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1.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 1045, 2021 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34627151

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ascaris lumbricoides and Ascaris suum are the most common soil-transmitted helminths of humans and pigs, respectively. The zoonotic potential of A. suum has been a matter of debate for decades. This study was aimed to present a case of human ascariasis caused by A. suum in southern Italy. CASE PRESENTATION: A 75-year-old man presented to the department of surgery in Avellino (southern Italy) complaining of abdominal pain and vomiting. Physical examination revealed bloating and abdominal tenderness. A computed tomography scan showed air-fluid levels and small bowel distension. During exploratory laparotomy a small bowel volvulus with mesenteritis was evident and surprisingly an intraluminal worm was detected. The worm was removed with a small enterotomy and identified as an adult female of A. suum based on morphological and molecular analysis. Faecal examination revealed the presence of unfertilized Ascaris eggs with an intensity of 16 eggs per gram (EPG) of faeces. The patient was treated with mebendanzole 100 mg twice a day for 3 days. The post-operative course was regular with re-alimentation after 3 days and discharge after 12 days. CONCLUSIONS: This report shows as A. suum can function as a relevant agent of human zoonosis. Therefore, in patients with bowel obstruction with no evident aetiology a helminthic infestation should be considered for an accurate diagnosis, especially in patients living in rural areas.


Assuntos
Ascaríase , Ascaris suum , Volvo Intestinal , Animais , Ascaríase/diagnóstico , Ascaris lumbricoides , Feminino , Humanos , Volvo Intestinal/diagnóstico , Intestinos , Suínos
2.
Parasit Vectors ; 14(1): 421, 2021 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34419132

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cystic echinococcosis (CE) is a worldwide parasitic zoonosis caused by the larval stage of Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato affecting livestock, particularly sheep and goats. However, often this parasitosis is underestimated. For this reason, this study aimed to evaluate the epidemiological features and spatial distribution of CE in sheep and goats slaughtered in a hyperendemic Mediterranean area. METHODS: A survey was conducted in the Basilicata region (southern Italy) from 2014 to 2019. A total of 1454 animals (1265 sheep and 189 goats) from 824 farms were examined for hydatid cyst detection by visual inspection, palpation and incision of target organs. All the CE cysts were counted and classified into five morphostructural types (unilocular, multiseptate, calcified, caseous and hyperlaminated). Molecular analysis was performed on 353 cysts. For spatial analysis, a kriging interpolation method was used to create risk maps, while clustering was assessed by Moran's I test. RESULTS: CE prevalence of 72.2% (595/824) and 58.4% (849/1454) was observed at the farm and animal levels, respectively, with higher values in sheep (62.9%) than goats (28.0%). The liver and lungs were the most frequently infected organs in both sheep and goats. Most of recovered cysts were of the calcified and multiseptate morphotypes. All the isolates were identified as E. granulosus sensu stricto (genotypes G1-G3). Spatial distribution showed a moderate clustering of positive animals. CONCLUSION: The findings of this study can be used to better understand the eco-epidemiology of echinococcosis and to improve CE surveillance and prevention programs in regions highly endemic for CE.

3.
Animals (Basel) ; 11(7)2021 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34208943

RESUMO

Toxoplasmosis is a widespread worldwide zoonotic infection caused by the intracellular protozoan Toxoplasma gondii. This protozoan infection is considered one of the most important food-borne parasitic zoonoses globally. Beyond its impact on public health, toxoplasmosis has also important veterinary implications, because it causes miscarriage or congenital malformations in livestock with negative economic impacts. An integrated monitoring programme aimed to deepen the epidemiological data on toxoplasmosis and to identify the risk factors that may favour T. gondii infections in animals and humans was conducted in an endemic area of southern Italy. The monitoring activities were based on the following tasks: (i) parasitological analysis and risk factors for T. gondii in livestock (sheep, goat, cattle and water buffalo) farms; (ii) serological and molecular monitoring at slaughterhouse in meat-producing livestock; (iii) analysis of hospital discharge records (HDRs); (iv) outreach activities (information, dissemination and health education) to farmers, vet practitioners and school-age children. The present study confirmed a very high seroprevalence of T. gondii infection in livestock farms (e.g., up to 93.1% in sheep farms) in southern Italy and highlighted the potentially significant public health risk in this area.

