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1.
Orphanet J Rare Dis ; 16(1): 196, 2021 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33933110

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: During the COVID-19 pandemic, most of the health care systems suspended their non-urgent activities. This included the cancellation of consultations for patients with rare diseases, such as severe pulmonary hypertension (PH), resulting in potential medication shortage and loss of follow-up. Thus, the aim of the study was to evaluate PH patient health status evolution, access to health care and mental health experience during the early phase of the pandemic. METHODS: We conducted an online patient survey, available in 16 languages, between 22/05/2020 and 28/06/2020. The survey included questions corresponding to demographic, COVID-19 and PH related information. RESULTS: 1073 patients (or relatives, 27%) from 52 countries all over the world participated in the survey. Seventy-seven percent (77%) of responders reported a diagnosis of pulmonary arterial hypertension and 15% of chronic thromboembolic PH. The COVID-19 related events were few: only 1% of all responders reported a diagnosis of COVID-19. However, 8% of patients reported health deterioration possibly related to PH, and 4% hospitalization for PH. Besides, 11% of the patients reported difficulties to access their PH expert centre, and 3% interruption of treatment due to shortage of medication. Anxiety or depression was reported by 67% of the participants. CONCLUSION: Although COVID-19 incidence in PH patients was low, PH related problems occurred frequently as the pandemic progressed, including difficulties to have access to specialized care. The importance of primary health care was emphasized. Further studies are needed to evaluate the long-term consequences of COVID-related PH care disruption.

2.
Ann Am Thorac Soc ; 18(6): 981-988, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33735594

RESUMO

Rationale: Iron deficiency, in the absence of anemia, is common in patients with idiopathic and heritable pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) and is associated with a worse clinical outcome. Oral iron absorption may be impeded by elevated circulating hepcidin concentrations. The safety and benefit of parenteral iron replacement in this patient population is unclear. Objectives: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of parenteral iron replacement in PAH. Methods: In two randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled 12-week crossover studies, 39 patients in Europe received a single infusion of ferric carboxymaltose (Ferinject) (1,000 mg or 15 mg/kg if weight <66.7 kg) or saline as placebo, and 17 patients in China received iron dextran (Cosmofer) (20 mg iron/kg body weight) or saline placebo. All patients had idiopathic or heritable PAH and iron deficiency at entry as defined by a serum ferritin <37 µg/L or iron <10.3 µmol/L or transferrin saturations <16.4%. Results: Both iron treatments were well tolerated and improved iron status. Analyzed separately and combined, there was no effect on any measure of exercise capacity (using cardiopulmonary exercise testing or 6-minute walk test) or cardiopulmonary hemodynamics, as assessed by right heart catheterization, cardiac magnetic resonance, or plasma NT-proBNP (N-terminal-pro hormone brain natriuretic peptide) at 12 weeks. Conclusions: Iron repletion by administration of a slow-release iron preparation as a single infusion to patients with PAH with iron deficiency without overt anemia was well tolerated but provided no significant clinical benefit at 12 weeks. Clinical trial registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT01447628).

3.
Respir Med ; 178: 106220, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33540340

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The soluble guanylate cyclase stimulator riociguat is approved for the treatment of adult patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) and inoperable or persistent/recurrent chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) following Phase 3 randomized trials. The EXPosurE Registry RiociguaT in patients with pulmonary hypertension (EXPERT) study was designed to monitor the long-term safety of riociguat in clinical practice. METHODS: EXPERT was an international, multicenter, prospective, uncontrolled, non-interventional cohort study of patients treated with riociguat. Patients were followed for at least 1 year and up to 4 years from enrollment or until 30 days after stopping riociguat treatment. Primary safety outcomes were adverse events (AEs) and serious adverse events (SAEs) coded using Medical Dictionary for Regulatory Activities preferred terms and System Organ Classes version 21.0, collected during routine clinic visits and collated via case report forms. RESULTS: In total, 956 patients with CTEPH were included in the analysis. The most common AEs in these patients were peripheral edema/edema (11.7%), dizziness (7.5%), right ventricular (RV)/cardiac failure (7.7%), and pneumonia (5.0%). The most common SAEs were RV/cardiac failure (7.4%), pneumonia (4.1%), dyspnea (3.6%), and syncope (2.5%). Exposure-adjusted rates of hemoptysis/pulmonary hemorrhage and hypotension were low and comparable to those in the long-term extension study of riociguat (Chronic Thromboembolic Pulmonary Hypertension Soluble Guanylate Cyclase-Stimulator Trial [CHEST-2]). CONCLUSION: Data from EXPERT show that in patients with CTEPH, the safety of riociguat in routine practice was consistent with the known safety profile of the drug, and no new safety concerns were identified.

