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1.
Surg Neurol Int ; 12: 535, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34754585

RESUMO

Background: Giant pituitary adenomas are a rare finding and the literature is inconclusive regarding the most appropriate approach. In supergiant adenomas, where the size of the tumor is exceptional, both a combine approach versus a solely transcranial or endoscopic approach have been reported.[2,3,5]. Case Description: In this video, an entirely endoscopic resection of a supergiant pituitary adenoma is demonstrated. The exceptional size (4.5 × 5.8 × 5.4 cm) of the tumor and the peculiarity of the anatomical relations are documented in the video. The anterior cerebral arteries, both the A1 and A2 tracts, as well as the anterior communicating arteries are shown to be posteriorly dislocated and encased by the tumor which is pealed from the arteries themselves. Furthermore, the optic nerves are decompressed and cleaned from any residual tumor. The procedure is highly technically challenging since the furthermost part of the adenoma is also the one attached to the great intracranial arteries. A 45 optic and angle instruments were used for the major part of the surgery. Considering the high risk of postoperative CSF leak, a multilayer closure with nasoseptal flap was chosen. The postoperative MRI showed a gross total resection of the lesion in the absence of any complications and no new neurological nor endocrinological deficit appeared. Conclusion: Expanded endoscopic endonasal approach could represent a valuable way to face giant adenoma, providing a direct corridor toward the lesion and safe control of both the chiasmatic vasculature and the anterior communicating artery complex. Multilayer reconstruction is mandatory to avoid postoperative CSF leak.[1,4].

2.
World Neurosurg ; 2021 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34648982

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The introduction of the intraoperative Computed Tomography (iCT) could improve the surgical results of C1-C2 stabilization by Goel-Harms, especially in patients with complex deformities. This study aims to investigate the impact of iCT on the accuracy of C1-C2 screw positioning and to develop a score based on multiparametric analysis of imaging data (Cervical Screw Placement Accuracy score [CSPAs]). METHODS: 21 patients were retrospectively evaluated. The data obtained with the use of an iCT was compared with the incidence of cases of malpositioning in the literature. Multiparametric imaging criteria were developed: the 82 screw positions were evaluated using the CSPA criteria and 2 additional variables. The CSPAs was obtained from the aggregation of the CSPA criteria: optimal (CSPAs >= 8), sub-optimal (CSPAs = 6-7), malpositioned (CSPAs <= 5). RESULTS: The average incidence of malpositioning in C1-C2 arthrodesis decreased from 13% without iCT to 1.2% with the aid of iCT, considering a monoparametric value. The CSPAs analysis shows a greater discretion and higher number of well defiance categories of the accuracy of C1-C2 screws position: optimal 80.3%, suboptimal 17.1%, malposition 2.6%. A correlation was observed between the accuracy of the positioning of both right and left screws in C2. Furthermore, the anatomical site of C2 screws was found to be a predictor of cortical invasion. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that the introduction of the iCT is associated with a consistent improvement of the accuracy in the positioning of the screws. A multiparametric score (CSPAs) could improve the assessment of screw placement.

3.
Front Neurol ; 12: 712532, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34512525

RESUMO

When discussing "mentalization," we refer to a very special ability that only humans and few species of great apes possess: the ability to think about themselves and to represent in their mind their own mental state, attitudes, and beliefs and those of others. In this review, a summary of the main cortical areas involved in mentalization is presented. A thorough literature search using PubMed MEDLINE database was performed. The search terms "cognition," "metacognition," "mentalization," "direct electrical stimulation," "theory of mind," and their synonyms were combined with "prefrontal cortex," "temporo-parietal junction," "parietal cortex," "inferior frontal gyrus," "cingulate gyrus," and the names of other cortical areas to extract relevant published papers. Non-English publications were excluded. Data were extracted and analyzed in a qualitative manner. It is the authors' belief that knowledge of the neural substrate of metacognition is essential not only for the "neuroscientist" but also for the "practical neuroscientist" (i.e., the neurosurgeon), in order to better understand the pathophysiology of mentalizing dysfunctions in brain pathologies, especially those in which integrity of cortical areas or white matter connectivity is compromised. Furthermore, in the context of neuro-oncological surgery, understanding the anatomical structures involved in the theory of mind can help the neurosurgeon obtain a wider and safer resection. Though beyond of the scope of this paper, an important but unresolved issue concerns the long-range white matter connections that unify these cortical areas and that may be themselves involved in neural information processing.