4.
Vet Sci ; 8(6)2021 Jun 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34207325

RESUMO

The aim of this proof-of-concept study was to evaluate the in vitro effects of ozonated water treatment on the viability of Eimeria oocysts and Giardia cysts isolated from naturally infected water buffaloes. Eimeria oocysts were divided into seven groups of six replicates that were treated with ozonated water at three ozone concentrations (0.5, 1, and 2 mg/L) and two contact times (five and ten minutes), and one group (negative control) that was exposed to non-treated water. Giardia cysts were divided into nine groups of six replicates and were treated with ozonated water at four ozone concentrations (0.1, 0.3, 0.5, and 1 mg/L) and two contact times (one and two minutes), while one group (negative control) was exposed to non-treated water. The results of the ozonated water treatment gave a 33% inhibition of the sporulation of Eimeria oocysts and rendered 96.3% of Giardia cysts non-viable, suggesting that ozonated water treatment could be a promising alternative sanitation technology to common conventional disinfectants for reducing intestinal protozoa infections in water buffaloes; though further in vitro and in vivo tests are needed.

5.
Front Vet Sci ; 8: 626424, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33842570

RESUMO

A field trial performed in-home conditions was conducted on 24 dogs naturally infected with Giardia, in order to compare the efficacy of fenbendazole and metronidazole. Animals were allocated in groups randomly in order to obtain two groups of 12 dogs each with similar parasitic loads of Giardia cysts: dogs in Group A were treated with fenbendazole (Panacur®, Intervet Italia Srl) administered at the dose of 50 mg/kg orally once a day for 5 consecutive days, dogs in Group B were treated with metronidazole (Flagyl®, Zambon Italia Srl) administered orally at the dose of 50 mg/kg, once a day for 5 consecutive days. All the dogs that were shedding Giardia cysts after the first treatment (Day 0) were retreated (either at Day 7 or at Day 14 or at Day 21) until a negative result was obtained with the same treatment. Additionally, all the dogs were re-examined at Day 50. All the dogs were tested for the presence of Giardia cysts using a fecal flotation method (FLOTAC). The percent efficacy of the treatments (A and B) was calculated at each sampling point (Days 7, 14, 21, and 50) as reduction in mean Giardia cysts. After the first therapy, on day 7, 4/12 (33.3%) dogs tested positive for Giardia cysts in the Group A and 5/12 (41.7%) in the Group B. Efficacies at (Days 7, 14, 21, and 50) of the treatments against Giardia infection were 80.9, 94, 100, and 97% in the Group A and 70.8, 99, 100, and 97.1% in the Group B. Statistically significant differences were not observed between the efficacy of Fenbendazole and Metronidazole against infection by G. duodenalis (P = 0.686). Molecular analysis revealed full homology (i.e., 100% with JN416550) with the canine specific assemblage D in six positive dogs. Different hypotheses might explain the re-appearance of the Giardia cysts in some dogs after treatment, e.g., re-infection from the home environment, the correct medication given by the owners, the diet, as well as treatment failure, but also biological issues related to the intermittent excretion of Giardia cysts.

6.
Animals (Basel) ; 11(2)2021 Feb 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33669870

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between infection by Dicrocoelium dendriticum (class Trematoda) and the animal host response in terms of macroscopic lesions, the immunopathological response, and histological changes in the livers of naturally infected sheep. Twenty-four sheep were selected on the basis of positive D. dendriticum fecal egg counts (FECs). Gross and histological injuries were scored. A positive significant association was observed between the number of adult worms recovered from the liver, FEC, macroscopic lesions, fibrosis, and bile duct hyperplasia. A significant negative association was observed among these variables and the degree of leukocyte infiltration. In addition, immunophenotyping of the inflammatory cells was carried out using primary antibodies against T cell epitopes (CD3+, CD4+, and CD8+), B cell epitopes (CD79α), and the ionized calcium-binding adapter molecule 1 (IBA-1) antigen. Independently of the severity of the D. dendriticum infection, the predominant cell population was CD3-positive and associated with lesser numbers of CD79α- and Iba-I-positive cells. An increase in Iba-1-positive cells was observed in the livers of animals with a high worm burden. Our results provide a reference basis to better understand the local immune response in sheep naturally infected by D. dendriticum in relation to the FEC and parasitic burden.