4.
ERJ Open Res ; 6(4)2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33263061

RESUMO

This international survey highlights that a limited number of PAH and CTEPH patients suffered from severe #COVID19 infection https://bit.ly/3jGuBQq.

5.
Pulm Circ ; 10(4): 2045894020962960, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33282190

RESUMO

This manuscript on endpoints incorporates the broad experience of members of Pulmonary Vascular Research Institute's Innovative Drug Development Initiative as an open debate platform for academia, the pharmaceutical industry and regulatory experts surrounding the future design of clinical trials in pulmonary hypertension. It reviews our current understanding of endpoints used in phase 2 and 3 trials for pulmonary hypertension and discusses in detail the value of newer approaches. These include the roles of composite endpoints and how these can be developed and validated. The newer concept of risk analysis is also discussed, including how such risk scores might be utilised as endpoints in clinical trials.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33320693

RESUMO

Background - Approximately 25% of patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) have been found to harbor rare mutations in disease-causing genes. To identify missing heritability in PAH we integrated deep phenotyping with whole-genome sequencing data using Bayesian statistics. Methods - We analyzed 13,037 participants enrolled in the NIHR BioResource - Rare Diseases (NBR) study, of which 1,148 were recruited to the PAH domain. To test for genetic associations between genes and selected phenotypes of pulmonary hypertension (PH), we used the Bayesian rare-variant association method BeviMed. Results - Heterozygous, high impact, likely loss-of-function variants in the Kinase Insert Domain Receptor (KDR) gene were strongly associated with significantly reduced transfer coefficient for carbon monoxide (KCO, posterior probability (PP)=0.989) and older age at diagnosis (PP=0.912). We also provide evidence for familial segregation of a rare nonsense KDR variant with these phenotypes. On computed tomographic imaging of the lungs, a range of parenchymal abnormalities were observed in the five patients harboring these predicted deleterious variants in KDR. Four additional PAH cases with rare likely loss-of-function variants in KDR were independently identified in the US PAH Biobank cohort with similar phenotypic characteristics. Conclusions - The Bayesian inference approach allowed us to independently validate KDR, which encodes for the Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor 2 (VEGFR2), as a novel PAH candidate gene. Furthermore, this approach specifically associated high impact likely loss-of-function variants in the genetically constrained gene with distinct phenotypes. These findings provide evidence for KDR being a clinically actionable PAH gene and further support the central role of the vascular endothelium in the pathobiology of PAH.

7.
Eur Respir J ; 2020 Dec 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33334946

RESUMO

Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) is a rare complication of acute pulmonary embolism, either symptomatic or not. The occlusion of proximal pulmonary arteries by fibrotic intravascular material, in combination with a secondary microvasculopathy of vessels less than 500 µm, leads to increased pulmonary vascular resistance and progressive right heart failure. The mechanism responsible for the transformation of red clots into fibrotic material remnants has not yet been elucidated. In patients with pulmonary hypertension, the diagnosis is suspected when a ventilation/perfusion lung scan shows mismatched perfusion defects and confirmed by right heart catheterisation and vascular imaging. Today, in addition to lifelong anticoagulation, treatment modalities include surgery, angioplasty and medical treatment according to the localisation and characteristics of the lesions.This Statement outlines a review of the literature and current practice concerning diagnosis and management of CTEPH. It covers the definitions, diagnosis, epidemiology, follow up after acute pulmonary embolism, pathophysiology, treatment by pulmonary endarterectomy, balloon pulmonary angioplasty, drugs and their combination, rehabilitation and new lines of research in CTEPH.It represents the first collaboration of the European Respiratory Society (ERS), the International CTEPH Association (ICA) and the European Reference Network (ERN)-Lung in the pulmonary hypertension domain. The Statement summarises current knowledge but does not make formal recommendations for clinical practice.

