required.

8.
J Child Psychol Psychiatry ; 59(12): 1323-1332, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29701247

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The neuropeptide and hormone oxytocin is known to have a significant impact on social cognition and behaviour in humans. There is growing concern regarding the influence of exogenous oxytocin (OT) administration in early life on later social and emotional development, including autism spectrum disorder (ASD). No study has examined offspring development in relation to the dose of exogenous oxytocin administered during labour. METHODS: Between 1989 and 1992, 2,900 mothers were recruited prior to the 18th week of pregnancy, delivering 2,868 live offspring. The Child Behaviour Checklist was used to measure offspring behavioural difficulties at ages 5, 8, 10, 14 and 17 years. Autism spectrum disorder was formally diagnosed by consensus of a team of specialists. At 20 years, offspring completed a measure of autistic-like traits, the Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ). Oxytocin exposure prior to birth was analysed using categorical and continuous approaches (maternal oxytocin dose) with univariate and multivariate statistical techniques. RESULTS: Categorical analyses of oxytocin exposure prior to birth demonstrated no group differences in any measures of child behaviour. A small in magnitude dose-response association was observed for clinically significant total behaviour symptoms (adjusted odds ratio 1.03; 95% CI: 1.01-1.06, p < .01). Exogenous oxytocin administration prior to birth was not associated with ASD (OR: 0.64; 95% CI: 0.15-2.12, p = .46) or high levels of autistic-like traits (p = .93), as assessed by the AQ. CONCLUSIONS: This study is the first to investigate longitudinal mental health outcomes associated with the use of oxytocin-based medications during labour. The results do not provide evidence to support the theory that exogenous OT has a clinically significant negative impact on the long-term mental health of children.

9.
Hum Mol Genet ; 27(11): 2025-2038, 2018 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29659830

RESUMO

The ratio of the length of the index finger to that of the ring finger (2D:4D) is sexually dimorphic and is commonly used as a non-invasive biomarker of prenatal androgen exposure. Most association studies of 2D:4D ratio with a diverse range of sex-specific traits have typically involved small sample sizes and have been difficult to replicate, raising questions around the utility and precise meaning of the measure. In the largest genome-wide association meta-analysis of 2D:4D ratio to date (N = 15 661, with replication N = 75 821), we identified 11 loci (9 novel) explaining 3.8% of the variance in mean 2D:4D ratio. We also found weak evidence for association (ß = 0.06; P = 0.02) between 2D:4D ratio and sensitivity to testosterone [length of the CAG microsatellite repeat in the androgen receptor (AR) gene] in females only. Furthermore, genetic variants associated with (adult) testosterone levels and/or sex hormone-binding globulin were not associated with 2D:4D ratio in our sample. Although we were unable to find strong evidence from our genetic study to support the hypothesis that 2D:4D ratio is a direct biomarker of prenatal exposure to androgens in healthy individuals, our findings do not explicitly exclude this possibility, and pathways involving testosterone may become apparent as the size of the discovery sample increases further. Our findings provide new insight into the underlying biology shaping 2D:4D variation in the general population.

10.
Reprod Biomed Online ; 36(3): 340-347, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29291929

RESUMO

Bisphenol A (BPA) is a ubiquitous chemical suspected to possess oestrogenic hormonal activities. Male population studies suggest a negative impact on testicular function. As Sertoli cell proliferation occurs during fetal or early postnatal life, it is speculated that oestrogenic environmental exposures may influence mature testicular function. Among 705 Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study men aged 20-22 years, 404 underwent testicular ultrasound examination (149 had maternal serum available), and/or 365 provided semen (136 had maternal serum) and/or 609 serum samples for sex steroids, gonadotrophins and inhibin B analysis (244 had maternal serum). Maternal serum collected at 18 and 34 weeks' gestation was pooled and assayed for concentrations of total BPA (free plus conjugated) as an estimate of antenatal exposure. Testicular volume was calculated by ultrasonography, and semen analysis performed. Serum LH, FSH and inhibin B were measured by immunoassay; testosterone, oestradiol, oestrone andBPA were measured by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. BPA levels were detectable in most (89%) maternal serum samples. After adjustment for maternal smoking, abstinence and varicocele, sperm concentration and motility were significantly correlated to maternal serum BPA (r = 0.18; P = 0.04 for both). No other associations of maternal serum BPA with testicular function were observed.