4.
Surg Neurol Int ; 12: 122, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33880227

RESUMO

Background: The salivary duct carcinomas (SDCs) are rare, high-grade neoplasms involving major salivary glands. Parotid is the most frequently involved gland (85%). Apocrine phenotype (histological presence of decapitation secretions) and androgen reception expression define SDC. The clinical course of these tumors is characterized by aggressive local behavior with extraglandular extension, high recurrence rates, early metastases, and poor prognoses. Despite aggressive surgical/radiation therapy management, the rates of locoregional and metastatic relapses are high, and the mortality rates over 48 months approach 65%. Notably, there is no treatment algorithm available for managing vertebral metastases from apocrine SDC. Case Description: An elderly male presented with MR/CT findings of an isolated T11 vertebral metastasis attributed to a previously treated parotid SDC. On both CT/MR, it was an osteolytic lesion and demonstrated spinal canal infiltration. The patient underwent surgical biopsy/decompression/resection, following which the lesion histopathologically proved to be a SDC. The patient was subsequently treated with 30 Gy in 10 fractions within 2 weeks of discharge. One-month later, the MRI confirmed adequate epidural decompression without recurrence, and 9 months post-operatively, patient remained disease free. Conclusion: Isolated metastasis attributed to parotid SDC followed by radiation therapy may result in tumor control.

5.
PLoS One ; 16(3): e0245119, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33720937

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Post-operative CSF leak still represents the main drawback of Endoscopic Endonasal Approach (EEA), and different reconstructive strategies have been proposed in order to decrease its rate. OBJECTIVE: To critically analyze the effectiveness of different adopted reconstruction strategies in patients that underwent EEA. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Adult patients with skull base tumor surgically treated with EEA were retrospectively analyzed. Data recorded for each case concerned patient demographics, type of surgical approach, histotype, anatomical site of surgical approach, intra-operative CSF leak grade (no leak (INL), low flow (ILFL), high flow (IHFL)), reconstructive adopted strategy, Lumbar Drain positioning, post-operative CSF leak rate and intra/post-operative complications. RESULTS: A total number of 521 patients (January 2012-December 2019) was included. Intra-operative CSF leak grade showed to be associated with post-operative CSF leak rate. In particular, the risk to observe a post-operative CSF leak was higher when IHFL was encountered (25,5%; Exp(B) 16.25). In particular, vascularized multilayered reconstruction and fat use showed to be effective in lowering post-operative CSF leaks in IHFL (p 0.02). No differences were found considering INL and ILFL groups. Yearly post-operative CSF leak rate analysis showed a significative decreasing trend. CONCLUSION: Intra-operative CSF leak grade strongly affected post-operative CSF leak rate. Multilayer reconstruction with fat and naso-septal flap could reduce the rate of CSF leak in high risk patients. Reconstructive strategies should be tailored according also to the type and the anatomical site of the approach.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Base do Crânio/cirurgia , Adenoma/patologia , Adenoma/cirurgia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Vazamento de Líquido Cefalorraquidiano/etiologia , Endoscopia/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gradação de Tumores , Complicações Pós-Operatórias , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Reconstrutivos/efeitos adversos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Neoplasias da Base do Crânio/patologia , Adulto Jovem
6.
Neuroendocrinology ; 111(7): 639-649, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32492678

