Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 109
Filtrar
1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32352834

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Idiopathic and hereditary pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) are rare but comprise a genetically heterogeneous patient group. RNA-sequencing linked to the underlying genetic architecture can be used to better understand the underlying pathology by identifying key signalling pathways and stratify patients more robustly according to clinical risk. OBJECTIVES: Using a three-stage design of RNA discovery, RNA validation/model construction and model validation to define a set of PAH-associated RNAs and a single summarising RNA model score. To define genes most likely to be involved in disease development, we performed Mendelian randomisation (MR) analysis. METHODS: RNA-sequencing was performed on whole blood samples from 359 patients with idiopathic, heritable and drug-induced PAH and 72 age- and sex-matched healthy volunteers. The score was evaluated against disease severity markers including survival analysis using all-cause mortality from diagnosis. MR used known eQTL and summary statistics from a PAH GWAS. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: We identified 507 genes with differential RNA expression in PAH patients compared to controls. A model of 25 RNAs was able to distinguish PAH with 87% accuracy (AUC 95% CI: 0.791-0.945) in model validation. The RNA model score was associated with disease severity and long-term survival (p=4.66x10-6) in PAH. MR detected an association between SMAD5 levels and PAH disease susceptibility (OR:0.317, 95%CI:0.129-0.776, p=0.012). CONCLUSIONS: A whole blood RNA signature of PAH, which includes RNAs relevant to disease pathogenesis, associates with disease severity and identifies patients with poor clinical outcomes. Genetic variants associated with lower SMAD5 expression may increase susceptibility to PAH.

2.
Open Heart ; 7(1): e001144, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32180986

RESUMO

Objective: Inoperable chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) managed medically has a poor prognosis. Balloon pulmonary angioplasty (BPA) offers a new treatment for inoperable patients. The national BPA service for the UK opened in October 2015 and we now describe the treatment of our initial patient cohort. Methods: Thirty consecutive, inoperable, anatomically suitable, symptomatic patients on stable medical therapy for CTEPH were identified and offered BPA. They initially underwent baseline investigations including Cambridge Pulmonary Hypertension Outcome Review (CAMPHOR) quality of life (QoL) questionnaire, cardiopulmonary exercise test, 6 min walk distance (6MWD), transthoracic echocardiography, N-terminal probrain natriuretic peptide (NT pro-BNP) and right heart catheterisation. Serial BPA sessions were then performed and after completion, the treatment effect was gauged by comparing the same investigations at 3 months follow-up. Results: A median of 3 (IQR 1-6) BPA sessions per patient resulted in a significant improvement in functional status (WHO functional class ≥3: 24 vs 4, p<0.0001) and QoL (CAMPHOR symptom score: 8.7±5.4 vs 5.6±6.1, p=0.0005) with reductions in pulmonary pressures (mean pulmonary artery pressure: 44.7±11.0 vs 34.4±8.3 mm Hg, p<0.0001) and resistance (pulmonary vascular resistance: 663±281 vs 436±196 dyn.s.cm-5, p<0.0001). Exercise capacity improved (minute ventilation/carbon dioxide production: 55.3±12.2 vs 45.0±7.8, p=0.03 and 6MWD: 366±107 vs 440±94 m, p<0.0001) and there was reduction in right ventricular (RV) stretch (NT pro-BNP: 442 (IQR 168-1607) vs 202 (IQR 105-447) pg/mL, p<0.0001) and dimensions (mid RV diameter: 4.4±1.0 vs 3.8±0.7 cm, p=0.002). There were no deaths or life-threatening complications and the mild-moderate per-procedure complication rate was 10.5%. Conclusions: BPA is safe and improves the functional status, QoL, pulmonary haemodynamics and RV dimensions of patients with inoperable CTEPH.

3.
J Thromb Haemost ; 18(1): 114-122, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31557382

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) is an uncommon complication of acute pulmonary emboli necessitating lifelong anticoagulation. Despite this, few data exist on the safety and efficacy of vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) in CTEPH and none for direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs). OBJECTIVES: To evaluate outcomes and complication rates in CTEPH following pulmonary endarterectomy (PEA) for individuals receiving VKAs or DOACs. METHODS: Consecutive CTEPH patients undergoing PEA between 2007 and 2018 were included in a retrospective analysis. Postoperative outcomes, recurrent venous thromboembolism (VTE), and bleeding events were obtained from patient medical records. RESULTS: Seven hundred ninety-four individuals were treated with VKAs and 206 with DOACs following PEA. Mean observation period was 612 (standard deviation: 702) days. Significant improvements in hemodynamics and functional status were observed in both groups following PEA (P < .001). Major bleeding events were equivalent (P = 1) in those treated with VKAs (0.67%/person-year) and DOACs (0.68%/person-year). The VTE recurrence was proportionately higher (P = .008) with DOACs (4.62%/person-year) than VKAs (0.76%/person-year), although survival did not differ. CONCLUSIONS: Post-PEA functional and hemodynamic outcomes appear unaffected by anticoagulant choice. Bleeding events were similar, but recurrent VTE rates significantly higher in those receiving DOACs. Our study provides a strong rationale for prospective registry data and/or studies to evaluate the safety of DOACs in CTEPH.