7.
Animals (Basel) ; 11(2)2021 Feb 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33572256

RESUMO

A complete ultrasound examination (cUS) of the liver was performed on 172 female sheep and compared to the performance of a fast-focused ultrasound technique to diagnose echinococcal cysts. The scanned area was divided in: HYP (right hypocondrium), zone (Z)1 from HYP to the 11th intercostal space (IS), Z2 (10th-8th IS) and Z3 (7th-5th IS). Contiguous scans were also examined (HYP + Z1, Z1 + Z2, Z2 + Z3). Furthermore, during the procedures, the sheep were divided into three groups according to the body weight: Group (G) 1 (lighter), G2 (medium), and G3 (heavier). Finally, diagnostic outcomes were compared with necropsy findings. cUS obtained the highest values of sensitivity (Se) (91%), Specificity (Sp) (80%), and positive-zones (124/138, 90%), as compared to the other scans. cUS was also characterized by high values of Se and Sp and was able to identify a great number of positive-zones, when sheep were divided by body-weight groups. Similar performances were obtained in G1 by HYP (Se: 91%-Sp: 82%; 18/20, 90% of positive-zones) and HYP + Z1 scans (Se: 91%-Sp: 82; 90% of positive-zones, 18/20). Thus, in lighter breeds, the examination of HYP and HYP + Z1 scan windows could be considered reliable techniques for identifying the infected animals, while in heavier sheep the cUS still represents the best option.

9.
Endosc Int Open ; 8(10): E1252-E1263, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33015326

RESUMO

Background and study aims Outcomes of endoscopic assessment and management of large colorectal (CR) non-pedunculated lesions (LNPLs) are still under evaluation, especially in Western settings. We analyzed the clinical impact of changes in LNPL management over the last decade in a European center. Patients and methods All consecutive LNPLs ≥ 20 mm endoscopically assessed (2008-2019) were retrospectively included. Lesion, patient, and resection characteristics were compared among clinically relevant subgroups. Multivariate logistic regression (for predictors of submucosal invasion [SMI] and recurrence), Kaplan-Meier curves and ROC curves (for temporal cut-offs in trends analyses) were used. Results A total of 395 LNPLs were included (30 mm [range 20-40]; SMI = 9.6 %; primary endoscopic resection [ER] = 88.4 %). Pseudo-depression and JNET classification independently predicted SMI beyond single morphologies/location. After complete ER, involvement of ileocecal valve/dentate line, piece-meal resection and high-grade dysplasia independently predicted recurrence. Rates of 5-year recurrence-free, surgery-free and cancer-free survival were 77.5 %, 98.6 % and 100 %, respectively, with 93.8 % recurrences endoscopically managed and no death attributable to ER or CR cancer (versus 3.4 % primary surgery mortality). ROC curves identified the period ≥ 2015 (following Endoscopic Submucosal Dissection [ESD] introduction and education on pre-resective lesion assessment) as associated with improved lesions' characterization, increased en-bloc resection of SMI lesions (87.5 % vs 37.5 %; p = 0.0455), reduced primary surgery (7.5 % vs 16.7 %; p = 0.0072), surgical referral of benign lesions (5.1 % vs 14.8 %; p = 0.0019), and recurrences. Conclusions ESD introduction and educational interventions allowed ER of more complex lesions, offset by increased complementary surgery for complications or intrinsic histological risk. Nevertheless, overall, they have reduced surgery demand and increased appropriateness and safety of LNPL management in our center.