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Multiple studies tried to identify cortisol cut-offs after pituitary surgery that could accurately assess hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function; however, there is no consensus nowadays. This study aimed to evaluate the accuracy of morning cortisol after transsphenoidal surgery in predicting long-term secondary adrenal insufficiency. METHODS: In our tertiary center, we prospectively determined first- and second-day cortisol after transsphenoidal surgery in 92 patients without preoperative adrenal -insufficiency and not treated with glucocorticoids perioperatively. Definitive diagnosis of secondary adrenal insufficiency was obtained with re-evaluation 3 months after trans-sphenoidal surgery and clinical follow-up of at least 1 year. RESULTS: Ten patients (10.8%) developed long-term postoperative secondary adrenal insufficiency. The ROC curves demonstrated that first-day cortisol had a moderate diagnostic accuracy, while a second-day cortisol ≤9.3 µg/dL (257 nmol/L) showed the best performance in predicting adrenal insufficiency (sensitivity [Se] 88.9%, specificity [Sp] 86.9%, AUC 0.921). Moreover, a second-day cortisol ≤3.2 µg/dL (89 nmol/L) was able to diagnose adrenal insufficiency in 100% of cases (Se 22.2%, Sp 100%) and >14 µg/dL (386 nmol/L) was able to exclude ACTH deficiency (Se 100%, Sp 57.4%). CONCLUSIONS: Adrenal function can be carefully studied on the second day after pituitary surgery, using cut-off values that international guidelines suggested for non-stressed conditions. In fact, second-day cortisol levels ≤3.2 µg/dL (89 nmol/L) and >14 µg/dL (386 nmol/L) are diagnostic of secondary adrenal insufficiency and normal function, respectively. We also suggest performing a definitive re-evaluation with an HPA axis stimulation test when second-day cortisol values are between 3.3 and 14 µg/dL (90-386 nmol/L).

7.
Eur Neurol ; 83(6): 626-629, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33296894

RESUMO

Cervical spondylogenic myelopathy (CSM) represents a common differential diagnosis for spinal onset Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS). Identifying occurrence of ALS in patients with CSM may be challenging. We evaluated the accuracy of Awaji criteria in the diagnosis of ALS in a cohort of patients with CSM. We screened all patients attending Turin ALS Center during the 2006-2018 period. We selected only patients for whom cervical cord MRI showed radiological signs of CSM. All patients underwent electromyography (EMG), and Awaji criteria were used for diagnosis of clinically probable ALS. All patients were followed up clinically for at least 6 months, and ALS diagnosis was eventually confirmed according to El-Escorial revised criteria, based on disease progression. Of 2,059 patients screened, in 42 cases, MRI showed signs of CSM; CSM incidence and prevalence risks were 0.16 and 2.04%, respectively. Based on clinical progression, 72.7% of patients were diagnosed as CSM and 27.3% as CSM + ALS. At EMG 6 (18.2%) patients fulfilled the criteria for ALS, 5 of them (83.3%) during clinical follow-up were diagnosed as clinical definite ALS + CSM. Accuracy of Awaji criteria in diagnosing ALS was good (AUC = 0.757, p = 0.03). Sensitivity and specificity of Awaji criteria were, respectively, 55.6 and 95.8%. Positive predictive value was 83.3%, while negative predictive value was 85.2%. CSM-ALS comorbidity is a relatively common problem in clinical practice. To better choose patients who could benefit from surgery, EMG should be performed in CSM patients, due to its good accuracy in recognizing ALS.


