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1.
J Bacteriol ; 200(13)2018 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29632097

RESUMO

Sinorhizobium meliloti enters into beneficial symbiotic interactions with Medicago species of legumes. Bacterial exopolysaccharides play critical signaling roles in infection thread initiation and growth during the early stages of root nodule formation. After endocytosis of S. meliloti by plant cells in the developing nodule, plant-derived nodule-specific cysteine-rich (NCR) peptides mediate terminal differentiation of the bacteria into nitrogen-fixing bacteroids. Previous transcriptional studies showed that the intensively studied cationic peptide NCR247 induces expression of the exo genes that encode the proteins required for succinoglycan biosynthesis. In addition, genetic studies have shown that some exo mutants exhibit increased sensitivity to the antimicrobial action of NCR247. Therefore, we investigated whether the symbiotically active S. meliloti exopolysaccharide succinoglycan can protect S. meliloti against the antimicrobial activity of NCR247. We discovered that high-molecular-weight forms of succinoglycan have the ability to protect S. meliloti from the antimicrobial action of the NCR247 peptide but low-molecular-weight forms of wild-type succinoglycan do not. The protective function of high-molecular-weight succinoglycan occurs via direct molecular interactions between anionic succinoglycan and the cationic NCR247 peptide, but this interaction is not chiral. Taken together, our observations suggest that S. meliloti exopolysaccharides not only may be critical during early stages of nodule invasion but also are upregulated at a late stage of symbiosis to protect bacteria against the bactericidal action of cationic NCR peptides. Our findings represent an important step forward in fully understanding the complete set of exopolysaccharide functions during legume symbiosis.IMPORTANCE Symbiotic interactions between rhizobia and legumes are economically important for global food production. The legume symbiosis also is a major part of the global nitrogen cycle and is an ideal model system to study host-microbe interactions. Signaling between legumes and rhizobia is essential to establish symbiosis, and understanding these signals is a major goal in the field. Exopolysaccharides are important in the symbiotic context because they are essential signaling molecules during early-stage symbiosis. In this study, we provide evidence suggesting that the Sinorhizobium meliloti exopolysaccharide succinoglycan also protects the bacteria against the antimicrobial action of essential late-stage symbiosis plant peptides.


Assuntos
Medicago truncatula/microbiologia , Polissacarídeos Bacterianos/metabolismo , Sinorhizobium meliloti/fisiologia , Simbiose , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Medicago truncatula/fisiologia , Fixação de Nitrogênio , Raízes de Plantas/microbiologia , Raízes de Plantas/fisiologia , Sinorhizobium meliloti/genética
2.
MBio ; 8(4)2017 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28765224

RESUMO

The model legume species Medicago truncatula expresses more than 700 nodule-specific cysteine-rich (NCR) signaling peptides that mediate the differentiation of Sinorhizobium meliloti bacteria into nitrogen-fixing bacteroids. NCR peptides are essential for a successful symbiosis in legume plants of the inverted-repeat-lacking clade (IRLC) and show similarity to mammalian defensins. In addition to signaling functions, many NCR peptides exhibit antimicrobial activity in vitro and in vivo Bacterial resistance to these antimicrobial activities is likely to be important for symbiosis. However, the mechanisms used by S. meliloti to resist antimicrobial activity of plant peptides are poorly understood. To address this, we applied a global genetic approach using transposon mutagenesis followed by high-throughput sequencing (Tn-seq) to identify S. meliloti genes and pathways that increase or decrease bacterial competitiveness during exposure to the well-studied cationic NCR247 peptide and also to the unrelated model antimicrobial peptide polymyxin B. We identified 78 genes and several diverse pathways whose interruption alters S. meliloti resistance to NCR247. These genes encode the following: (i) cell envelope polysaccharide biosynthesis and modification proteins, (ii) inner and outer membrane proteins, (iii) peptidoglycan (PG) effector proteins, and (iv) non-membrane-associated factors such as transcriptional regulators and ribosome-associated factors. We describe a previously uncharacterized yet highly conserved peptidase, which protects S. meliloti from NCR247 and increases competitiveness during symbiosis. Additionally, we highlight a considerable number of uncharacterized genes that provide the basis for future studies to investigate the molecular basis of symbiotic development as well as chronic pathogenic interactions.IMPORTANCE Soil rhizobial bacteria enter into an ecologically and economically important symbiotic interaction with legumes, in which they differentiate into physiologically distinct bacteroids that provide essential ammonia to the plant in return for carbon sources. Plant signal peptides are essential and specific to achieve these physiological changes. These peptides show similarity to mammalian defensin peptides which are part of the first line of defense to control invading bacterial populations. A number of these legume peptides are indeed known to possess antimicrobial activity, and so far, only the bacterial BacA protein is known to protect rhizobial bacteria against their antimicrobial action. This study identified numerous additional bacterial factors that mediate protection and belong to diverse biological pathways. Our results significantly contribute to our understanding of the molecular roles of bacterial factors during legume symbioses and, second, provide insights into the mechanisms that pathogenic bacteria may use to resist the antimicrobial effects of defensins during infections.


