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1.
J Affect Disord ; 260: 77-83, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31493643

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Signs and symptoms of psychopathology can be chronic but are generally regarded as less stable over time than markers of cognitive vulnerability and personality. Some findings suggest that these differences in temporal stability are modest in size but a rigorous examination across concepts is lacking. The current study investigated the temporal stability of affective symptoms, cognitive vulnerability markers and personality traits at various assessments over nine years. METHODS: Participants of the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety were assessed at baseline and reassessed after 2, 4, 6 and 9 years. They were grouped on the basis of waves of depression and anxiety CIDI-diagnoses into stable healthy (n = 768), stable patients (n = 352) and unstable patients (n = 821). We determined temporal stability by calculating intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) and consistency indices of latent state-trait analyses (LST). RESULTS: Temporal stability was moderate to high for symptoms (range ICC's 0.54-0.73; range consistency 0.64-0.74), cognitive vulnerability (range ICC's 0.53-0.76; range consistency 0.60-0.74) and personality (range ICC's 0.57-0.80; range consistency.60 -0.75). Consistency indices for all measures were on average a bit lower in the unstable group (ICC = 0.54) compared to the stable groups (ICC = 0.61). Overall stability was similarly high after 2, 4, 6 and 9 years. CONCLUSION: The 9-year stability over time of symptoms of affective disorders and that of indices of cognitive vulnerability and personality are remarkably similar and relatively high.

2.
Transl Psychiatry ; 9(1): 277, 2019 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31699963

RESUMO

Individuals with subthreshold depression have an increased risk of developing major depressive disorder (MDD). The aim of this study was to develop a prediction model to predict the probability of MDD onset in subthreshold individuals, based on their proteomic, sociodemographic and clinical data. To this end, we analysed 198 features (146 peptides representing 77 serum proteins (measured using MRM-MS), 22 sociodemographic factors and 30 clinical features) in 86 first-episode MDD patients (training set patient group), 37 subthreshold individuals who developed MDD within two or four years (extrapolation test set patient group), and 86 subthreshold individuals who did not develop MDD within four years (shared reference group). To ensure the development of a robust and reproducible model, we applied feature extraction and model averaging across a set of 100 models obtained from repeated application of group LASSO regression with ten-fold cross-validation on the training set. This resulted in a 12-feature prediction model consisting of six serum proteins (AACT, APOE, APOH, FETUA, HBA and PHLD), three sociodemographic factors (body mass index, childhood trauma and education level) and three depressive symptoms (sadness, fatigue and leaden paralysis). Importantly, the model demonstrated a fair performance in predicting future MDD diagnosis of subthreshold individuals in the extrapolation test set (AUC = 0.75), which involved going beyond the scope of the model. These findings suggest that it may be possible to detect disease indications in subthreshold individuals up to four years prior to diagnosis, which has important clinical implications regarding the identification and treatment of high-risk individuals.

3.
Gerontologist ; 2019 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31682729

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: A healthy brain is central to physical and mental well-being. In this multi-site, qualitative study, we investigated views and attitudes of adult participants in brain research studies on the brain and personalized brain health as well as interest in maintaining a healthy brain. DESIGN AND METHODS: We conducted individual interviews with 44 adult participants in brain research cohorts of the Lifebrain consortium in Spain, Norway, Germany, and the United Kingdom. The interviews were audio recorded, transcribed, and coded using a cross-country codebook. The interview data were analyzed using qualitative content analysis. RESULTS: Most participants did not focus on their own brain health and expressed uncertainty regarding how to maintain it. Those actively focusing on brain health often picked one specific strategy like diet or memory training. The participants were interested in taking brain health tests to learn about their individual risk of developing brain diseases, and were willing to take measures to maintain their brain health if personalized follow-up was provided and the measures had proven impact. The participants were interested in more information on brain health. No differences in responses were identified between age groups, sex, or countries. DISCUSSION AND IMPLICATIONS: Concise, practical, personalized, and evidence-based information about the brain may promote brain health. Based on our findings, we have launched an ongoing global brain health survey to acquire more extensive, quantitative, and representative data on public perception of personalized brain health.