8.
Eur Respir J ; 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33060150

RESUMO

Pulmonary hypertension is a condition with limited effective treatment options. Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) is a notable exception with pulmonary endarterectomy (PEA) often proving curative. This study investigated the plasma metabolome of CTEPH patients, estimated reversibility to an effective treatment and explored the source of metabolic perturbations.We performed untargeted analysis of plasma metabolites in CTEPH patients compared to healthy controls and disease comparators. Changes in metabolic profile were evaluated in response to PEA. A subset of patients were sampled at three anatomical locations and plasma metabolite gradients calculated.We defined and validated altered plasma metabolite profiles in patients with CTEPH. 12 metabolites were confirmed by ROC analysis to distinguish CTEPH and both healthy (AUCs 0.64-0.94, all p<2×10-5) and disease controls (AUCs 0.58-0.77, all p<0.05. Many of the metabolic changes were notably similar to those observed in idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (IPAH). Only five metabolites (5-methylthioadenosine, N1-methyladenosine, N1-methylinosine, 7-methylguanine, N-formylmethionine) distinguished CTEPH from chronic thromboembolic disease or IPAH. Significant corrections (15-100% of perturbation) in response to PEA were observed in some but not all metabolites. Anatomical sampling identified 188 plasma metabolites, with significant gradients in tryptophan, sphingomyelin, methionine, and Krebs cycle metabolites . Metabolites associated with CTEPH and gradients also showed significant associations with clinical measures of disease severity.We identified a specific metabolic profile that distinguishes CTEPH from controls and disease comparators, despite the observation that most metabolic changes were common to both CTEPH and IPAH patients. Plasma metabolite gradients implicate cardiopulmonary tissue metabolism of metabolites associated with PH and metabolites that respond to PEA surgery could be a suitable non-invasive marker for evaluating future targeted therapeutic interventions.

9.
Eur Respir J ; 2020 Jul 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32631835

RESUMO

Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) scores assess symptom burden in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) but data regarding their role in prognostication and risk stratification are limited. We assessed these relationships using the emPHasis-10 HRQoL measure.1745 patients with idiopathic or connective tissue disease-associated PAH who had completed emPHasis-10 questionnaires between 2014-17 at 6 UK referral centres were identified. Correlations with exercise capacity and WHO functional class (FC) were assessed, and exploratory risk stratification thresholds were tested.Moderate correlations were seen between emPHasis-10 scores and 6-minute walk distance (r=-0.546), incremental shuttle walking distance (r=-0.504) and WHO FC (r=0.497; p all <0.0001). Distribution of emPHasis-10 differed significantly between each WHO FC (p all <0.0001). At multivariate analysis, emPHasis-10, but not WHO FC, was an independent predictor of mortality. In a risk stratification approach, scores of 0-16, 17-33 and 34-50 identified incident patients with one-year mortality of 5%, 10% and 23%, respectively. Survival of patients in WHO FC III could be further stratified using an emPHasis-10 score ≥34 (p<0.01). At follow-up, patients with improved emPHasis-10 had improved exercise capacity (p<0.0001), and patients who transitioned risk groups demonstrated similar survival to patients originally in those risk groups.The emPHasis-10 score is an independent prognostic marker in patients with idiopathic or connective tissue disease-associated PAH. It has utility in risk stratification in addition to currently used parameters. Improvement in emPHasis-10 score is associated with improved exercise capacity.