Assuntos
Defensinas/metabolismo , Medicago truncatula/microbiologia , Sinorhizobium meliloti/genética , Sinorhizobium meliloti/metabolismo , Simbiose , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Cisteína/metabolismo , Defensinas/farmacologia , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Medicago truncatula/química , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras/metabolismo , Mutagênese , Fixação de Nitrogênio , Sinorhizobium meliloti/efeitos dos fármacos
3.
J Biomol Tech ; 28(1): 31-39, 2017 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28337070

RESUMO

The Extreme Microbiome Project (XMP) is a project launched by the Association of Biomolecular Resource Facilities Metagenomics Research Group (ABRF MGRG) that focuses on whole genome shotgun sequencing of extreme and unique environments using a wide variety of biomolecular techniques. The goals are multifaceted, including development and refinement of new techniques for the following: 1) the detection and characterization of novel microbes, 2) the evaluation of nucleic acid techniques for extremophilic samples, and 3) the identification and implementation of the appropriate bioinformatics pipelines. Here, we highlight the different ongoing projects that we have been working on, as well as details on the various methods we use to characterize the microbiome and metagenome of these complex samples. In particular, we present data of a novel multienzyme extraction protocol that we developed, called Polyzyme or MetaPolyZyme. Presently, the XMP is characterizing sample sites around the world with the intent of discovering new species, genes, and gene clusters. Once a project site is complete, the resulting data will be publically available. Sites include Lake Hillier in Western Australia, the "Door to Hell" crater in Turkmenistan, deep ocean brine lakes of the Gulf of Mexico, deep ocean sediments from Greenland, permafrost tunnels in Alaska, ancient microbial biofilms from Antarctica, Blue Lagoon Iceland, Ethiopian toxic hot springs, and the acidic hypersaline ponds in Western Australia.


Assuntos
Microbiologia Ambiental , Microbiota/genética , DNA Bacteriano/genética , DNA Bacteriano/isolamento & purificação , Ambientes Extremos , Metagenoma , Tipagem Molecular/normas , RNA Bacteriano/genética , RNA Bacteriano/isolamento & purificação , Padrões de Referência , Análise de Sequência de DNA/normas
4.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 113(36): 10157-62, 2016 09 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27551097