Assuntos
Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/diagnóstico , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/epidemiologia , Doenças da Medula Espinal/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Comorbidade , Eletromiografia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
8.
Clin Neurol Neurosurg ; 196: 106041, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32604034

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Olfactory groove meningiomas (OGMs) account for 8-13 % of all intracranial meningiomas. The gold standard of treatment is generally surgery, however various approaches have been used and the literature is still uncertain about the superiority of one treatment over the others. The most debated techniques are traditional microscopic open approaches versus the endoscopic endonasal ones. The aim of this paper is to prove a valid surgical route that gathers the benefits of both endoscopic and transcranial routes. METHODS: Fifty consecutive patients underwent trans-frontal sinus surgical removal of an OGM between January 2000 and January 2019 at the Neurosurgical Departments in Torino, Brescia and Legnano (Italy). The clinical features were collected in a database and compared with neuroimaging and outcomes. All patients were investigated with neuroimaging techniques. Clinical evaluations were performed 3-4 months and 1 year after surgery, together with neuroradiological follow-up. RESULTS: All patients with OGM underwent Simpson grade I resection. The most common neurological symptom leading to neuroradiological evaluations were headaches (36 %), followed by behavioural changes (30 %), hyposmia/anosmia (12 %), visual impairments (6%) and focal deficits (6%). At 3-4 months follow-up 48 patients underwent a brain MRI (2 patients underwent a brain CT), and a complete resection was confirmed in 45 patients (94 %). CONCLUSIONS: Despite different techniques and studies supported by good evidence, there is no consensus on the best surgical approach for OGMs. The data shown in this article suggests that the trans-frontal sinus approach is a valid alternative to an endoscopic approach and the classical transcranial routes, collecting benefits from both approaches.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Meníngeas/cirurgia , Meningioma/cirurgia , Procedimentos Neurocirúrgicos/métodos , Neoplasias da Base do Crânio/cirurgia , Adulto , Idoso , Fossa Craniana Anterior/patologia , Fossa Craniana Anterior/cirurgia , Feminino , Seio Frontal/cirurgia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
10.
J Clin Neurosci ; 76: 25-30, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32331945

RESUMO

Cortical Bone Trajectory screws allow a limited soft tissue dissection with mechanical properties comparable to traditional pedicle screws. However, clinical results are still reported on limited samples. The study aimed to evaluate perioperative and mid-term follow up outcomes, clinical results and complications in 238 consecutive patients underwent CBT fusion for degenerative lumbosacral disease. Pre- and intraoperative data, clinical outcomes and complications were collected. The patients were stratified in three groups. The original technique was performed in the first 43 cases without a preoperative CT scan planning. The second group includes the patients who underwent preoperative CT scan for entry point and screw trajectory planning (158 patients). Surgical procedures in the last group were performed with patient-matched 3D printed guide (37 patients). The accuracy in screws positioning was evaluated on postoperative CT scan. The mean follow-up was 32.3 months. Mean ODI and VAS index improved with statistical significance. Mean procedural time was 187, 142 and 124 min in the three subgroups. The total amount of recorded complications was 4.2% (16.3%, 3.8% and 0.0% respectively). Screws entirely within the cortex of the pedicle were 78.9%, 90.5% and 93.9% in the three groups. Fusion was obtained in 92.4% of cases. The CBT technique is a safe procedure, especially with an accurate preoperative CT scan-based planning. This seems more evident with the 3D template patient-matched guide. More studies are needed to directly compare traditional pedicle screws and CBT screws on long-term outcomes.


Assuntos
Parafusos Ósseos , Vértebras Lombares/cirurgia , Fusão Vertebral/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Osso Cortical/cirurgia , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Impressão Tridimensional , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
11.
Neuroendocrinology ; 110(6): 525-534, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31484187