10.
Eur Respir J ; 56(4)2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32513780

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pulmonary endarterectomy (PEA) is the recommended treatment for eligible patients with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH). The Cambridge Pulmonary Hypertension Outcome Review (CAMPHOR) score is an internationally validated patient-reported outcome (PRO) measure for CTEPH. It assesses three domains: activity, quality of life (QoL) and symptoms. We assessed PROs in patients with CTEPH undergoing PEA. METHODS: This retrospective observational study of consecutive CTEPH patients undergoing PEA at the UK national PEA centre between 2006 and 2017 assessed change in CAMPHOR score from baseline (pre-PEA) until up to 5 years post-PEA. CAMPHOR scores were compared between 1) those with and without clinically significant residual pulmonary hypertension and 2) those undergoing PEA and propensity-matched CTEPH patients who were not operated on. The minimally clinically important difference (MCID) was calculated using an anchor-based method. RESULTS: Out of 1324 CTEPH patients who underwent PEA, 1053 (80%) had a CAMPHOR score recorded pre-PEA, 934 (71%) had a score recorded within a year of PEA and 784 (60%) had both. There were significant improvements between pre- and post-PEA in all three CAMPHOR domains (median±interquartile range activity -5±7, QoL -4±8, symptoms -7±8; all p<0.0001). Improvements in CAMPHOR score were greater and more sustained in those without clinically significant residual pulmonary hypertension. CTEPH patients undergoing PEA had better CAMPHOR scores than those not operated on. The MCID in CAMPHOR score was -3±5 for activity, -4±7 for QoL and -6±7 for symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: PROs are markedly improved by PEA in patients with CTEPH, more so in those without clinically significant residual pulmonary hypertension.

11.
Am J Respir Crit Care Med ; 202(4): 586-594, 2020 08 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32352834

RESUMO

Rationale: Idiopathic and heritable pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) are rare but comprise a genetically heterogeneous patient group. RNA sequencing linked to the underlying genetic architecture can be used to better understand the underlying pathology by identifying key signaling pathways and stratify patients more robustly according to clinical risk.Objectives: To use a three-stage design of RNA discovery, RNA validation and model construction, and model validation to define a set of PAH-associated RNAs and a single summarizing RNA model score. To define genes most likely to be involved in disease development, we performed Mendelian randomization (MR) analysis.Methods: RNA sequencing was performed on whole-blood samples from 359 patients with idiopathic, heritable, and drug-induced PAH and 72 age- and sex-matched healthy volunteers. The score was evaluated against disease severity markers including survival analysis using all-cause mortality from diagnosis. MR used known expression quantitative trait loci and summary statistics from a PAH genome-wide association study.Measurements and Main Results: We identified 507 genes with differential RNA expression in patients with PAH compared with control subjects. A model of 25 RNAs distinguished PAH with 87% accuracy (area under the curve 95% confidence interval: 0.791-0.945) in model validation. The RNA model score was associated with disease severity and long-term survival (P = 4.66 × 10-6) in PAH. MR detected an association between SMAD5 levels and PAH disease susceptibility (odds ratio, 0.317; 95% confidence interval, 0.129-0.776; P = 0.012).Conclusions: A whole-blood RNA signature of PAH, which includes RNAs relevant to disease pathogenesis, associates with disease severity and identifies patients with poor clinical outcomes. Genetic variants associated with lower SMAD5 expression may increase susceptibility to PAH.