RESUMO

Interactions of rhizobia with legumes establish the chronic intracellular infection that underlies symbiosis. Within nodules of inverted repeat-lacking clade (IRLC) legumes, rhizobia differentiate into nitrogen-fixing bacteroids. This terminal differentiation is driven by host nodule-specific cysteine-rich (NCR) peptides that orchestrate the adaptation of free-living bacteria into intracellular residents. Medicago truncatula encodes a family of >700 NCR peptides that have conserved cysteine motifs. NCR247 is a cationic peptide with four cysteines that can form two intramolecular disulfide bonds in the oxidized forms. This peptide affects Sinorhizobium meliloti transcription, translation, and cell division at low concentrations and is antimicrobial at higher concentrations. By preparing the three possible disulfide-cross-linked NCR247 regioisomers, the reduced peptide, and a variant lacking cysteines, we performed a systematic study of the effects of intramolecular disulfide cross-linking and cysteines on the activities of an NCR peptide. The relative activities of the five NCR247 variants differed strikingly among the various bioassays, suggesting that the NCR peptide-based language used by plants to control the development of their bacterial partners during symbiosis is even greater than previously recognized. These patterns indicate that certain NCR bioactivities require cysteines whereas others do not. The results also suggest that NCR247 may exert some of its effects within the cell envelope whereas other activities occur in the cytoplasm. BacA, a membrane protein that is critical for symbiosis, provides protection against all bactericidal forms of NCR247. Oxidative folding protects NCR247 from degradation by the symbiotically relevant metalloprotease HrrP (host range restriction peptidase), suggesting that disulfide bond formation may additionally stabilize NCR peptides during symbiosis.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Regulação Bacteriana da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Medicago truncatula/microbiologia , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras/genética , Peptídeos/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Sinorhizobium meliloti/efeitos dos fármacos , Simbiose/genética , Motivos de Aminoácidos , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Cisteína/química , Dissulfetos/química , Especificidade de Hospedeiro , Medicago truncatula/genética , Medicago truncatula/metabolismo , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras/metabolismo , Fixação de Nitrogênio , Peptídeos/metabolismo , Peptídeos/farmacologia , Proteínas de Plantas/biossíntese , Proteínas de Plantas/farmacologia , Nódulos Radiculares de Plantas/genética , Nódulos Radiculares de Plantas/metabolismo , Nódulos Radiculares de Plantas/microbiologia , Transdução de Sinais , Sinorhizobium meliloti/genética , Sinorhizobium meliloti/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sinorhizobium meliloti/metabolismo , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
5.
PLoS Genet ; 11(5): e1005232, 2015 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25978424

RESUMO

In all domains of life, proper regulation of the cell cycle is critical to coordinate genome replication, segregation and cell division. In some groups of bacteria, e.g. Alphaproteobacteria, tight regulation of the cell cycle is also necessary for the morphological and functional differentiation of cells. Sinorhizobium meliloti is an alphaproteobacterium that forms an economically and ecologically important nitrogen-fixing symbiosis with specific legume hosts. During this symbiosis S. meliloti undergoes an elaborate cellular differentiation within host root cells. The differentiation of S. meliloti results in massive amplification of the genome, cell branching and/or elongation, and loss of reproductive capacity. In Caulobacter crescentus, cellular differentiation is tightly linked to the cell cycle via the activity of the master regulator CtrA, and recent research in S. meliloti suggests that CtrA might also be key to cellular differentiation during symbiosis. However, the regulatory circuit driving cell cycle progression in S. meliloti is not well characterized in both the free-living and symbiotic state. Here, we investigated the regulation and function of CtrA in S. meliloti. We demonstrated that depletion of CtrA cause cell elongation, branching and genome amplification, similar to that observed in nitrogen-fixing bacteroids. We also showed that the cell cycle regulated proteolytic degradation of CtrA is essential in S. meliloti, suggesting a possible mechanism of CtrA depletion in differentiated bacteroids. Using a combination of ChIP-Seq and gene expression microarray analysis we found that although S. meliloti CtrA regulates similar processes as C. crescentus CtrA, it does so through different target genes. For example, our data suggest that CtrA does not control the expression of the Fts complex to control the timing of cell division during the cell cycle, but instead it negatively regulates the septum-inhibiting Min system. Our findings provide valuable insight into how highly conserved genetic networks can evolve, possibly to fit the diverse lifestyles of different bacteria.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Caulobacter crescentus/genética , Pontos de Checagem do Ciclo Celular/genética , Regulação Bacteriana da Expressão Gênica , Sinorhizobium meliloti/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Caulobacter crescentus/citologia , Imunoprecipitação da Cromatina , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Clonagem Molecular , Replicação do DNA , Regulação para Baixo , Fabaceae/microbiologia , Deleção de Genes , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Marcadores Genéticos , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Sinorhizobium meliloti/citologia , Simbiose , Transdução Genética , beta-Galactosidase/genética , beta-Galactosidase/metabolismo
6.
J Bacteriol ; 196(18): 3351-9, 2014 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25022851