Assuntos
Compostos Benzidrílicos/farmacologia , Fertilidade , Depuradores de Radicais Livres/farmacologia , Hormônios Esteroides Gonadais/metabolismo , Exposição Materna , Fenóis/farmacologia , Motilidade Espermática/efeitos dos fármacos , Testículo/fisiologia , Adulto , Compostos Benzidrílicos/análise , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Fertilidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Depuradores de Radicais Livres/análise , Humanos , Masculino , Fenóis/análise , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal , Análise do Sêmen , Testículo/efeitos dos fármacos , Adulto Jovem
11.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 98(3): 797-799, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29363450

RESUMO

We report a case of placental infection leading to preterm delivery in a mother diagnosed with septicemia and pneumonia due to Burkholderia pseudomallei in pregnancy. Placental infection occurred despite prolonged ceftazidime therapy.

12.
Am J Reprod Immunol ; 79(3)2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29154465

RESUMO

Advances in reproductive medicine have significantly increased the success of fertility treatments. Nevertheless, some women experience recurrent implantation failure (RIF) after in-vitro fertilization (IVF) or recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL). Imbalances in the immune system and failure to achieve immune tolerance to the foetus have been implicated as potentially modifiable causes of idiopathic RIF and RPL. As such, women are increasingly being treated with immunomodulatory agents in an attempt to achieve a successful pregnancy. This systematic review examines the published evidence on immune changes in these patients, the use of immunomodulation therapies and diagnostic testing modalities to guide their use or to identify patient subsets most likely to benefit. The PubMed database was searched for the terms "recurrent implantation failure" and "recurrent pregnancy loss" in conjunction with T-helper (Th) cells and their subsets in particular; Th1, Th2, Th17 and T-regulatory (Treg) cells, natural killer (NK) cells, cytokine imbalance as well as immune modulators and immune suppressants. The reference lists of articles were examined to identify additional articles. There remains limited data on the immunological changes in cytokine and cellular profiles during the hormonal cycle as well as prior to, during and after implantation in health as well as idiopathic RIF and RPL. There is a need to advance immunological diagnostics to match the clinical need in this emerging field and to guide clinicians to make optimal and safe therapeutic choices. It is also imperative that the well-being of the infants conceived after such intervention is monitored.


Assuntos
Aborto Habitual/imunologia , Testes Imunológicos , Infertilidade/terapia , Células Matadoras Naturais/imunologia , Medicina Reprodutiva , Linfócitos T Reguladores/imunologia , Animais , Citocinas/metabolismo , Fertilização In Vitro , Humanos , Tolerância Imunológica , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/imunologia
13.
Hepatology ; 67(1): 108-122, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28665032

RESUMO

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a complex chronic liver disorder. Examination of parental pregnancy-related characteristics may provide insights into the origins of risk of NAFLD in offspring. We examined relationships between parental pregnancy-related characteristics and NAFLD in 1,170 adolescent offspring aged 17 years participating in the Western Australian Pregnancy (Raine) Cohort Study. Fatty liver was diagnosed using liver ultrasound. NAFLD was diagnosed in 15.2% of adolescents at age 17 years. In univariate analysis, maternal factors associated with NAFLD in female offspring were younger maternal age (P = 0.02), higher maternal prepregnancy BMI (P < 0.001), higher maternal weight gain by 18 weeks' gestation (P < 0.001), and maternal smoking during pregnancy (P = 0.04). Paternal age or body mass index (BMI) were not associated with NAFLD in female offspring. In contrast, higher paternal BMI (P < 0.001), maternal prepregnancy BMI (P < 0.001), and lower family socioeconomic status (SES) at time of birth (P = 0.001), but not parental age nor maternal gestational weight gain, were associated with NAFLD in male offspring. Using multivariate logistic regression, factors independently associated with NAFLD after adjusting for obesity in adolescent females included maternal obesity (odds ratio [OR], 3.46; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.49-8.05; P = 0.004) and maternal weight gain ≥6.0 kg by the 18th week of gestation (OR, 1.10; 95% CI, 1.04-1.15; P < 0.001). In adolescent males, family SES at the time of birth (OR, 9.07; 95% CI, 1.54-53.29; P = 0.02) remained significantly associated with NAFLD after multivariate modeling adjusted for adolescent obesity. CONCLUSION: Early-life contributors to NAFLD show considerable sexual dimorphism. Maternal obesity and higher early-mid gestational weight gain were associated with NAFLD in female offspring, whereas lower family SES at birth was associated with NAFLD in male offspring independent of adolescent obesity. (Hepatology 2018;67:108-122).