Assuntos
Hipertensão Pulmonar Primária Familiar/sangue , Hipertensão Pulmonar Primária Familiar/genética , RNA/sangue , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Masculino , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
12.
EBioMedicine ; 56: 102794, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32454407

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: BMP9, originating from the liver, and BMP10 are circulating BMPs that preserve vascular endothelial integrity. We assessed BMP9, BMP10 and soluble endoglin (sEng) levels and their relationships to liver disease severity and associated pulmonary vascular syndromes in a cohort of well-characterised liver disease patients. METHODS: Plasma samples from patients with liver disease (n = 83) and non-disease controls (n = 21) were assayed for BMP9, BMP10 and sEng. Levels were also assessed in a separate cohort of controls (n = 27) and PoPH patients (n = 8). Expression of mRNA and immunohistochemical staining was undertaken in liver biopsy specimens. Plasma BMP activity was assessed using an endothelial cell bioassay. FINDINGS: Plasma BMP9 and BMP10 levels were normal in patients with compensated cirrhosis or fibrosis without cirrhosis, but markedly reduced in patients with decompensated cirrhosis, including those with hepatopulmonary syndrome (HPS) or portopulmonary hypertension (PoPH). Liver biopsy specimens revealed reduced mRNA expression and immunostaining for these ligands. Patient plasma samples with reduced BMP9 and BMP10 levels exhibited low BMP activity that was restored with exogenous BMP9. Endoglin mRNA expression was increased in cirrhotic livers and elevated circulating sEng levels in PoPH and HPS patients suggested increased endothelial sEng shedding in these syndromes. INTERPRETATION: Plasma BMP9 and BMP10 levels are reduced in decompensated cirrhosis, leading to reduced circulating BMP activity on the vascular endothelium. The pulmonary complications of cirrhosis, PoPH and HPS, are associated with markedly reduced BMP9 and BMP10 and increased sEng levels, suggesting that supplementation with exogenous ligands might be a therapeutic approach for PoPH and HPS.

13.
Pulm Circ ; 10(1): 2045894020914851, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32284847

RESUMO

Patients classified as idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (defined as Group 1 on European Respiratory Society (ERS)/European Cardiac Society (ESC) criteria) may have evidence of minor co-existing lung disease on thoracic computed tomography. We hypothesised that these idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension patients (IPAH lung disease ) are a separate subgroup of idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension with different phenotype and outcome compared with idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension patients without co-existing lung disease (IPAH no lung disease ). Patients with 'IPAH lung disease ' have been eligible for all clinical trials of Group 1 patients because they have normal clinical examination and normal spirometry but we wondered whether they responded to treatment and had similar survival to patients with 'IPAH no lung disease '. We described the outcome of the cohort of patients with 'IPAH no lung disease ' in a previous paper. Here, we have compared incident 'IPAH lung disease ' patients with 'IPAH no lung disease ' patients diagnosed concurrently in all eight Pulmonary Hypertension centres in the UK and Ireland between 2001-2009. Compared with 'IPAH no lung disease ' (n = 355), 'IPAH lung disease ' patients (n = 137) were older, less obese, predominantly male, more likely to be current/ex-smokers and had lower six-minute walk distance, lower % predicted diffusion capacity for carbon monoxide, lower mean pulmonary arterial pressure and lower pulmonary vascular resistance index. After three months of pulmonary hypertension-targeted treatment, six-minute walk distance improved equally in 'IPAH lung disease ' and 'IPAH no lung disease '. However, survival of 'IPAH lung disease ' was lower than 'IPAH no lung disease ' (one year survival: 72% compared with 93%). This survival was significantly worse in 'IPAH lung disease ' even after adjusting for age, gender, smoking history, comorbidities and haemodynamics. 'IPAH lung disease ' patients had similar short-term improvement in six-minute walk distance with anti-pulmonary arterial hypertension therapy but worse survival compared with 'IPAH no lung disease ' patients. This suggests that 'IPAH lung disease ' are a separate phenotype and should not be lumped with 'IPAH no lung disease ' in clinical trials of Group 1 pulmonary arterial hypertension.