4.
Depress Anxiety ; 2019 Oct 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31622521

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Depression and anxiety may unfavorably impact on cardiac autonomic dysregulation. However, it is unclear whether this relationship results from a causal effect or may be attributable to confounding factors. We tested the relationship between depression and anxiety with heart rate (HR) and heart rate variability (HRV) across a 9-year follow-up (FU) period and investigated possible confounding by antidepressant use and genetic pleiotropy. METHODS: Data (no. of observations = 6,994, 65% female) were obtained from the longitudinal Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety, with repeated waves of data collection of HR, HRV, depression, anxiety, and antidepressant use. Summary statistics from meta-analyses of genome-wide association studies were used to derive polygenic risk scores of depression, HR, and HRV. RESULTS: Across the 9-year FU, generalized estimating equations analyses showed that the relationship between cardiac autonomic dysregulation and depression/anxiety rendered nonsignificant after adjusting for antidepressant use. A robust association was found between antidepressant use (especially tricyclic antidepressants, selective serotonin, and noradrenalin reuptake inhibitors) and unfavorable cardiac autonomic activity across all waves. However, no evidence was found for a genetic correlation of depression with HR and HRV, indicating that confounding by genetic pleiotropy is minimal. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that the association between depression/anxiety and cardiac autonomic dysregulation does not result from a causal pathway or genetic pleiotropy, and these traits might therefore not be inevitably linked. Previously reported associations were likely confounded by the use of certain classes of antidepressants.

5.
Biol Psychiatry ; 2019 Aug 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31635762

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Depression has been associated with metabolic alterations, which adversely impact cardiometabolic health. Here, a comprehensive set of metabolic markers, predominantly lipids, was compared between depressed and nondepressed persons. METHODS: Nine Dutch cohorts were included, comprising 10,145 control subjects and 5283 persons with depression, established with diagnostic interviews or questionnaires. A proton nuclear magnetic resonance metabolomics platform provided 230 metabolite measures: 51 lipids, fatty acids, and low-molecular-weight metabolites; 98 lipid composition and particle concentration measures of lipoprotein subclasses; and 81 lipid and fatty acids ratios. For each metabolite measure, logistic regression analyses adjusted for gender, age, smoking, fasting status, and lipid-modifying medication were performed within cohort, followed by random-effects meta-analyses. RESULTS: Of the 51 lipids, fatty acids, and low-molecular-weight metabolites, 21 were significantly related to depression (false discovery rate q < .05). Higher levels of apolipoprotein B, very-low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, diglycerides, total and monounsaturated fatty acids, fatty acid chain length, glycoprotein acetyls, tyrosine, and isoleucine and lower levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, acetate, and apolipoprotein A1 were associated with increased odds of depression. Analyses of lipid composition indicators confirmed a shift toward less high-density lipoprotein and more very-low-density lipoprotein and triglyceride particles in depression. Associations appeared generally consistent across gender, age, and body mass index strata and across cohorts with depressive diagnoses versus symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: This large-scale meta-analysis indicates a clear distinctive profile of circulating lipid metabolites associated with depression, potentially opening new prevention or treatment avenues for depression and its associated cardiometabolic comorbidity.

7.
Eur J Nutr ; 2019 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31642985

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Food-based dietary guidelines are proposed to not only improve diet quality, but to also reduce the environmental impact of diets. The aim of our study was to investigate whether food-related behavioral activation therapy (F-BA) applying Mediterranean-style dietary guidelines altered food intake and the environmental impact of the diet in overweight adults with subsyndromal symptoms of depression. METHODS: In total 744 adults who either received the F-BA intervention (F-BA group) or no intervention (control group) for 12 months were included in this analysis. Food intake data were collected through a food frequency questionnaire at baseline and after 6 and 12 months. Greenhouse gas emissions (GHGE), land use (LU), and fossil energy use (FEU) estimates from life-cycle assessments and a weighted score of the three (pReCiPe score) were used to estimate the environmental impact of each individual diet at each timepoint. RESULTS: The F-BA group reported increased intakes of vegetables (19.7 g/day; 95% CI 7.8-31.6), fruit (23.0 g/day; 9.4-36.6), fish (7.6 g/day; 4.6-10.6), pulses/legumes (4.0 g/day; 1.6-6.5) and whole grains (12.7 g/day; 8.0-17.5), and decreased intake of sweets/extras (- 6.8 g/day; - 10.9 to - 2.8) relative to control group. This effect on food intake resulted in no change in GHGE, LU, and pReCiPe score, but a relative increase in FEU by 1.6 MJ/day (0.8, 2.4). CONCLUSIONS: A shift towards a healthier Mediterranean-style diet does not necessarily result in a diet with reduced environmental impact in a real-life setting. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov. Number of identification: NCT02529423. August 2015.