10.
BMC Vet Res ; 16(1): 46, 2020 Feb 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32028946

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ticks and tick-borne diseases are increasingly recognized as a cause of disease in dogs worldwide. The epidemiology of ticks and tick-transmitted protozoa and bacteria has changed due to the spread of ticks to urban and peri-urban areas and the movement of infected animals, posing new risks for animals and humans. This countrywide study reports information on distribution and prevalence of pathogens in ticks collected from privately-owned dogs in Italy. We analyzed 2681 Ixodidae ticks, collected from 1454 pet dogs from Italy. Specific PCR protocols were used to detect i) Piroplasms of the genera Babesia and Theileria, ii) Gram-negative cocci of the family Anaplasmataceae and iii) Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato. Sequencing of positive amplicons allowed for species identification. RESULTS: Babesia/Theileria spp. DNA was detected in 435 homogeneous tick-pools (Minimum Infection Rate (MIR) = 27.6%; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 25.4-29.8%) with higher prevalence in Ixodes ricinus and Rhipicephalus sanguneus group. The zoonotic B. venatorum was the most prevalent species (MIR = 7.5%; 95% CI = 6.3-9.0%). Anaplasma and Ehrlichia species were detected in 165 tick-pools (MIR = 10.5%; 95% CI = 9.3-11.8%) and specifically, A. phagocytophilum was identified with MIR = 5.1% (95% CI = 4.1-6.3%). Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. and B. afzelii were detected with MIR = 0.4% (95% CI = 0.2-0.8%) and MIR = 0.3% (95% CI 0.1-0.7%) respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Zoonotic pathogens B. venatorum and A. phagocytophilum were the most frequently detected in ticks collected from privately-owned dogs which might be used as markers of pathogens presence and distribution.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Ixodidae/microbiologia , Ixodidae/parasitologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos/epidemiologia , Anaplasma/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Vetores Artrópodes , Babesia/isolamento & purificação , Borrelia , DNA Bacteriano , DNA de Protozoário , Doenças do Cão/microbiologia , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Cães , Ehrlichia/isolamento & purificação , Feminino , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Theileria/isolamento & purificação , Infestações por Carrapato/veterinária , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos/microbiologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos/parasitologia
11.
Acta Parasitol ; 65(2): 546-549, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31970621

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Canine and feline cardiopulmonary disease is an emergent condition in several European countries, particularly in non-endemic regions, although it is often underestimated because of the limitations of the common diagnostic techniques. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of Mini-FLOTAC to detect cardiopulmonary larvae from dogs and cats compared to reference techniques such as Baermann and FLOTAC. METHODS: A total of 20 fresh faecal samples were collected from ten dogs and ten cats naturally infected with Angiostrongylus vasorum, and Aelurostrongylus abstrusus and Troglostrongylus spp., respectively. Three replicates were performed for each technique. FS3 (zinc sulfate, specific gravity = 1.200) was used as flotation solution for Mini-FLOTAC and FLOTAC. The results were expressed as the arithmetic mean of LPG (larvae per gram of faeces). RESULTS: The mean LPG calculated by means of Mini-FLOTAC was significantly higher (P < 0.05) than that obtained through the Baermann technique for A. vasorum, A. abstrusus and Troglostrongylus spp., whereas it was significantly higher (P < 0.05) than that obtained through the FLOTAC technique only for A. vasorum and A. abstrusus. CONCLUSIONS: Mini-FLOTAC can be considered a valid alternative for the detection of metastrongyloid larvae of dogs and cats, overcoming the limitation of time required by the Baermann test.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato/parasitologia , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Metastrongyloidea/isolamento & purificação , Doença Cardiopulmonar/veterinária , Infecções por Strongylida/veterinária , Angiostrongylus/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Doenças do Gato/diagnóstico , Gatos , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico , Cães , Fezes/parasitologia , Larva , Doença Cardiopulmonar/diagnóstico , Doença Cardiopulmonar/parasitologia , Infecções por Strongylida/diagnóstico , Infecções por Strongylida/parasitologia
12.
Parasit Vectors ; 12(1): 158, 2019 Apr 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30961639