RESUMO

LexA and two structurally related regulators, PrtR and PA0906, coordinate the Pseudomonas aeruginosa SOS response. RecA-mediated autocleavage of LexA induces the expression of a protective set of genes that increase DNA damage repair and tolerance. In contrast, RecA-mediated autocleavage of PrtR induces antimicrobial pyocin production and a program that lyses cells to release the newly synthesized pyocin. Recently, PrtR-regulated genes were shown to sensitize P. aeruginosa to quinolones, antibiotics that elicit a strong SOS response. Here, we investigated the mechanisms by which PrtR-regulated genes determine antimicrobial resistance and genotoxic stress survival. We found that induction of PrtR-regulated genes lowers resistance to clinically important antibiotics and impairs the survival of bacteria exposed to one of several genotoxic agents. Two distinct mechanisms mediated these effects. Cell lysis genes that are induced following PrtR autocleavage reduced resistance to bactericidal levels of ciprofloxacin, and production of extracellular R2 pyocin was lethal to cells that initially survived UV light treatment. Although typically resistant to R2 pyocin, P. aeruginosa becomes transiently sensitive to R2 pyocin following UV light treatment, likely because of the strong downregulation of lipopolysaccharide synthesis genes that are required for resistance to R2 pyocin. Our results demonstrate that pyocin production during the P. aeruginosa SOS response carries both expected and unexpected costs.


Assuntos
Regulação Bacteriana da Expressão Gênica/fisiologia , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/metabolismo , Piocinas/biossíntese , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Ciprofloxacino/farmacologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/genética , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/efeitos dos fármacos , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/genética , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/efeitos da radiação , Piocinas/metabolismo , Serina Endopeptidases/genética , Serina Endopeptidases/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Raios Ultravioleta
7.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 111(9): 3561-6, 2014 Mar 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24501120

RESUMO

The α-proteobacterium Sinorhizobium meliloti establishes a chronic intracellular infection during the symbiosis with its legume hosts. Within specialized host cells, S. meliloti differentiates into highly polyploid, enlarged nitrogen-fixing bacteroids. This differentiation is driven by host cells through the production of defensin-like peptides called "nodule-specific cysteine-rich" (NCR) peptides. Recent research has shown that synthesized NCR peptides exhibit antimicrobial activity at high concentrations but cause bacterial endoreduplication at sublethal concentrations. We leveraged synchronized S. meliloti populations to determine how treatment with a sublethal NCR peptide affects the cell cycle and physiology of bacteria at the molecular level. We found that at sublethal levels a representative NCR peptide specifically blocks cell division and antagonizes Z-ring function. Gene-expression profiling revealed that the cell division block was produced, in part, through the substantial transcriptional response elicited by sublethal NCR treatment that affected ∼15% of the genome. Expression of critical cell-cycle regulators, including ctrA, and cell division genes, including genes required for Z-ring function, were greatly attenuated in NCR-treated cells. In addition, our experiments identified important symbiosis functions and stress responses that are induced by sublethal levels of NCR peptides and other antimicrobial peptides. Several of these stress-response pathways also are found in related α-proteobacterial pathogens and might be used by S. meliloti to sense host cues during infection. Our data suggest a model in which, in addition to provoking stress responses, NCR peptides target intracellular regulatory pathways to drive S. meliloti endoreduplication and differentiation during symbiosis.