8.
Biol Psychiatry ; 2019 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31570195

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The prevalence of depression is higher in individuals with autoimmune diseases, but the mechanisms underlying the observed comorbidities are unknown. Shared genetic etiology is a plausible explanation for the overlap, and in this study we tested whether genetic variation in the major histocompatibility complex (MHC), which is associated with risk for autoimmune diseases, is also associated with risk for depression. METHODS: We fine-mapped the classical MHC (chr6: 29.6-33.1 Mb), imputing 216 human leukocyte antigen (HLA) alleles and 4 complement component 4 (C4) haplotypes in studies from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium Major Depressive Disorder Working Group and the UK Biobank. The total sample size was 45,149 depression cases and 86,698 controls. We tested for association between depression status and imputed MHC variants, applying both a region-wide significance threshold (3.9 × 10-6) and a candidate threshold (1.6 × 10-4). RESULTS: No HLA alleles or C4 haplotypes were associated with depression at the region-wide threshold. HLA-B*08:01 was associated with modest protection for depression at the candidate threshold for testing in HLA genes in the meta-analysis (odds ratio = 0.98, 95% confidence interval = 0.97-0.99). CONCLUSIONS: We found no evidence that an increased risk for depression was conferred by HLA alleles, which play a major role in the genetic susceptibility to autoimmune diseases, or C4 haplotypes, which are strongly associated with schizophrenia. These results suggest that any HLA or C4 variants associated with depression either are rare or have very modest effect sizes.

9.
Mol Psychiatry ; 2019 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31471575

RESUMO

Alterations in white matter (WM) microstructure have been implicated in the pathophysiology of major depressive disorder (MDD). However, previous findings have been inconsistent, partially due to low statistical power and the heterogeneity of depression. In the largest multi-site study to date, we examined WM anisotropy and diffusivity in 1305 MDD patients and 1602 healthy controls (age range 12-88 years) from 20 samples worldwide, which included both adults and adolescents, within the MDD Working Group of the Enhancing Neuroimaging Genetics through Meta-Analysis (ENIGMA) consortium. Processing of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) data and statistical analyses were harmonized across sites and effects were meta-analyzed across studies. We observed subtle, but widespread, lower fractional anisotropy (FA) in adult MDD patients compared with controls in 16 out of 25 WM tracts of interest (Cohen's d between 0.12 and 0.26). The largest differences were observed in the corpus callosum and corona radiata. Widespread higher radial diffusivity (RD) was also observed (all Cohen's d between 0.12 and 0.18). Findings appeared to be driven by patients with recurrent MDD and an adult age of onset of depression. White matter microstructural differences in a smaller sample of adolescent MDD patients and controls did not survive correction for multiple testing. In this coordinated and harmonized multisite DTI study, we showed subtle, but widespread differences in WM microstructure in adult MDD, which may suggest structural disconnectivity in MDD.