14.
Open Heart ; 7(1): e001144, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32180986

RESUMO

Objective: Inoperable chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) managed medically has a poor prognosis. Balloon pulmonary angioplasty (BPA) offers a new treatment for inoperable patients. The national BPA service for the UK opened in October 2015 and we now describe the treatment of our initial patient cohort. Methods: Thirty consecutive, inoperable, anatomically suitable, symptomatic patients on stable medical therapy for CTEPH were identified and offered BPA. They initially underwent baseline investigations including Cambridge Pulmonary Hypertension Outcome Review (CAMPHOR) quality of life (QoL) questionnaire, cardiopulmonary exercise test, 6 min walk distance (6MWD), transthoracic echocardiography, N-terminal probrain natriuretic peptide (NT pro-BNP) and right heart catheterisation. Serial BPA sessions were then performed and after completion, the treatment effect was gauged by comparing the same investigations at 3 months follow-up. Results: A median of 3 (IQR 1-6) BPA sessions per patient resulted in a significant improvement in functional status (WHO functional class ≥3: 24 vs 4, p<0.0001) and QoL (CAMPHOR symptom score: 8.7±5.4 vs 5.6±6.1, p=0.0005) with reductions in pulmonary pressures (mean pulmonary artery pressure: 44.7±11.0 vs 34.4±8.3 mm Hg, p<0.0001) and resistance (pulmonary vascular resistance: 663±281 vs 436±196 dyn.s.cm-5, p<0.0001). Exercise capacity improved (minute ventilation/carbon dioxide production: 55.3±12.2 vs 45.0±7.8, p=0.03 and 6MWD: 366±107 vs 440±94 m, p<0.0001) and there was reduction in right ventricular (RV) stretch (NT pro-BNP: 442 (IQR 168-1607) vs 202 (IQR 105-447) pg/mL, p<0.0001) and dimensions (mid RV diameter: 4.4±1.0 vs 3.8±0.7 cm, p=0.002). There were no deaths or life-threatening complications and the mild-moderate per-procedure complication rate was 10.5%. Conclusions: BPA is safe and improves the functional status, QoL, pulmonary haemodynamics and RV dimensions of patients with inoperable CTEPH.


Assuntos
Angioplastia com Balão , Pressão Arterial , Hipertensão Pulmonar/terapia , Artéria Pulmonar/fisiopatologia , Embolia Pulmonar/terapia , Resistência Vascular , Idoso , Angioplastia com Balão/efeitos adversos , Doença Crônica , Tolerância ao Exercício , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão Pulmonar/diagnóstico , Hipertensão Pulmonar/etiologia , Hipertensão Pulmonar/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Artéria Pulmonar/diagnóstico por imagem , Embolia Pulmonar/complicações , Embolia Pulmonar/diagnóstico , Embolia Pulmonar/fisiopatologia , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Reino Unido , Função Ventricular Direita , Remodelação Ventricular
15.
J Thromb Haemost ; 18(1): 151-161, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31479557

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Women are more susceptible than men to several forms of pulmonary hypertension, but have better survival. Sparse data are available on chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH). METHODS: We investigated sex-specific differences in the clinical presentation of CTEPH, performance of pulmonary endarterectomy (PEA), and survival. RESULTS: Women constituted one-half of the study population of the European CTEPH registry (N = 679) and were characterized by a lower prevalence of some cardiovascular risk factors, including prior acute coronary syndrome, smoking habit, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, but more prevalent obesity, cancer, and thyroid diseases. The median age was 62 (interquartile ratio, 50-73) years in women and 63 (interquartile ratio, 53-70) in men. Women underwent PEA less often than men (54% vs 65%), especially at low-volume centers (48% vs 61%), and were exposed to fewer additional cardiac procedures, notably coronary artery bypass graft surgery (0.5% vs 9.5%). The prevalence of specific reasons for not being operated, including patient's refusal and the proportion of proximal vs distal lesions, did not differ between sexes. A total of 57 (17.0%) deaths in women and 70 (20.7%) in men were recorded over long-term follow-up. Female sex was positively associated with long-term survival (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.66; 95% confidence interval, 0.46-0.94). Short-term mortality was identical in the two groups. CONCLUSIONS: Women with CTEPH underwent PEA less frequently than men, especially at low-volume centers. Furthermore, they had a lower prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors and were less often exposed to additional cardiac surgery procedures. Women had better long-term survival.