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Central diabetes insipidus (CDI) is a frequent complication of pituitary surgery, but its diagnosis lacks standardized criteria. Copeptin, a surrogate marker of arginine vasopressin release, is triggered by psycho-physical stresses such as pituitary surgery. Low postoperative copeptin could predict CDI onset. The aims of this study were the validation of copeptin as a predictor of post-neurosurgical CDI and the identification of the optimal timing for its determination. METHODS: Sixty-six consecutive patients operated for a hypothalamic-pituitary lesion were evaluated. Copeptin was determined preoperatively and at 1, 6, 12, 24 and 48 h post-extubation. Fifty-eight patients were reassessed after 3-6 months post-surgery to confirm transient (3 cases) or permanent CDI (5 cases) diagnosis. RESULTS: A marked copeptin peak was identified at 1 h after extubation, when a value below or equal to 12.8 pmol/L had a good accuracy in identifying CDI cases (AUC 0.866, 95% CI 0.751-0.941). Moreover, a copeptin peak above 4.2 pmol/L excluded permanent forms (AUC 1, 95% CI 0.629-1). Regression analysis identified copeptin as the only significant predictor of CDI (OR 0.86, 95% CI 0.75-0.98, p = 0.02). A copeptin T1/T0 ratio below or equal to 1.47 identified patients at risk of isolated biochemical alterations even in the absence of an overt CDI. CONCLUSIONS: A prompt increase of copeptin is expected at 1 h after extubation. The absence of this peak is a reliable predictor of post-neurosurgical CDI.


Assuntos
Diabetes Insípido Neurogênico , Glicopeptídeos/sangue , Doenças Hipotalâmicas/cirurgia , Procedimentos Neurocirúrgicos/efeitos adversos , Doenças da Hipófise/cirurgia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores/sangue , Diabetes Insípido Neurogênico/sangue , Diabetes Insípido Neurogênico/diagnóstico , Diabetes Insípido Neurogênico/etiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/sangue , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/diagnóstico , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
12.
World Neurosurg ; 134: 14-24, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31639506

RESUMO

The use of cortical bone trajectory (CBT) pedicle screws for posterior fixation and fusion seems to constitute a viable alternative for spinal procedures, with the potential to mitigate risks, be minimally invasive, and cause less tissue damage than the traditional technique. This review analyzes the literature regarding CBT according to the rate of evidence of articles and their main focus. CBT has proved to be a safe and viable option for screw fixation in spine surgery. Given the denser bone interception, high-quality biomechanics studies show equal or even better properties compared with classic pedicle screw fixation, depending on several factors such as screw size and length. Through the years, surgical technique has improved to gain a longer and safer trajectory than first described. Level 2 and 3 clinical studies suggest equal clinical and radiologic outcomes compared with pedicle trajectory fixation, but high-quality, level 1, randomized controlled trials are needed to confirm these results.


Assuntos
Osso Cortical/cirurgia , Parafusos Pediculares , Fusão Vertebral/instrumentação , Coluna Vertebral/cirurgia , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Parafusos Ósseos , Humanos , Procedimentos Neurocirúrgicos/instrumentação , Procedimentos Neurocirúrgicos/métodos , Fusão Vertebral/métodos
13.
Pituitary ; 23(2): 92-102, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31797173

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Along with increased life expectancy and improvements in the diagnostic tools and techniques, the number of elderly patients with symptomatic pituitary tumors being evaluated for surgery is increasing. To date, contrasting results of the safety and effectiveness of transsphenoidal surgery in patients over 65 years old were published in the medical literature. An investigation concerning the extension of resection, post operative complications and, recovery rate from endocrinological and visual symptoms in elderly patients who underwent transsphenoidal surgery for pituitary adenoma was conducted. METHODS: A retrospective review, which included a series of 81 patients 65 years old or older who underwent endoscopic endonasal surgery for pituitary adenomas was analyzed. Pre operative and post operative data were collected and patients were then compared among four age groups: 65-69 years old, 70-74 years old, 75-79 years old and 80 years and over. The results were then compared with the findings from the medical literature review. RESULTS: The statistical analysis failed to highlight any difference in terms of clinical presentation or complications among the four age groups, however there seems to be a slightly higher risk of post operative hypopituitarism in patients over 74 years old. CONCLUSION: The results of the study seem to confirm that transsphenoidal surgery for PA is safe and effective among patients that are 65 and over. Moreover, a partial resection is preferred over a gross total one in order to reduce the surgical risk.