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Giardia spp. is a protozoan pathogen and is the most common enteric parasite of domestic animals and humans. Assays for detecting infection in fecal samples using direct or indirect examinations are important tools for diagnosing the disease. The objective of the present study was to compare the cost-effectiveness of immunoassays and FLOTAC technique for diagnosing Giardia spp. infection in dogs. RESULTS: Fecal samples from 80 positive stray dogs were tested for the presence of copro-antigens of Giardia spp. using the direct immunofluorescence assay (IFA), a rapid enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and the FLOTAC double technique. All methods were performed in accordance with the instructions reported in the original description for each technique. The results showed that ELISA can be run in less time than IFA and almost at the same time of the FLOTAC technique. Among the tests used in this study, FLOTAC had the lowest cost per correct diagnosis, compared with immunoassays. CONCLUSIONS: The results from this cost-effectiveness analysis, in combination with the sensitivity and specificity of the FLOTAC technique, suggest that the FLOTAC technique can be use in the routine diagnosis of Giardia spp. infection in dogs.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/veterinária , Técnica Direta de Fluorescência para Anticorpo/veterinária , Giardíase/veterinária , Animais , Análise Custo-Benefício , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Cães , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/economia , Fezes/parasitologia , Técnica Direta de Fluorescência para Anticorpo/economia , Giardíase/diagnóstico , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Sulfato de Zinco
13.
Parasit Vectors ; 11(1): 420, 2018 Jul 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30012202

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The geographical distribution of ticks on companion animals needs to be monitored to develop and plan effective control measures, as suggested by the European Scientific Counsel on Companion Animal Parasites. The aim of this study was to conduct the first Italian national survey of tick distribution on privately owned dogs. METHODS: The study was performed over 20 months (February 2016 - September 2017) and involved 153 veterinary practices in 64 different provinces covering 17/20 (85%) Italian regions. Participating practitioners were asked to examine five different dogs per month at random and complete a questionnaire for each dog. Differences in tick infestation associated with: sex, age and hair length (long and short); the dog's habitat (indoor or outdoor/kennel); and the dog's environment (urban or rural/sylvatic) were evaluated. The attachment site of ticks on the dog was also recorded. Acaricide efficacy was evaluated for the subset of dogs for which complete information on product used, date of sampling and date of last ectoparasiticide treatment was available. RESULTS: Of the 3026 dogs examined, 1383 (45.7%) were carrying at least one tick. Overall, 2439 tick samples were collected and a total of 14 tick species identified. Rhipicephalus sanguineus group were the most predominant ticks (63.6%), followed by Ixodes ricinus (30.6%) and I. hexagonus (5.6%). Twenty-four dogs had mixed tick infestations. Long-haired dogs had a higher tick infestation risk as did dogs with outdoor and rural/sylvatic lifestyles. Ticks were located on the head (37.4%), the neck (28.8%), the muzzle (15.5%) and the back (15.3%). A higher prevalence of Rhipicephalus was found in the interdigital spaces (10.8%) compared to Ixodes (0.2%). Finally, ectoparasiticide treatments were found significantly protective against tick infestation, especially orally administered formulations. CONCLUSIONS: Privately owned dogs in Italy have a high prevalence (45.7%) of infestation with ixodid ticks and this risk varies by dog phenotype and lifestyle.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Ixodidae , Infestações por Carrapato/veterinária , Acaricidas/administração & dosagem , Acaricidas/uso terapêutico , Animais , Doenças do Cão/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Cães , Feminino , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Propriedade , Estações do Ano , Infestações por Carrapato/tratamento farmacológico , Infestações por Carrapato/epidemiologia , Infestações por Carrapato/parasitologia
14.
Parasitol Res ; 117(8): 2607-2612, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29858944

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to develop and validate an innovative protocol for the diagnosis of Echinococcus granulosus and other Taeniidae in dogs. For this purpose, three experiments were performed, using faecal samples from naturally infected dogs. Firstly, the FLOTAC technique was calibrated with five flotation solutions: saturated sodium chloride (specific gravity, s.g. = 1.20), zinc sulphate (s.g. = 1.35), zinc chloride (s.g. = 1.45), Breza (s.g. = 1.30) and modified Breza (s.g. = 1.40). Then, FLOTAC was compared with four techniques of flotation in centrifuge using: zinc sulphate (s.g. = 1.20), Breza (s.g. = 1.30), modified Breza (s.g. = 1.40), and zinc chloride (s.g. = 1.45). Finally, four different protocols of DNA extraction were compared for Taeniidae identification: QIAamp Tissue Kit and QIAamp Stool from eggs; QIAamp Stool and Wizard Magnetic Purification System for Food from faeces. FLOTAC with zinc sulphate was the most efficient method to detect Taeniidae eggs, showing highest mean of eggs per gram (EPG) of faeces. The QIAamp Stool, using eggs concentrated by FLOTAC, was the best method for DNA extraction. The combination of these protocols provided the highest number of positive samples with PCR, i.e., 47/50 (94.0%). The three negative samples showed a low faecal egg count (2 EPG) below the detection limit (4 EPG) of the protocol. From sequencing of the 47 positive samples: 6 samples were identified as E. granulosus sensu stricto (s.s.), 28 as Taenia hydatigena and 6 as T. pisiformis. A co-infection between different genera of Taeniidae was found in 7 samples.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico , Equinococose/veterinária , Echinococcus granulosus/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Coinfecção , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Cães , Equinococose/diagnóstico , Equinococose/parasitologia , Echinococcus granulosus/genética , Fezes/parasitologia , Contagem de Ovos de Parasitas/veterinária , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/veterinária , Kit de Reagentes para Diagnóstico , Taenia/genética , Taenia/isolamento & purificação
15.
Vet Parasitol Reg Stud Reports ; 13: 166-170, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31014867