Assuntos
Ciclo Celular/fisiologia , Fabaceae/microbiologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/fisiologia , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intercelular/metabolismo , Sinorhizobium meliloti/fisiologia , Simbiose , DNA Complementar/genética , Fabaceae/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Análise em Microsséries , Modelos Biológicos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Nódulos Radiculares de Plantas/metabolismo , Nódulos Radiculares de Plantas/microbiologia , Sinorhizobium meliloti/metabolismo
8.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 111(9): 3217-24, 2014 Mar 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24501121

RESUMO

In α-proteobacteria, strict regulation of cell cycle progression is necessary for the specific cellular differentiation required for adaptation to diverse environmental niches. The symbiotic lifestyle of Sinorhizobium meliloti requires a drastic cellular differentiation that includes genome amplification. To achieve polyploidy, the S. meliloti cell cycle program must be altered to uncouple DNA replication from cell division. In the α-proteobacterium Caulobacter crescentus, cell cycle-regulated transcription plays an important role in the control of cell cycle progression but this has not been demonstrated in other α-proteobacteria. Here we describe a robust method for synchronizing cell growth that enabled global analysis of S. meliloti cell cycle-regulated gene expression. This analysis identified 462 genes with cell cycle-regulated transcripts, including several key cell cycle regulators, and genes involved in motility, attachment, and cell division. Only 28% of the 462 S. meliloti cell cycle-regulated genes were also transcriptionally cell cycle-regulated in C. crescentus. Furthermore, CtrA- and DnaA-binding motif analysis revealed little overlap between the cell cycle-dependent regulons of CtrA and DnaA in S. meliloti and C. crescentus. The predicted S. meliloti cell cycle regulon of CtrA, but not that of DnaA, was strongly conserved in more closely related α-proteobacteria with similar ecological niches as S. meliloti, suggesting that the CtrA cell cycle regulatory network may control functions of central importance to the specific lifestyles of α-proteobacteria.


Assuntos
Adaptação Biológica/genética , Ciclo Celular/fisiologia , Regulação Bacteriana da Expressão Gênica/genética , Redes Reguladoras de Genes/fisiologia , Regulon/genética , Sinorhizobium meliloti/metabolismo , Simbiose , Ciclo Celular/genética , Fabaceae/microbiologia , Citometria de Fluxo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Redes Reguladoras de Genes/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Poliploidia , Sinorhizobium meliloti/genética , Microbiologia do Solo , Especificidade da Espécie
9.
Cell Rep ; 6(2): 293-300, 2014 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24412364

RESUMO

Biofilm growth increases the fitness of bacteria in harsh conditions. However, bacteria from clinical and environmental biofilms can exhibit impaired growth in culture, even when the species involved are readily culturable and permissive conditions are used. Here, we show that culture-impaired variants of Pseudomonas aeruginosa arise rapidly and become abundant in laboratory biofilms. The culture-impaired phenotype is caused by mutations that alter the outer-membrane lipopolysaccharide structure. Within biofilms, the lipopolysaccharide mutations markedly increase bacterial fitness. However, outside the protected biofilm environment, the mutations sensitize the variants to killing by a self-produced antimicrobial agent. Thus, a biofilm-mediated adaptation produces a stark fitness trade-off that compromises bacterial survival in culture. Trade-offs like this could limit the ability of bacteria to transition between biofilm growth and the free-living state and produce bacterial populations that escape detection by culture-based sampling.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica , Biofilmes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Evolução Molecular , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/genética , Proteínas da Membrana Bacteriana Externa/química , Proteínas da Membrana Bacteriana Externa/genética , Aptidão Genética , Lipopolissacarídeos/química , Mutação , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/fisiologia
10.
Environ Microbiol ; 15(10): 2865-78, 2013 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23751003

RESUMO

Biofilm cells are less susceptible to antimicrobials than their planktonic counterparts. While this phenomenon is multifactorial, the ability of the matrix to reduce antibiotic penetration into the biofilm is thought to be of limited importance studies suggest that antibiotics move fairly rapidly through biofilms. In this study, we monitored the transport of two clinically relevant antibiotics, tobramycin and ciprofloxacin, into non-mucoid Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms. To our surprise, we found that the positively charged antibiotic tobramycin is sequestered to the biofilm periphery, while the neutral antibiotic ciprofloxacin readily penetrated. We provide evidence that tobramycin in the biofilm periphery both stimulated a localized stress response and killed bacteria in these regions but not in the underlying biofilm. Although it is unclear which matrix component binds tobramycin, its penetration was increased by the addition of cations in a dose-dependent manner, which led to increased biofilm death. These data suggest that ionic interactions of tobramycin with the biofilm matrix limit its penetration. We propose that tobramycin sequestration at the biofilm periphery is an important mechanism in protecting metabolically active cells that lie just below the zone of sequestration.