Assuntos
Adenoma/cirurgia , Neoplasias Hipofisárias/cirurgia , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
14.
World Neurosurg ; 130: 499-505, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31295597

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Syringobulbia is an uncommon lesion that occurs in the central nervous system; it is often defined as a pathologic cavitation in the brainstem. The cases with partial blockage of the cerebrospinal fluid pathways at the level of the foramen magnum are more common and the most important group. The most common treatment of syringobulbia is craniovertebral decompression. CASE DESCRIPTION: This paper reports a case of a symptomatic syringobulbia in which an urgent endoscopic endonasal approach to the craniovertebral junction (CVJ) was done to limit bulbo-medullary compression and rapid neurologic deterioration. A 69-year-old man was admitted to the hospital because of acute onset of dysphonia, dysphagia, imbalance, and vomiting. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a cystic lesion in the brainstem, suggestive of a syringobulbia in Klippel Feil syndrome with CVJ stenosis. CONCLUSIONS: This case report details the successful use of endoscopic endonasal anterior decompression to treat syringobulbia, and adds to the growing literature in support of the endonasal endoscopic approach as a safe and feasible means for decompressing the craniocervical junction, even in the setting of urgency. However, prudent patient selection, combined with sound clinical judgment, access to instrumentation, and intraoperative imaging cannot be overemphasized.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Tronco Encefálico/cirurgia , Vértebras Cervicais/cirurgia , Descompressão Cirúrgica/métodos , Cirurgia Endoscópica por Orifício Natural/métodos , Procedimentos Neurocirúrgicos/métodos , Compressão da Medula Espinal/cirurgia , Idoso , Neoplasias do Tronco Encefálico/complicações , Humanos , Síndrome de Klippel-Feil/complicações , Síndrome de Klippel-Feil/cirurgia , Masculino , Nariz/cirurgia , Estenose Espinal/complicações , Estenose Espinal/cirurgia , Resultado do Tratamento
15.
World Neurosurg ; 130: e98-e104, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31307931

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cortical bone trajectory (CBT) screw is an attractive technique in terms of fixation strength and less invasiveness. However, the insertion of a pedicle screw penetrating cortical bone on the ideal trajectory is technically demanding. The use of 3-dimensional (3D) patient-matched guides may facilitate the use of this technique. In this technical note and case series, the use of a patient-matched 3D targeting guide for a circumferential fixation with CBT screws is described. METHODS: Eleven patients with a mean age of 49 years were treated. The MySpine MC (Medacta International SA, Castel San Pietro, Switzerland) technology was used to place CBT screws. A computed tomography (CT) scan-derived 3D model of the patient vertebra was created after the surgeons planned the best custom CBT screw trajectory. Then, scaffolds were printed and used during surgery to guide the screw through the patient pedicle. An intersomatic arthrodesis was also performed. RESULTS: The images of the planned trajectory were superimposed on the postoperative CT scan, confirming the accuracy of the trajectory. The mean deviation from the planned pedicle midpoint was 0.91 mm; 85.2% of the screws were placed within 2° from the planned trajectory. There were 2 grade A (<2 mm) and no grade B or C perforations. The actual entry point was always within 2 mm from the planned entry point. CONCLUSIONS: This technical note and case series is the first clinical description on the use of a patient-matched guide for posterior CBT screw placement. The use of these devices could also improve placement accuracy and decrease the risk of nerve damage.