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to investigate the exposure to Ostertagia ostertagi in dairy cattle herds across Italy through measurement of antibody concentration in the bulk tank milk (BTM) and to evaluate the possible effect of regions, seasons and pasture management practices on the level of exposure to the parasite. The O. ostertagi antibody levels in milk were determined using a commercial ELISA kit (SVANOVIR® O. ostertagi-Ab) and expressed as optical density ratio (ODR). From March 2015 to September 2017, BTM samples were collected in 1209 dairy cattle farms located in 15 regions of Northern, Central and Southern Italy. As reported in previous studies, BTM samples were classified in three different categories according to the level of exposure to O. ostertagi as follows: (i) positive with ODR values >0.60; (ii) negative with ODR values <0.30 and (iii) grey zone with ODR values between 0.30 and 0.60. Finally, differences in ODR values between regions, seasons and herd management practices were studied using the one-way analysis of variance. The overall mean ODR revealed a value of 0.49 in Italy; in particular, dairy cattle farms located in Southern Italy showed the highest O. ostertagi BTM ODR values than the other regions (p < 0.05). The ODR values ranged from 0.45 in autumn to 0.53 in spring and the seasonal difference was significant (p < 0.05). Furthermore, a positive association was found between the ODR values and the access to pasture; herds with access to pasture showed significantly higher titres (p < 0.0001) of O. ostertagi antibodies in milk (mean ODR = 0.63) than in those in total-confinement housing (mean ODR = 0.42). This study, the first of its kind in Italy, will provide a quantitative assessment exposure to O. ostertagi of Italian dairy herds and represents a significant step forward in evidence-based medicine for dairy veterinarians, advisors and farmers.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Anti-Helmínticos/análise , Laticínios/análise , Leite/imunologia , Ostertagia/imunologia , Ostertagíase/veterinária , Criação de Animais Domésticos , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/imunologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Indústria de Laticínios , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Fazendas , Feminino , Itália , Lactação , Leite/parasitologia , Ostertagíase/imunologia , Estações do Ano , Inquéritos e Questionários
16.
Vet Parasitol ; 225: 53-60, 2016 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27369575

RESUMO

In small ruminants, faecal egg counts (FECs) and reduction in FECs (FECR) are the most common methods for the assessment of intensity of gastrointestinal (GI) nematodes infections and anthelmintic drug efficacy, respectively. The main limitation of these methods is the time and cost to conduct FECs on a representative number of individual animals. A cost-saving alternative would be to examine pooled faecal samples, however little is known regarding whether pooling can give representative results. In the present study, we compared the FECR results obtained by both an individual and a pooled examination strategy across different pool sizes and analytical sensitivity of the FEC techniques. A survey was conducted on 5 sheep farms in Scotland, where anthelmintic resistance is known to be widespread. Lambs were treated with fenbendazole (4 groups), levamisole (3 groups), ivermectin (3 groups) or moxidectin (1 group). For each group, individual faecal samples were collected from 20 animals, at baseline (D0) and 14 days after (D14) anthelmintic administration. Faecal samples were analyzed as pools of 3-5, 6-10, and 14-20 individual samples. Both individual and pooled samples were screened for GI strongyle and Nematodirus eggs using two FEC techniques with three different levels of analytical sensitivity, including Mini-FLOTAC (analytical sensitivity of 10 eggs per gram of faeces (EPG)) and McMaster (analytical sensitivity of 15 or 50 EPG).For both Mini-FLOTAC and McMaster (analytical sensitivity of 15 EPG), there was a perfect agreement in classifying the efficacy of the anthelmintic as 'normal', 'doubtful' or 'reduced' regardless of pool size. When using the McMaster method (analytical sensitivity of 50 EPG) anthelmintic efficacy was often falsely classified as 'normal' or assessment was not possible due to zero FECs at D0, and this became more pronounced when the pool size increased. In conclusion, pooling ovine faecal samples holds promise as a cost-saving and efficient strategy for assessing GI nematode FECR. However, for the assessment FECR one will need to consider the baseline FEC, pool size and analytical sensitivity of the method.