16.
J Thromb Haemost ; 18(1): 114-122, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31557382

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) is an uncommon complication of acute pulmonary emboli necessitating lifelong anticoagulation. Despite this, few data exist on the safety and efficacy of vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) in CTEPH and none for direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs). OBJECTIVES: To evaluate outcomes and complication rates in CTEPH following pulmonary endarterectomy (PEA) for individuals receiving VKAs or DOACs. METHODS: Consecutive CTEPH patients undergoing PEA between 2007 and 2018 were included in a retrospective analysis. Postoperative outcomes, recurrent venous thromboembolism (VTE), and bleeding events were obtained from patient medical records. RESULTS: Seven hundred ninety-four individuals were treated with VKAs and 206 with DOACs following PEA. Mean observation period was 612 (standard deviation: 702) days. Significant improvements in hemodynamics and functional status were observed in both groups following PEA (P < .001). Major bleeding events were equivalent (P = 1) in those treated with VKAs (0.67%/person-year) and DOACs (0.68%/person-year). The VTE recurrence was proportionately higher (P = .008) with DOACs (4.62%/person-year) than VKAs (0.76%/person-year), although survival did not differ. CONCLUSIONS: Post-PEA functional and hemodynamic outcomes appear unaffected by anticoagulant choice. Bleeding events were similar, but recurrent VTE rates significantly higher in those receiving DOACs. Our study provides a strong rationale for prospective registry data and/or studies to evaluate the safety of DOACs in CTEPH.

17.
Am J Respir Crit Care Med ; 201(5): 575-585, 2020 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31661308

RESUMO

Rationale: Recently, rare heterozygous mutations in GDF2 were identified in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). GDF2 encodes the circulating BMP (bone morphogenetic protein) type 9, which is a ligand for the BMP2 receptor.Objectives: Here we determined the functional impact of GDF2 mutations and characterized plasma BMP9 and BMP10 levels in patients with idiopathic PAH.Methods: Missense BMP9 mutant proteins were expressed in vitro and the impact on BMP9 protein processing and secretion, endothelial signaling, and functional activity was assessed. Plasma BMP9 and BMP10 levels and activity were assayed in patients with PAH with GDF2 variants and in control subjects. Levels were also measured in a larger cohort of control subjects (n = 120) and patients with idiopathic PAH (n = 260).Measurements and Main Results: We identified a novel rare variation at the GDF2 and BMP10 loci, including copy number variation. In vitro, BMP9 missense proteins demonstrated impaired cellular processing and secretion. Patients with PAH who carried these mutations exhibited reduced plasma levels of BMP9 and reduced BMP activity. Unexpectedly, plasma BMP10 levels were also markedly reduced in these individuals. Although overall BMP9 and BMP10 levels did not differ between patients with PAH and control subjects, BMP10 levels were lower in PAH females. A subset of patients with PAH had markedly reduced plasma levels of BMP9 and BMP10 in the absence of GDF2 mutations.Conclusions: Our findings demonstrate that GDF2 mutations result in BMP9 loss of function and are likely causal. These mutations lead to reduced circulating levels of both BMP9 and BMP10. These findings support therapeutic strategies to enhance BMP9 or BMP10 signaling in PAH.


Assuntos
Proteínas Morfogenéticas Ósseas/genética , Fator 2 de Diferenciação de Crescimento/genética , Hipertensão Arterial Pulmonar/genética , Adulto , Proteínas Morfogenéticas Ósseas/metabolismo , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Feminino , Fator 2 de Diferenciação de Crescimento/metabolismo , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Transporte Proteico , Hipertensão Arterial Pulmonar/metabolismo , Fatores Sexuais
18.
Respir Med ; 177: 106241, 2020 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33422952