Assuntos
Osso Cortical/cirurgia , Vértebras Lombares/cirurgia , Procedimentos Neurocirúrgicos/instrumentação , Procedimentos Neurocirúrgicos/métodos , Parafusos Pediculares , Impressão Tridimensional , Doenças da Coluna Vertebral/cirurgia , Adulto , Osso Cortical/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Imageamento Tridimensional , Vértebras Lombares/diagnóstico por imagem , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Anatômicos , Fusão Vertebral/métodos , Cirurgia Assistida por Computador , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Resultado do Tratamento
16.
Environ Res ; 173: 489-496, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30986651

RESUMO

Growth hormone (GH) secreting pituitary adenomas are the main cause of acromegaly. Somatostatin analogs are the gold standard of medical therapy; however, resistance represents a big drawback in acromegaly management. We recently demonstrated that benzene (BZ) modifies the aggressiveness of GH-secreting rat pituitary adenoma cells (GH3), increasing GH secretion and altering the synthesis of molecules involved in the somatostatin signaling pathway. Based on these pieces of evidence, this study aimed to evaluate the effects of BZ on octreotide (OCT) efficacy in GH-secreting adenoma cells. In GH3 cells, BZ counteracted the anti-proliferative action of OCT. GH gene expression, unmodified by OCT, remained high in BZ-treated cells as well as after treatment with the association of both. GH secretion, reduced by OCT, was increased after treatment with BZ alone or when the pollutant was used with OCT. The combination of BZ and OCT greatly reduced the gene expression of ZAC1 and SSTR2; and this reduction was also present at a protein level. BZ caused an increase in the protein level of the transcription factor STAT3 and in its phosphorylated form. In the presence of BZ, OCT lost the ability to reduce the phosphorylated protein levels. Finally, in primary cultures of human pituitary adenoma cells, BZ caused an increase in GH secretion. OCT decreased GH secretion, but the addition of BZ reversed the OCT effect. In conclusion, our results suggest that BZ may have an important role in the resistance of pituitary adenomas to the pharmacological treatment with somatostatin analogs.


Assuntos
Benzeno , Adenoma Hipofisário Secretor de Hormônio do Crescimento , Octreotida , Animais , Hormônio do Crescimento , Humanos , Neoplasias Hipofisárias , Ratos , Somatostatina
17.
World Neurosurg ; 126: e1468-e1474, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30904792

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pedicle screw instrumentation is a standard procedure in lumbar spinal fusion. The cortical bone trajectory (CBT) screw is an alternative technique, less invasive but harder to perform. The identification of the entry point and the appropriate direction can be tricky especially to the surgeons just at the beginning. Therefore, the aim of this study is to evaluate the reliability of preoperative computed tomography (CT) planning in the CBT screw placement. METHODS: We retrospectively evaluated 82 patients who underwent a single-level posterior lumbar arthrodesis with CBT screws. The correct entry point and the best trajectory were identified on a 3-dimensional (3D) multiplanar reconstruction CT view. The concordance between achieved and planned trajectories was assessed on a postoperative CT. RESULTS: A total of 328 screws was positioned. The average entry point distance from the target was 1.1 mm (standard deviation, ±0.15 mm). In 301 screws (91.8%), the obtained trajectory differed no more than 2° from the planned one. No screws misplaced or new neurological deficit was recorded. CONCLUSIONS: The CBT screw placement is a great alternative to the pedicle screw. Accurate preoperative 3D planning is useful to predict the entry point and the direction with accuracy similar to navigation systems, avoiding its costs and technical difficulties. The 3D CT planning is helpful in the customization of spine surgery, and the results underline the radiological reliability of this technique.


Assuntos
Parafusos Ósseos , Procedimentos Neurocirúrgicos/métodos , Procedimentos Ortopédicos/métodos , Cuidados Pré-Operatórios , Fusão Vertebral/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Artrodese , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Imageamento Tridimensional , Região Lombossacral , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Doenças da Coluna Vertebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças da Coluna Vertebral/cirurgia , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
18.
World Neurosurg ; 126: 447-452, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30904796