Assuntos
Anti-Helmínticos/farmacologia , Fezes/parasitologia , Gastroenteropatias/veterinária , Nematoides/efeitos dos fármacos , Parasitologia/métodos , Doenças dos Ovinos , Infecções por Strongylida/veterinária , Animais , Anti-Helmínticos/uso terapêutico , Gastroenteropatias/tratamento farmacológico , Gastroenteropatias/parasitologia , Nematodirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Contagem de Ovos de Parasitas , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças dos Ovinos/parasitologia , Infecções por Strongylida/diagnóstico , Infecções por Strongylida/tratamento farmacológico
17.
BMC Vet Res ; 10: 236, 2014 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25262002

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Canine angiostrongylosis is a nematode infection in domestic dogs and wild carnivores. The present report focuses on epidemiological, clinical and histopathological findings in a case of fatal disseminated angiostrongylosis in a dog living in southern Italy and provides data on the extent of the spread of Angiostrongylus vasorum in the same area. CASE PRESENTATION: A 4-year-old female English Setter from the Campania region of southern Italy was referred with a 2-week history of cough and severe respiratory distress that did not respond to antimicrobial therapy. Based on clinical, radiological, echographical and cytological findings (including the presence of larvae), a suspect diagnosis of lungworm infection was performed. After few days the dog died due to progressive clinical aggravation. Complete postmortem examination was conducted within 24 hours from death and samples from lungs, heart, liver, kidney, spleen, stomach and small intestine were fixed in 10% buffered formalin. Grossly, several hemorrhagic foci were observed mostly in the lungs, liver, kidney. Microscopically, the lungs contained numerous, multifocal to coalescing granulomas composed of epitheliod macrophages, multinucleated giant cells and some neutrophils, frequently associated with parasite eggs and larvae. The lungs contained many firm nodules, many adult nematodes approximately 1.5 to 2 cm in length were observed in cut sections and identified as A. vasorum. A subsequent parasitological survey performed with FLOTAC on stray dogs living in the same area showed the presence of A. vasorum larvae in 17 of 1639 stray dogs examined (1.04%). CONCLUSION: This survey provides new data on distribution of A. vasorum and underlines that canine angiostrongylosis should be considered as differential diagnosis in dogs.


Assuntos
Angiostrongylus/classificação , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Infecções por Strongylida/veterinária , Animais , Anti-Helmínticos/uso terapêutico , Doenças do Cão/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças do Cão/patologia , Cães , Evolução Fatal , Feminino , Macrolídeos/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Strongylida/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Strongylida/parasitologia , Infecções por Strongylida/patologia
18.
Parasit Vectors ; 7: 356, 2014 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25095701