10.
Mol Psychiatry ; 2019 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31501512

RESUMO

Recurrent and chronic major depressive disorder (MDD) accounts for a substantial part of the disease burden because this course is most prevalent and typically requires long-term treatment. We associated blood DNA methylation profiles from 581 MDD patients at baseline with MDD status 6 years later. A resampling approach showed a highly significant association between methylation profiles in blood at baseline and future disease status (P = 2.0 × 10-16). Top MWAS results were enriched specific pathways, overlapped with genes found in GWAS of MDD disease status, autoimmune disease and inflammation, and co-localized with eQTLS and (genic enhancers of) of transcription sites in brain and blood. Many of these findings remained significant after correction for multiple testing. The major themes emerging were cellular responses to stress and signaling mechanisms linked to immune cell migration and inflammation. This suggests that an immune signature of treatment-resistant depression is already present at baseline. We also created a methylation risk score (MRS) to predict MDD status 6 years later. The AUC of our MRS was 0.724 and higher than risk scores created using a set of five putative MDD biomarkers, genome-wide SNP data, and 27 clinical, demographic and lifestyle variables. Although further studies are needed to examine the generalizability to different patient populations, these results suggest that methylation profiles in blood may present a promising avenue to support clinical decision making by providing empirical information about the likelihood MDD is chronic or will recur in the future.

11.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 2019 Sep 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31558840

RESUMO

Insights into individual differences in gene expression and its heritability (h2) can help in understanding pathways from DNA to phenotype. We estimated the heritability of gene expression of 52,844 genes measured in whole blood in the largest twin RNA-Seq sample to date (1497 individuals including 459 monozygotic twin pairs and 150 dizygotic twin pairs) from classical twin modeling and identity-by-state-based approaches. We estimated for each gene h2total, composed of cis-heritability (h2cis, the variance explained by single nucleotide polymorphisms in the cis-window of the gene), and trans-heritability (h2res, the residual variance explained by all other genome-wide variants). Mean h2total was 0.26, which was significantly higher than heritability estimates earlier found in a microarray-based study using largely overlapping (>60%) RNA samples (mean h2 = 0.14, p = 6.15 × 10-258). Mean h2cis was 0.06 and strongly correlated with beta of the top cis expression quantitative loci (eQTL, ρ = 0.76, p < 10-308) and with estimates from earlier RNA-Seq-based studies. Mean h2res was 0.20 and correlated with the beta of the corresponding trans-eQTL (ρ = 0.04, p < 1.89 × 10-3) and was significantly higher for genes involved in cytokine-cytokine interactions (p = 4.22 × 10-15), many other immune system pathways, and genes identified in genome-wide association studies for various traits including behavioral disorders and cancer. This study provides a thorough characterization of cis- and trans-h2 estimates of gene expression, which is of value for interpretation of GWAS and gene expression studies.

12.
Psychol Med ; : 1-12, 2019 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31409435

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Review findings on the role of dietary patterns in preventing depression are inconsistent, possibly due to variation in assessment of dietary exposure and depression. We studied the association between dietary patterns and depressive symptoms in six population-based cohorts and meta-analysed the findings using a standardised approach that defined dietary exposure, depression assessment and covariates. METHODS: Included were cross-sectional data from 23 026 participants in six cohorts: InCHIANTI (Italy), LASA, NESDA, HELIUS (the Netherlands), ALSWH (Australia) and Whitehall II (UK). Analysis of incidence was based on three cohorts with repeated measures of depressive symptoms at 5-6 years of follow-up in 10 721 participants: Whitehall II, InCHIANTI, ALSWH. Three a priori dietary patterns, Mediterranean diet score (MDS), Alternative Healthy Eating Index (AHEI-2010), and the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet were investigated in relation to depressive symptoms. Analyses at the cohort-level adjusted for a fixed set of confounders, meta-analysis used a random-effects model. RESULTS: Cross-sectional and prospective analyses showed statistically significant inverse associations of the three dietary patterns with depressive symptoms (continuous and dichotomous). In cross-sectional analysis, the association of diet with depressive symptoms using a cut-off yielded an adjusted OR of 0.87 (95% confidence interval 0.84-0.91) for MDS, 0.93 (0.88-0.98) for AHEI-2010, and 0.94 (0.87-1.01) for DASH. Similar associations were observed prospectively: 0.88 (0.80-0.96) for MDS; 0.95 (0.84-1.06) for AHEI-2010; 0.90 (0.84-0.97) for DASH. CONCLUSION: Population-scale observational evidence indicates that adults following a healthy dietary pattern have fewer depressive symptoms and lower risk of developing depressive symptoms.