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The soluble guanylate cyclase stimulator riociguat is approved for the treatment of adult patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) and inoperable or persistent/recurrent chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension following Phase 3 randomized trials. The EXPosurE Registry RiociguaT in patients with pulmonary hypertension (EXPERT) study was designed to monitor the long-term safety of riociguat in clinical practice. METHODS: EXPERT was an international, multicenter, prospective, uncontrolled, non-interventional cohort study of patients treated with riociguat. Patients were followed for at least 1 year and up to 4 years from enrollment or until 30 days after stopping riociguat treatment. Primary safety outcomes were adverse events (AEs) and serious adverse events (SAEs) coded using Medical Dictionary for Regulatory Activities preferred terms and System Organ Classes version 21.0, collected during routine clinic visits (usually every 3-6 months) and collated via case report forms. RESULTS: In total, 326 patients with PAH were included in the analysis. The most common AEs in these patients were dizziness (11.7%), right ventricular (RV)/cardiac failure (10.7%), edema/peripheral edema (10.7%), diarrhea (8.6%), dyspnea (8.0%), and cough (7.7%). The most common SAEs were RV/cardiac failure (10.1%), pneumonia (6.1%), dyspnea (4.0%), and syncope (3.4%). The exposure-adjusted rate of hemoptysis/pulmonary hemorrhage was 2.5 events per 100 patient-years. CONCLUSION: Final data from EXPERT show that in patients with PAH, the safety of riociguat in clinical practice was consistent with clinical trials, with no new safety concerns identified and a lower exposure-adjusted rate of hemoptysis/pulmonary hemorrhage than in the long-term extension of the Phase 3 trial in PAH.

19.
F1000Res ; 82019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30984375

RESUMO

Acute pulmonary embolism (PE) is a disease frequently encountered in clinical practice. While the management of haemodynamically stable, low risk patients with acute PE is well established, managing intermediate disease often presents a therapeutic dilemma. In this review, we discuss the various therapeutic options available in this patient group. This includes thrombolysis, surgical embolectomy and catheter directed techniques. We have also explored the role of specialist PE response teams in the management of such patients. â€‹.


Assuntos
Embolectomia , Embolia Pulmonar/terapia , Terapia Trombolítica , Doença Aguda , Humanos , Risco
20.
Eur Respir J ; 53(5)2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30923185

RESUMO

While traffic and air pollution exposure is associated with increased mortality in numerous diseases, its association with disease severity and outcomes in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) remains unknown.Exposure to particulate matter with a 50% cut-off aerodynamic diameter ≤2.5 µm (PM2.5), nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and indirect measures of traffic-related air pollution (distance to main road and length of roads within buffer zones surrounding residential addresses) were estimated for 301 patients with idiopathic/heritable PAH recruited in the UK National Cohort Study of Idiopathic and Heritable PAH. Associations with transplant-free survival and pulmonary haemodynamic severity at baseline were assessed, adjusting for confounding variables defined a prioriHigher estimated exposure to PM2.5 was associated with higher risk of death or lung transplant (unadjusted hazard ratio (HR) 2.68 (95% CI 1.11-6.47) per 3 µg·m-3; p=0.028). This association remained similar when adjusted for potential confounding variables (HR 4.38 (95% CI 1.44-13.36) per 3 µg·m-3; p=0.009). No associations were found between NO2 exposure or other traffic pollution indicators and transplant-free survival. Conversely, indirect measures of exposure to traffic-related air pollution within the 500-1000 m buffer zones correlated with the European Society of Cardiology/European Respiratory Society risk categories as well as pulmonary haemodynamics at baseline. This association was strongest for pulmonary vascular resistance.In idiopathic/heritable PAH, indirect measures of exposure to traffic-related air pollution were associated with disease severity at baseline, whereas higher PM2.5 exposure may independently predict shorter transplant-free survival.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Hipertensão Arterial Pulmonar/epidemiologia , Poluição Relacionada com o Tráfego/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Idoso , Poluição do Ar/análise , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/efeitos adversos , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/análise , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/análise , Estudos Prospectivos , Hipertensão Arterial Pulmonar/etiologia , Poluição Relacionada com o Tráfego/análise , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
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