Assuntos
Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/diagnóstico por imagem , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/epidemiologia , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Austrália/epidemiologia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos de Coortes , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Modelos Logísticos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Idade Materna , Análise Multivariada , Obesidade/complicações , Gravidez , Medição de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Ultrassonografia Doppler
14.
Diabetologia ; 61(2): 317-330, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29098321

RESUMO

AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) are a major dietary contributor to fructose intake. A molecular pathway involving the carbohydrate responsive element-binding protein (ChREBP) and the metabolic hormone fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) may influence sugar metabolism and, thereby, contribute to fructose-induced metabolic disease. We hypothesise that common variants in 11 genes involved in fructose metabolism and the ChREBP-FGF21 pathway may interact with SSB intake to exacerbate positive associations between higher SSB intake and glycaemic traits. METHODS: Data from 11 cohorts (six discovery and five replication) in the CHARGE (Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology) Consortium provided association and interaction results from 34,748 adults of European descent. SSB intake (soft drinks, fruit punches, lemonades or other fruit drinks) was derived from food-frequency questionnaires and food diaries. In fixed-effects meta-analyses, we quantified: (1) the associations between SSBs and glycaemic traits (fasting glucose and fasting insulin); and (2) the interactions between SSBs and 18 independent SNPs related to the ChREBP-FGF21 pathway. RESULTS: In our combined meta-analyses of discovery and replication cohorts, after adjustment for age, sex, energy intake, BMI and other dietary covariates, each additional serving of SSB intake was associated with higher fasting glucose (ß ± SE 0.014 ± 0.004 [mmol/l], p = 1.5 × 10-3) and higher fasting insulin (0.030 ± 0.005 [log e pmol/l], p = 2.0 × 10-10). No significant interactions on glycaemic traits were observed between SSB intake and selected SNPs. While a suggestive interaction was observed in the discovery cohorts with a SNP (rs1542423) in the ß-Klotho (KLB) locus on fasting insulin (0.030 ± 0.011 log e pmol/l, uncorrected p = 0.006), results in the replication cohorts and combined meta-analyses were non-significant. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: In this large meta-analysis, we observed that SSB intake was associated with higher fasting glucose and insulin. Although a suggestive interaction with a genetic variant in the ChREBP-FGF21 pathway was observed in the discovery cohorts, this observation was not confirmed in the replication analysis. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Trials related to this study were registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00005131 (Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities), NCT00005133 (Cardiovascular Health Study), NCT00005121 (Framingham Offspring Study), NCT00005487 (Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis) and NCT00005152 (Nurses' Health Study).