13.
Transl Psychiatry ; 9(1): 193, 2019 08 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31431611

RESUMO

The pathophysiology of major depressive disorder (MDD) is highly heterogeneous. Previous evidence at the DNA level as well as on the serum protein level suggests that the role of inflammation in MDD pathology is stronger in patients with hyperphagia during an active episode. Which inflammatory pathways differ in MDD patients with hyperphagia inflammatory pathways in terms of gene expression is unknown. We analyzed whole-blood gene expression profiles of 881 current MDD cases and 331 controls from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA). The MDD patients were stratified according to patients with hyperphagia (characterized by increased appetite and/or weight, N = 246) or hypophagia (characterized by decreased appetite and/or weight, N = 342). Using results of differential gene expression analysis between controls and the MDD subgroups, enrichment of curated inflammatory pathways was estimated. The majority of the pathways were significantly (FDR < 0.1) enriched in the expression profiles of MDD cases with hyperphagia, including top pathways related to factors responsible for the onset of inflammatory response ('caspase', 'GATA3', 'NFAT', and 'inflammasomes' pathways). Only two pathways ('adaptive immune system' and 'IL-8- and CXCR2-mediated signaling') were enriched in the MDD with hypophagia subgroup, these were also enriched in the total current MDD group and the group with hyperphagia. This confirms the importance of inflammation in MDD pathology of patients with hyperphagia, and suggests that distinguishing more uniform MDD phenotypes can help in finding their pathophysiological basis.

14.
Transl Psychiatry ; 9(1): 198, 2019 08 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31434875

RESUMO

Recent evidence suggests a significant overlap in biological changes between major depression and aging across the lifespan. We aim to evaluate the impact of a major depressive episode on the Senescence-Associated Secretory Phenotype (SASP) index, a dynamic secretory molecular pattern indicative of cellular senescence. We also tested the potential moderators of the association between major depression and the SASP index. We included 1165 young and middle-aged adults (527 with a current major depressive episode (cMDE) and 638 with no lifetime history of depression) from a community-based cohort from the Netherlands. We calculated the SASP index based on a previously developed composite index involving 19 biomarkers. cMDE had higher SASP index values (t(1163) = 2.93, p = 0.003) compared to controls in the univariate analysis. After controlling for sociodemographic and somatic health covariates, there was no significant association between cMDE and SASP index (F(1,1158) = 1.09, p = 0.29). Those with the most severe depressive episodes had significantly higher SASP indices compared to those with mild-to-moderate cMDE and controls (F(2,1162) = 6.73, p = 0.001). We found a significant interaction between cMDE and overweight (F(1,1164) = 5.1, p = 0.028): those with comorbid cMDE and overweight had the highest SASP index. Our study demonstrated a complex interaction between cMDE and medical morbidity, especially overweight, on the SASP index, suggesting that their coexistence aggravate age-related biological processes. Moreover, higher SASP index can be a biomarker for more severe depressive episodes.

15.
J Affect Disord ; 259: 259-265, 2019 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31450135

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with various psychiatric disorders may suffer from feelings of anger, sometimes leading to maladaptive (e.g., aggressive) behaviors. We examined to what extent depressive and anxiety disorders, relevant clinical correlates, and sociodemographics determined the level of trait anger and the prevalence of recent anger attacks. METHODS: In the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA), the Spielberger Trait Anger Subscale and the Anger Attacks Questionnaire were analyzed in patients with depressive (n = 204), anxiety (n = 288), comorbid (n = 222), and remitted disorders (n = 1,107), as well as in healthy controls (n = 470) based on DSM-IV criteria. RESULTS: On average, participants were 46.2 years old (SD = 13.1) and 66.3% were female. Trait anger and anger attacks were most prevalent in the comorbid group (M = 18.5, SD = 5.9, and prevalence 22.1%), followed by anxiety disorder, depressive disorder, remitted disorder, and controls (M = 12.7; SD = 2.9, and prevalence 1.3%). Major depressive disorder, social phobia, panic disorder, and generalized anxiety disorder were most strongly associated to trait anger and anger attacks. LIMITATIONS: Due to a cross-sectional design, it was not possible to provide evidence for temporal or causal relationships between anger and depressive and anxiety disorders. CONCLUSIONS: Trait anger and anger attacks are linked to depressive and anxiety disorders, although the strength of the relationship differed among both anger constructs.