Assuntos
Biofilmes , Matriz Extracelular/metabolismo , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/efeitos dos fármacos , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/fisiologia , Tobramicina/metabolismo , Tobramicina/farmacologia , Anti-Infecciosos/química , Anti-Infecciosos/metabolismo , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Ciprofloxacino/química , Ciprofloxacino/metabolismo , Ciprofloxacino/farmacologia , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/metabolismo , Tobramicina/química
11.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 110(6): 2389-94, 2013 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23335630

RESUMO

DNA methylation is an epigenetic mark that silences transposable elements (TEs) and repeats. Whereas the establishment and maintenance of DNA methylation are relatively well understood, little is known about their dynamics and biological relevance in plant and animal innate immunity. Here, we show that some TEs are demethylated and transcriptionally reactivated during antibacterial defense in Arabidopsis. This effect is correlated with the down-regulation of key transcriptional gene silencing factors and is partly dependent on an active demethylation process. DNA demethylation restricts multiplication and vascular propagation of the bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae in leaves and, accordingly, some immune-response genes, containing repeats in their promoter regions, are negatively regulated by DNA methylation. This study provides evidence that DNA demethylation is part of a plant-induced immune response, potentially acting to prime transcriptional activation of some defense genes linked to TEs/repeats.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Metilação de DNA , DNA de Plantas/genética , DNA de Plantas/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/imunologia , Arabidopsis/microbiologia , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Sequência de Bases , Genes de Plantas , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/genética , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/imunologia , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Mutação , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Doenças das Plantas/imunologia , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Folhas de Planta/imunologia , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/microbiologia , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Proteínas Quinases/genética , Proteínas Quinases/metabolismo , Pseudomonas syringae/imunologia , Pseudomonas syringae/patogenicidade , RNA Interferente Pequeno/genética
12.
Biochem Soc Trans ; 39(4): 1012-6, 2011 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21787339

RESUMO

PLUNC (palate, lung and nasal epithelium clone) protein is an abundant secretory product of epithelia throughout the mammalian conducting airways. Despite its homology with the innate immune defence molecules BPI (bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein) and LBP (lipopolysaccharide-binding protein), it has been difficult to define the functions of PLUNC. Based on its marked hydrophobicity and expression pattern, we hypothesized that PLUNC is an airway surfactant. We found that purified recombinant human PLUNC exhibited potent surfactant activity by several different measures, and experiments with airway epithelial cell lines and primary cultures indicate that native PLUNC makes a significant contribution to the overall surface tension in airway epithelial secretions. Interestingly, we also found that physiologically relevant concentrations of PLUNC-inhibited Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm formation in vitro without acting directly as a bactericide. This finding suggests that PLUNC protein may inhibit biofilm formation by airway pathogens, perhaps through its dispersant properties. Our data, along with reports from other groups on activity against some airway pathogens, expand on an emerging picture of PLUNC as a multifunctional protein, which plays a novel role in airway defences at the air/liquid interface.


Assuntos
Glicoproteínas/metabolismo , Fosfoproteínas/metabolismo , Surfactantes Pulmonares/metabolismo , Sistema Respiratório/metabolismo , Animais , Infecções Bacterianas/imunologia , Biofilmes , Humanos , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Imunidade Inata
13.
PLoS One ; 5(2): e9098, 2010 Feb 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20161732