Assuntos
Fatores de Transcrição de Zíper de Leucina e Hélice-Alça-Hélix Básicos/genética , Bebidas , Glicemia/metabolismo , Jejum/sangue , Fatores de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/genética , Insulina/sangue , Edulcorantes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
15.
Mol Nutr Food Res ; 62(3)2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28941034

RESUMO

SCOPE: Body weight responds variably to the intake of dairy foods. Genetic variation may contribute to inter-individual variability in associations between body weight and dairy consumption. METHODS AND RESULTS: A genome-wide interaction study to discover genetic variants that account for variation in BMI in the context of low-fat, high-fat and total dairy intake in cross-sectional analysis was conducted. Data from nine discovery studies (up to 25 513 European descent individuals) were meta-analyzed. Twenty-six genetic variants reached the selected significance threshold (p-interaction <10-7) , and six independent variants (LINC01512-rs7751666, PALM2/AKAP2-rs914359, ACTA2-rs1388, PPP1R12A-rs7961195, LINC00333-rs9635058, AC098847.1-rs1791355) were evaluated meta-analytically for replication of interaction in up to 17 675 individuals. Variant rs9635058 (128 kb 3' of LINC00333) was replicated (p-interaction = 0.004). In the discovery cohorts, rs9635058 interacted with dairy (p-interaction = 7.36 × 10-8) such that each serving of low-fat dairy was associated with 0.225 kg m-2 lower BMI per each additional copy of the effect allele (A). A second genetic variant (ACTA2-rs1388) approached interaction replication significance for low-fat dairy exposure. CONCLUSION: Body weight responses to dairy intake may be modified by genotype, in that greater dairy intake may protect a genetic subgroup from higher body weight.

16.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 17(1): 207, 2017 Jun 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28662683

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cohort studies may increase or decrease their selection bias as they progress through time. The Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study has followed 2868 children for over two decades; from fetal into adult life. This paper analyses the cohort over time, assessing potential bias that may come and go with recruitment, retention and loss of participants. METHODS: Linked data from all births in Western Australian over the 3 years the Raine Cohort was recruited were obtained to compare perinatal characteristics and subsequent health outcomes between the Western Australian (WA) contemporaneous birth population and the Raine Cohort at five time points. Perinatal exposure-outcome comparisons were employed to assess bias due to non-participation in Raine Study subsets. RESULTS: There were demographic differences between the Raine Study cohort and its source population at recruitment with further changes across the period of follow up. Despite these differences, the pregnancy and infant data of those with continuing participation were not significantly different to the WA contemporaneous birth population. None of the exposure-outcome associations were significantly different to those in the WA general population at recruitment or at any cohort reviews suggesting no substantial recruitment or attrition bias. CONCLUSIONS: The Raine Study is valuable for association studies, even after 20 years of cohort reviews with increasing non-participation of cohort members. Non-participation has resulted in greater attrition of socially disadvantaged participants, however, exposure-outcome association analyses suggest that there is no apparent resulting selection bias.


Assuntos
Viés , Perda de Seguimento , Seleção de Pacientes , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/epidemiologia , Adulto , Cesárea/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Recém-Nascido de Baixo Peso , Recém-Nascido , Icterícia Neonatal/epidemiologia , Estudos Longitudinais , Idade Materna , Pré-Eclâmpsia/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Fumar/epidemiologia , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Fatores de Tempo , Ultrassonografia Pré-Natal/estatística & dados numéricos , Vácuo-Extração/estatística & dados numéricos , Austrália Ocidental/epidemiologia
17.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 140(3): 771-781, 2017 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28188724

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The relationship between allergy and autoimmune disorders is complex and poorly understood. OBJECTIVE: We sought to investigate commonalities in genetic loci and pathways between allergy and autoimmune diseases to elucidate shared disease mechanisms. METHODS: We meta-analyzed 2 genome-wide association studies on self-reported allergy and sensitization comprising a total of 62,330 subjects. These results were used to calculate enrichment for single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) previously associated with autoimmune diseases. Furthermore, we probed for enrichment within genetic pathways and of transcription factor binding sites and characterized commonalities in variant burden on tissue-specific regulatory sites by calculating the enrichment of allergy SNPs falling in gene regulatory regions in various cells using Encode Roadmap DNase-hypersensitive site data. Finally, we compared the allergy data with those of all known diseases. RESULTS: Among 290 loci previously associated with 16 autoimmune diseases, we found a significant enrichment of loci also associated with allergy (P = 1.4e-17) encompassing 29 loci at a false discovery rate of less than 0.05. Such enrichment seemed to be a general characteristic for autoimmune diseases. Among the common loci, 48% had the same direction of effect for allergy and autoimmune diseases. Additionally, we observed an enrichment of allergy SNPs falling within immune pathways and regions of chromatin accessible in immune cells that was also represented in patients with autoimmune diseases but not those with other diseases. CONCLUSION: We identified shared susceptibility loci and commonalities in pathways between allergy and autoimmune diseases, suggesting shared disease mechanisms. Further studies of these shared genetic mechanisms might help in understanding the complex relationship between these diseases, including the parallel increase in disease prevalence.