16.
Depress Anxiety ; 36(10): 975-986, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31348850

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Actigraphy may provide a more valid assessment of sleep, circadian rhythm (CR), and physical activity (PA) than self-reported questionnaires, but has not been used widely to study the association with depression/anxiety and their clinical characteristics. METHODS: Fourteen-day actigraphy data of 359 participants with current (n = 93), remitted (n = 176), or no (n = 90) composite international diagnostic interview depression/anxiety diagnoses were obtained from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety. Objective estimates included sleep duration (SD), sleep efficiency, relative amplitude (RA) between day-time and night-time activity, mid sleep on free days (MSF), gross motor activity (GMA), and moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA). Self-reported measures included insomnia rating scale, SD, MSF, metabolic equivalent total, and MVPA. RESULTS: Compared to controls, individuals with current depression/anxiety had a significantly different objective, but not self-reported, PA and CR: lower GMA (23.83 vs. 27.4 milli-gravity/day, p = .022), lower MVPA (35.32 vs. 47.64 min/day, p = .023), lower RA (0.82 vs. 0.83, p = .033). In contrast, self-reported, but not objective, sleep differed between people with current depression/anxiety compared to those without current disorders; people with current depression/anxiety reported both shorter and longer SD and more insomnia. More depressive/anxiety symptoms and number of depressive/anxiety diagnoses were associated with larger disturbances of the actigraphy measures. CONCLUSION: Actigraphy provides ecologically valid information on sleep, CR, and PA that enhances data from self-reported questionnaires. As those with more severe or comorbid forms showed the lowest PA and most CR disruptions, the potential for adjunctive behavioral and chronotherapy interventions should be explored, as well as the potential of actigraphy to monitor treatment response to such interventions.

17.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 110(5): 1119-1130, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31340012

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Depressive symptoms and impaired physical functioning are prevalent among older adults. Supplementation with vitamin D might improve both conditions, particularly in persons with low vitamin D status. OBJECTIVE: The D-Vitaal study primarily aimed to investigate the effect of vitamin D supplementation on depressive symptoms, functional limitations, and physical performance in a high-risk older population with low vitamin D status. Secondary aims included examining the effect of vitamin D supplementation on anxiety symptoms, cognitive functioning, mobility, handgrip strength, and health-related quality of life. METHODS: This study was a randomized placebo-controlled trial with 155 participants aged 60-80 y who had clinically relevant depressive symptoms, ≥1 functional limitations, and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations of 15-50/70 nmol/L (depending on season). Participants received 1200 IU/d vitamin D3 (n = 77) or placebo tablets (n = 78) for 12 mo. Serum 25(OH)D was measured at baseline and 6 mo; outcomes were assessed at baseline, 6 mo, and 12 mo. Linear mixed-models analyses were conducted to assess the effect of the intervention. RESULTS: The supplementation increased serum 25(OH)D concentrations in the intervention group to a mean ± SD of 85 ± 16 nmol/L compared with 43 ± 18 nmol/L in the placebo group after 6 mo (P < 0.001). No relevant differences between the treatment groups were observed regarding depressive symptoms, functional limitations, physical performance, or any of the secondary outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: Supplementation with 1200 IU/d vitamin D for 12 mo had no effect on depressive symptoms and physical functioning in older persons with relatively low vitamin D status, clinically relevant depressive symptoms, and poor physical functioning. This trial is registered with the Netherlands Trial Register (www.trialregister.nl) under NTR3845.