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The most common intestinal nematodes of dogs are Toxocara canis, hookworm and Trichuris vulpis. The present study was aimed to validate a new copromicroscopic technique, the Mini-FLOTAC and to compare its diagnostic efficiency and sensitivity with four other copromicroscopic techniques: direct smear, tube flotation, Wisconsin method and the FLOTAC dual technique. FINDINGS: Two experiments were performed. In the first, faecal positive samples collected from 59 stray asymptomatic dogs, of which 21 were naturally infected with ancylostomidae, 13 naturally infected with T. canis and 25 naturally infected with T. vulpis were used to validate the Mini-FLOTAC technique. The second experiment was performed on faecal samples randomly selected from 38 stray asymptomatic dogs to compare the diagnostic efficiency and sensitivity of the different techniques. Samples were fixed with 5% formalin; sodium chloride and zinc sulphate were used for flotation solutions because they performed best for detecting and quantifying intestinal nematode eggs in dogs. Mini-FLOTAC and FLOTAC were the most efficient and sensitive techniques and they gave higher EPG and higher numbers of positive samples in both the experiments, for all three parasites. CONCLUSIONS: As Mini-FLOTAC does not require centrifugation it is a very promising technique for counting helminth eggs in dog faeces.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico , Fezes/parasitologia , Enteropatias Parasitárias/veterinária , Infecções por Nematoides/veterinária , Animais , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico/métodos , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Cães , Enteropatias Parasitárias/diagnóstico , Enteropatias Parasitárias/parasitologia , Infecções por Nematoides/parasitologia , Manejo de Espécimes
19.
Vet Parasitol ; 205(1-2): 216-23, 2014 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25002307

RESUMO

A field study was conducted to validate pooled faecal samples in sheep for the assessment of gastrointestinal (GI) strongyle infection intensity (faecal egg count - FEC) and anthelmintic drug efficacy (FEC reduction - FECR). Ten sheep farms located in the Campania region of southern Italy were selected for the study. In each farm, individual faecal samples from 20 adult sheep (when possible) were collected, before (D0) and after (D14) an anthelmintic treatment with albendazole. For each farm and at each time point (D0 and D14) the faecal samples were examined individually and as pools. Specifically, three different pool sizes (5, 10 and 20 individual sheep samples) and three different analytic sensitivities (namely 10 using Mini-FLOTAC; 15 and 50 using the two variants of McMaster - McM15 and McM50) were compared for FEC and FECR using individual and pooled faecal samples. GI strongyle intensity (eggs per gram of faeces - EPG) of pooled samples correlated positively with mean EPG of individual samples, with very high correlation coefficients (ranging from 0.94 to 0.99) across the 3 different pool sizes and analytic sensitivities. Mini-FLOTAC was more sensitive compared to the two variants of McMaster (McM15 and McM50) for the diagnosis of GI strongyles in sheep (100% vs 88.5% vs 75.9%) and resulted in significant higher FEC compared to both McM15 and McM50, with a mean difference in egg counts of approximately 90 EPG (p<0.001). The drug efficacy results showed that FECR was higher than 98% at most farms independently of the pool size and analytic sensitivity. With the exception of two farms, FECR was 100% when calculated for individual animals and across the different pool size and analytic sensitivities. In conclusion, the present study highlighted that pooling ovine faecal samples is a rapid procedure that holds promise as a valid strategy for assessing GI strongyles FEC and FECR in sheep.


Assuntos
Anti-Helmínticos/uso terapêutico , Fezes/parasitologia , Gastroenteropatias/veterinária , Doenças dos Ovinos/parasitologia , Manejo de Espécimes/veterinária , Infecções por Strongylida/veterinária , Animais , Gastroenteropatias/diagnóstico , Gastroenteropatias/parasitologia , Contagem de Ovos de Parasitas/veterinária , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/diagnóstico , Doenças dos Ovinos/tratamento farmacológico , Manejo de Espécimes/métodos , Infecções por Strongylida/diagnóstico , Infecções por Strongylida/parasitologia
20.
Acta Parasitol ; 58(4): 612-4, 2013 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24338328

RESUMO

Dirofilariosis, caused by Dirofilaria immitis and D. repens, is (re-) emerging worldwide. Dogs are the main reservoirs, while human infection has recently become an important focus of interest and attention. In Argentina, canine D. immitis infection has been described in eastern and northern subtropical and temperate humid regions, but never reported in mid-western arid regions so far. In this research note we report for the first time the occurrence of autochthonous human and canine D. immitis infection in the region.


Assuntos
Dirofilaria immitis/classificação , Dirofilaria immitis/isolamento & purificação , Dirofilariose/diagnóstico , Dirofilariose/parasitologia , Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Animais , Argentina , Estudos Transversais , Clima Desértico , Cães , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
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