Assuntos
Doenças Autoimunes/genética , Hipersensibilidade/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
19.
PLoS One ; 11(9): e0162164, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27622523

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Assessment of adiposity using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) has been considered more advantageous in comparison to anthropometry for predicting cardio-metabolic risk in the older population, by virtue of its ability to distinguish total and regional fat. Nonetheless, there is increasing uncertainty regarding the relative superiority of DXA and little comparative data exist in young adults. This study aimed to identify which measure of adiposity determined by either DXA or anthropometry is optimal within a range of cardio-metabolic risk factors in young adults. METHODS AND RESULTS: 1138 adults aged 20 years were assessed by DXA and standard anthropometry from the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study. Cross-sectional linear regression analyses were performed. Waist to height ratio was superior to any DXA measure with HDL-C. BMI was the superior model in relation to blood pressure than any DXA measure. Midriff fat mass (DXA) and waist circumference were comparable in relation to glucose. For all the other cardio-metabolic variables, anthropometric and DXA measures were comparable. DXA midriff fat mass compared with BMI or waist hip ratio was the superior measure for triglycerides, insulin and HOMA-IR. CONCLUSION: Although midriff fat mass (measured by DXA) was the superior measure with insulin sensitivity and triglycerides, the anthropometric measures were better or equal with various DXA measures for majority of the cardio-metabolic risk factors. Our findings suggest, clinical anthropometry is generally as useful as DXA in the evaluation of the individual cardio-metabolic risk factors in young adults.


Assuntos
Absorciometria de Fóton , Antropometria , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Medição de Risco/métodos , Adiposidade , Estatura , Índice de Massa Corporal , HDL-Colesterol/sangue , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Medição de Risco/normas , Circunferência da Cintura , Austrália Ocidental/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
20.
J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry ; 55(10): 896-905.e6, 2016 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27663945

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aims of this study were to elucidate the influence of common genetic variants on childhood attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms, to identify genetic variants that explain its high heritability, and to investigate the genetic overlap of ADHD symptom scores with ADHD diagnosis. METHOD: Within the EArly Genetics and Lifecourse Epidemiology (EAGLE) consortium, genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and ADHD symptom scores were available for 17,666 children (<13 years of age) from nine population-based cohorts. SNP-based heritability was estimated in data from the three largest cohorts. Meta-analysis based on genome-wide association (GWA) analyses with SNPs was followed by gene-based association tests, and the overlap in results with a meta-analysis in the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium (PGC) case-control ADHD study was investigated. RESULTS: SNP-based heritability ranged from 5% to 34%, indicating that variation in common genetic variants influences ADHD symptom scores. The meta-analysis did not detect genome-wide significant SNPs, but three genes, lying close to each other with SNPs in high linkage disequilibrium (LD), showed a gene-wide significant association (p values between 1.46 × 10(-6) and 2.66 × 10(-6)). One gene, WASL, is involved in neuronal development. Both SNP- and gene-based analyses indicated overlap with the PGC meta-analysis results with the genetic correlation estimated at 0.96. CONCLUSION: The SNP-based heritability for ADHD symptom scores indicates a polygenic architecture, and genes involved in neurite outgrowth are possibly involved. Continuous and dichotomous measures of ADHD appear to assess a genetically common phenotype. A next step is to combine data from population-based and case-control cohorts in genetic association studies to increase sample size and to improve statistical power for identifying genetic variants.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/genética , Adolescente , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/psicologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Genética Populacional/métodos , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Masculino
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