18.
Depress Anxiety ; 36(9): 801-812, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31231925

RESUMO

Anxiety Disorders often show a chronic course, even when treated with one of the various effective treatments available. Lack of treatment effect could be due to Treatment Resistance (TR). Consensus on a definition for TR Anxiety Disorders (TR-AD) is highly needed as currently many different operationalizations are in use. Therefore, generalizability in current TR-AD research is suboptimal, hampering improvement of clinical care. The objective of this review is to evaluate the currently used definitions of TR-AD by performing a systematic review of available literature. Out of a total of n = 13 042, 62 studies that operationalized TR-AD were included. The current review confirms a lack of consensus on TR-AD criteria. In 62.9% of the definitions, TR was deemed present after the first treatment failure. Most studies (93.0%) required pharmacological treatment failures, whereas few (29.0%) required psychological treatment failures. However, criteria for what constitutes "treatment failure" were not provided in the majority of studies (58.1%). Definitions for minimal treatment duration ranged from at least 4 weeks to at least 6 months. Almost half of the TR-AD definitions (46.8%) required elevated anxiety severity levels in TR-AD. After synthesis of the results, the consensus definition considers TR-AD present after both at least one first-line pharmacological and one psychological treatment failure, provided for an adequate duration (at least 8 weeks) with anxiety severity remaining above a specified threshold. This definition could contribute to improving course prediction and identifying more targeted treatment options for the highly burdened subgroup of TR-AD patients.

19.
Am J Psychiatry ; 176(8): 651-660, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31164008

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: More than 90% of people who attempt suicide have a psychiatric diagnosis; however, twin and family studies suggest that the genetic etiology of suicide attempt is partially distinct from that of the psychiatric disorders themselves. The authors present the largest genome-wide association study (GWAS) on suicide attempt, using cohorts of individuals with major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, and schizophrenia from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium. METHODS: The samples comprised 1,622 suicide attempters and 8,786 nonattempters with major depressive disorder; 3,264 attempters and 5,500 nonattempters with bipolar disorder; and 1,683 attempters and 2,946 nonattempters with schizophrenia. A GWAS on suicide attempt was performed by comparing attempters to nonattempters with each disorder, followed by a meta-analysis across disorders. Polygenic risk scoring was used to investigate the genetic relationship between suicide attempt and the psychiatric disorders. RESULTS: Three genome-wide significant loci for suicide attempt were found: one associated with suicide attempt in major depressive disorder, one associated with suicide attempt in bipolar disorder, and one in the meta-analysis of suicide attempt in mood disorders. These associations were not replicated in independent mood disorder cohorts from the UK Biobank and iPSYCH. No significant associations were found in the meta-analysis of all three disorders. Polygenic risk scores for major depression were significantly associated with suicide attempt in major depressive disorder (R2=0.25%), bipolar disorder (R2=0.24%), and schizophrenia (R2=0.40%). CONCLUSIONS: This study provides new information on genetic associations and demonstrates that genetic liability for major depression increases risk for suicide attempt across psychiatric disorders. Further collaborative efforts to increase sample size may help to robustly identify genetic associations and provide biological insights into the etiology of suicide attempt.

20.
Psychoneuroendocrinology ; 106: 293-311, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31154264

RESUMO

Aging is associated with complex biological changes that can be accelerated, slowed, or even temporarily reversed by biological and non-biological factors. This article focuses on the link between biological aging, psychological stressors, and mental illness. Rather than comprehensively reviewing this rapidly expanding field, we highlight challenges in this area of research and propose potential strategies to accelerate progress in this field. This effort requires the interaction of scientists across disciplines - including biology, psychiatry, psychology, and epidemiology; and across levels of analysis that emphasize different outcome measures - functional capacity, physiological, cellular, and molecular. Dialogues across disciplines and levels of analysis naturally lead to new opportunities for discovery but also to stimulating challenges. Some important challenges consist of 1) establishing the best objective and predictive biological age indicators or combinations of indicators, 2) identifying the basis for inter-individual differences in the rate of biological aging, and 3) examining to what extent interventions can delay, halt or temporarily reverse aging trajectories. Discovering how psychological states influence biological aging, and vice versa, has the potential to create novel and exciting opportunities for healthcare and possibly yield insights into the fundamental mechanisms that drive human aging.

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