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Among the posterior techniques, the use of cervical interfacet spacers (CISs) represents a promising technology whose potentialities are still being studied. The purpose of the present review was to assess the available data on CISs. METHODS: A search on PubMed was performed. The search terms were "cervical interfacet spacers," "facet spacers," "DTRAX facet system," "Goel facet spacer," "pseudarthrosis," "cervical lordosis," "iatrogenic kyphosis," "cervical foraminal decompression," "cervical biomechanics," "atlantoaxial instability," and "subaxial instability." RESULTS: Mechanical studies have shown that stand-alone CISs promoted stiffness in all directions, except for extension. Foraminal distraction was recorded in 86% of the cases. Clinical studies have shown that the use of CISs could promote successful arthrodesis, given the large surface area affected by fusion and decreasing the need for autografts. The effectiveness for the treatment of radiculopathy has been confirmed by several clinical studies. In a series of 154 levels of implanted CISs, no evidence of significant loss of cervical lordosis was identified. CISs could help in enhancing fusion in C1-C2 fixation. CONCLUSIONS: Biomechanical studies on specimens showed a positive trend in increasing stiffness of the cervical spine, despite some controversial results. In clinical studies, facet distraction was shown to be a safe and valid option for clinical indirect decompression, although longer follow-up is required for confirmation. No evidence of the loss of cervical lordosis has been recorded. The long-term effects and CIS use in revision procedures as adjuvant implants to treat pseudarthrosis or atlantoaxial instability are currently under investigation, and further studies are needed.


Assuntos
Medula Cervical/cirurgia , Descompressão Cirúrgica/instrumentação , Procedimentos Neurocirúrgicos/instrumentação , Pseudoartrose/cirurgia , Radiculopatia/cirurgia , Fusão Vertebral/instrumentação , Articulação Atlantoaxial/cirurgia , Descompressão Cirúrgica/métodos , Humanos , Lordose/cirurgia , Procedimentos Neurocirúrgicos/métodos , Fusão Vertebral/métodos , Resultado do Tratamento
19.
Br J Neurosurg ; : 1-4, 2019 Mar 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30829069

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Almost all of the epidural hemangiomas reported are cavernous hemangiomas. Purely extradural spinal capillary hemangiomas are very rare. Capillary hemangiomas are hamartomatous malformations that result from proliferations of vascular endothelial cells. Only ten cases have been reported in the English literature, treated with surgical excision. CASE DESCRIPTION: A case of a dorsal extradural spinal capillary hemangioma is described. A total surgical removal has been performed after spinal angiography and embolization. Complete surgical removal should always be the goal in these lesions. Embolization did not show to reduce bleeding during the surgical procedure in this case.

20.
World Neurosurg ; 122: 544-548, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30472284

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Giant pituitary adenomas are rare tumors that can have a devastating impact on a patient's life. They require a well-studied therapeutic approach that often combines different strategies. CASE DESCRIPTION: A 29-year-old woman was diagnosed with the largest GH-secreting pituitary adenoma reported in the literature, to the best of the author's knowledge. The tumor was removed with a combined approach: endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal and transcortical transventricular. All available acromegaly drugs were used. After 2 surgeries, a large part of the tumor was removed. Both postoperative courses were uneventful. Because the disease was still active, medical therapy was initiated. The combination of pasireotide, pegvisomant, and cabergoline permitted satisfactory control of hormonal levels. CONCLUSIONS: Giant adenomas, >4 cm, are rare pituitary tumors. Therefore in order to achieve the best clinical results, they require complex management that involves a multidisciplinary team of ear, nose, and throat surgeons; endocrinologists; radiation therapists; ophthalmologists; and neurosurgeons.


Assuntos
Adenoma/cirurgia , Adenoma Hipofisário Secretor de Hormônio do Crescimento/cirurgia , Procedimentos Neurocirúrgicos , Adulto , Ventrículos Cerebrais/cirurgia , Feminino , Adenoma Hipofisário Secretor de Hormônio do Crescimento/diagnóstico , Humanos , Cirurgia Endoscópica por Orifício Natural/métodos , Resultado do Tratamento
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