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The PLUNC ("Palate, lung, nasal epithelium clone") protein is an abundant secretory product of epithelia present throughout the conducting airways of humans and other mammals, which is evolutionarily related to the lipid transfer/lipopolysaccharide binding protein (LT/LBP) family. Two members of this family--the bactericidal/permeability increasing protein (BPI) and the lipopolysaccharide binding protein (LBP)--are innate immune molecules with recognized roles in sensing and responding to Gram negative bacteria, leading many to propose that PLUNC may play a host defense role in the human airways. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Based on its marked hydrophobicity, we hypothesized that PLUNC may be an airway surfactant. We found that purified recombinant human PLUNC greatly enhanced the ability of aqueous solutions to spread on a hydrophobic surface. Furthermore, we discovered that PLUNC significantly reduced surface tension at the air-liquid interface in aqueous solutions, indicating novel and biologically relevant surfactant properties. Of note, surface tensions achieved by adding PLUNC to solutions are very similar to measurements of the surface tension in tracheobronchial secretions from humans and animal models. Because surfactants of microbial origin can disperse matrix-encased bacterial clusters known as biofilms [1], we hypothesized that PLUNC may also have anti-biofilm activity. We found that, at a physiologically relevant concentration, PLUNC inhibited biofilm formation by the airway pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa in an in vitro model. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our data suggest that the PLUNC protein contributes to the surfactant properties of airway secretions, and that this activity may interfere with biofilm formation by an airway pathogen.


Assuntos
Biofilmes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Glicoproteínas/fisiologia , Fosfoproteínas/fisiologia , Surfactantes Pulmonares/metabolismo , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Cultivadas , Dicroísmo Circular , Células Epiteliais/citologia , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Glicoproteínas/genética , Glicoproteínas/metabolismo , Humanos , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Immunoblotting , Pulmão/citologia , Pulmão/metabolismo , Pulmão/microbiologia , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Fosfoproteínas/genética , Fosfoproteínas/metabolismo , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/efeitos dos fármacos , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/fisiologia , Proteínas Recombinantes/química , Proteínas Recombinantes/metabolismo , Proteínas Recombinantes/farmacologia , Homologia de Sequência de Aminoácidos
14.
Plant Physiol ; 145(4): 1549-57, 2007 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17951456

RESUMO

DNA demethylation in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) is mediated by DNA glycosylases of the DEMETER family. Three DEMETER-LIKE (DML) proteins, REPRESSOR OF SILENCING1 (ROS1), DML2, and DML3, function to protect genes from potentially deleterious methylation. In Arabidopsis, much of the DNA methylation is directed by RNA interference (RNAi) pathways and used to defend the genome from transposable elements and their remnants, repetitive sequences. Here, we investigated the relationship between DML demethylation and RNAi-mediated DNA methylation. We found that genic regions demethylated by DML enzymes are enriched for small interfering RNAs and generally contain sequence repeats, transposons, or both. The most common class of small interfering RNAs was 24 nucleotides long, suggesting a role for an RNAi pathway that depends on RNA-DEPENDENT RNA POLYMERASE2 (RDR2). We show that ROS1 removes methylation that has multiple, independent origins, including de novo methylation directed by RDR2-dependent and -independent RNAi pathways. Interestingly, in rdr2 and drm2 mutant plants, we found that genes demethylated by ROS1 accumulate CG methylation, and we propose that this hypermethylation is due to the ROS1 down-regulation that occurs in these mutant backgrounds. Our observations support the hypothesis that DNA demethylation by DML enzymes is one mechanism by which Arabidopsis genes are protected from genome defense pathways.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/genética , DNA Glicosilases/metabolismo , Metilação de DNA , Proteínas Nucleares/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/enzimologia , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Proteínas Argonauta , Elementos de DNA Transponíveis , RNA Polimerases Dirigidas por DNA/metabolismo , Regulação para Baixo , Mutação , Interferência de RNA , RNA Replicase/metabolismo , RNA Interferente Pequeno , Sequências Repetitivas de Ácido Nucleico , Ribonuclease III/metabolismo
15.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 104(16): 6752-7, 2007 Apr 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17409185

RESUMO

Cytosine DNA methylation is considered to be a stable epigenetic mark, but active demethylation has been observed in both plants and animals. In Arabidopsis thaliana, DNA glycosylases of the DEMETER (DME) family remove methylcytosines from DNA. Demethylation by DME is necessary for genomic imprinting, and demethylation by a related protein, REPRESSOR OF SILENCING1, prevents gene silencing in a transgenic background. However, the extent and function of demethylation by DEMETER-LIKE (DML) proteins in WT plants is not known. Using genome-tiling microarrays, we mapped DNA methylation in mutant and WT plants and identified 179 loci actively demethylated by DML enzymes. Mutations in DML genes lead to locus-specific DNA hypermethylation. Reintroducing WT DML genes restores most loci to the normal pattern of methylation, although at some loci, hypermethylated epialleles persist. Of loci demethylated by DML enzymes, >80% are near or overlap genes. Genic demethylation by DML enzymes primarily occurs at the 5' and 3' ends, a pattern opposite to the overall distribution of WT DNA methylation. Our results show that demethylation by DML DNA glycosylases edits the patterns of DNA methylation within the Arabidopsis genome to protect genes from potentially deleterious methylation.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis/genética , Metilação de DNA , DNA de Plantas/metabolismo , Genoma de Planta , 5-Metilcitosina/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/enzimologia , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , DNA Glicosilases/genética , Marcadores Genéticos , Impressão Genômica , N-Glicosil Hidrolases/genética , Transativadores/genética
16.
Cell ; 124(3): 495-506, 2006 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16469697

RESUMO

MEDEA (MEA) is an Arabidopsis Polycomb group gene that is imprinted in the endosperm. The maternal allele is expressed and the paternal allele is silent. MEA is controlled by DEMETER (DME), a DNA glycosylase required to activate MEA expression, and METHYLTRANSFERASE I (MET1), which maintains CG methylation at the MEA locus. Here we show that DME is responsible for endosperm maternal-allele-specific hypomethylation at the MEA gene. DME can excise 5-methylcytosine in vitro and when expressed in E. coli. Abasic sites opposite 5-methylcytosine inhibit DME activity and might prevent DME from generating double-stranded DNA breaks. Unexpectedly, paternal-allele silencing is not controlled by DNA methylation. Rather, Polycomb group proteins that are expressed from the maternal genome, including MEA, control paternal MEA silencing. Thus, DME establishes MEA imprinting by removing 5-methylcytosine to activate the maternal allele. MEA imprinting is subsequently maintained in the endosperm by maternal MEA silencing the paternal allele.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Impressão Genômica , N-Glicosil Hidrolases/metabolismo , Transativadores/metabolismo , Alelos , Pareamento Incorreto de Bases , Sequência de Bases , Metilação de DNA , DNA de Plantas/genética , DNA de Plantas/metabolismo , Escherichia coli/genética , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Inativação Gênica , Genes de Plantas , Modelos Genéticos , N-Glicosil Hidrolases/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes/metabolismo , Transativadores/genética
17.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 99(9): 6147-51, 2002 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-11972021

RESUMO

Control of gene expression requires cis-acting regulatory DNA sequences. Historically these sequences have been difficult to identify. Conserved noncoding sequences (CNSs) have recently been identified in mammalian genes through cross-species genomic DNA comparisons, and some have been shown to be regulatory sequences. Using sequence alignment algorithms, we compared genomic noncoding DNA sequences of the liguleless1 (lg1) genes in two grasses, maize and rice, and found several CNSs in lg1. These CNSs are present in multiple grass species that represent phylogenetically disparate lineages. Six other maize/rice genes were compared and five contained CNSs. Based on nucleotide substitution rates, these CNSs exist because they have biological functions. Our analysis suggests that grass CNSs are smaller and far less frequent than those identified in mammalian genes and that mammalian gene regulation may be more complex than that of grasses. CNSs make excellent pan-grass PCR-based genetic mapping tools. They should be useful as characters in phylogenetic studies and as monitors of gene regulatory complexity.


Assuntos
Oryza/genética , Zea mays/genética , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Southern Blotting , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Sequência Conservada , Éxons , Modelos Genéticos , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Filogenia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , RNA não Traduzido , Homologia de Sequência do Ácido Nucleico , Especificidade da Espécie
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