4.
Am J Respir Crit Care Med ; 201(5): 575-585, 2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31661308

RESUMO

Rationale: Recently, rare heterozygous mutations in GDF2 were identified in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). GDF2 encodes the circulating BMP (bone morphogenetic protein) type 9, which is a ligand for the BMP2 receptor.Objectives: Here we determined the functional impact of GDF2 mutations and characterized plasma BMP9 and BMP10 levels in patients with idiopathic PAH.Methods: Missense BMP9 mutant proteins were expressed in vitro and the impact on BMP9 protein processing and secretion, endothelial signaling, and functional activity was assessed. Plasma BMP9 and BMP10 levels and activity were assayed in patients with PAH with GDF2 variants and in control subjects. Levels were also measured in a larger cohort of control subjects (n = 120) and patients with idiopathic PAH (n = 260).Measurements and Main Results: We identified a novel rare variation at the GDF2 and BMP10 loci, including copy number variation. In vitro, BMP9 missense proteins demonstrated impaired cellular processing and secretion. Patients with PAH who carried these mutations exhibited reduced plasma levels of BMP9 and reduced BMP activity. Unexpectedly, plasma BMP10 levels were also markedly reduced in these individuals. Although overall BMP9 and BMP10 levels did not differ between patients with PAH and control subjects, BMP10 levels were lower in PAH females. A subset of patients with PAH had markedly reduced plasma levels of BMP9 and BMP10 in the absence of GDF2 mutations.Conclusions: Our findings demonstrate that GDF2 mutations result in BMP9 loss of function and are likely causal. These mutations lead to reduced circulating levels of both BMP9 and BMP10. These findings support therapeutic strategies to enhance BMP9 or BMP10 signaling in PAH.

5.
J Thromb Haemost ; 18(1): 151-161, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31479557

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Women are more susceptible than men to several forms of pulmonary hypertension, but have better survival. Sparse data are available on chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH). METHODS: We investigated sex-specific differences in the clinical presentation of CTEPH, performance of pulmonary endarterectomy (PEA), and survival. RESULTS: Women constituted one-half of the study population of the European CTEPH registry (N = 679) and were characterized by a lower prevalence of some cardiovascular risk factors, including prior acute coronary syndrome, smoking habit, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, but more prevalent obesity, cancer, and thyroid diseases. The median age was 62 (interquartile ratio, 50-73) years in women and 63 (interquartile ratio, 53-70) in men. Women underwent PEA less often than men (54% vs 65%), especially at low-volume centers (48% vs 61%), and were exposed to fewer additional cardiac procedures, notably coronary artery bypass graft surgery (0.5% vs 9.5%). The prevalence of specific reasons for not being operated, including patient's refusal and the proportion of proximal vs distal lesions, did not differ between sexes. A total of 57 (17.0%) deaths in women and 70 (20.7%) in men were recorded over long-term follow-up. Female sex was positively associated with long-term survival (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.66; 95% confidence interval, 0.46-0.94). Short-term mortality was identical in the two groups. CONCLUSIONS: Women with CTEPH underwent PEA less frequently than men, especially at low-volume centers. Furthermore, they had a lower prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors and were less often exposed to additional cardiac surgery procedures. Women had better long-term survival.

6.
F1000Res ; 82019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30984375

RESUMO

Acute pulmonary embolism (PE) is a disease frequently encountered in clinical practice. While the management of haemodynamically stable, low risk patients with acute PE is well established, managing intermediate disease often presents a therapeutic dilemma. In this review, we discuss the various therapeutic options available in this patient group. This includes thrombolysis, surgical embolectomy and catheter directed techniques. We have also explored the role of specialist PE response teams in the management of such patients. â€‹.

7.
Eur Respir J ; 53(5)2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30923185

RESUMO

While traffic and air pollution exposure is associated with increased mortality in numerous diseases, its association with disease severity and outcomes in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) remains unknown.Exposure to particulate matter with a 50% cut-off aerodynamic diameter ≤2.5 µm (PM2.5), nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and indirect measures of traffic-related air pollution (distance to main road and length of roads within buffer zones surrounding residential addresses) were estimated for 301 patients with idiopathic/heritable PAH recruited in the UK National Cohort Study of Idiopathic and Heritable PAH. Associations with transplant-free survival and pulmonary haemodynamic severity at baseline were assessed, adjusting for confounding variables defined a prioriHigher estimated exposure to PM2.5 was associated with higher risk of death or lung transplant (unadjusted hazard ratio (HR) 2.68 (95% CI 1.11-6.47) per 3 µg·m-3; p=0.028). This association remained similar when adjusted for potential confounding variables (HR 4.38 (95% CI 1.44-13.36) per 3 µg·m-3; p=0.009). No associations were found between NO2 exposure or other traffic pollution indicators and transplant-free survival. Conversely, indirect measures of exposure to traffic-related air pollution within the 500-1000 m buffer zones correlated with the European Society of Cardiology/European Respiratory Society risk categories as well as pulmonary haemodynamics at baseline. This association was strongest for pulmonary vascular resistance.In idiopathic/heritable PAH, indirect measures of exposure to traffic-related air pollution were associated with disease severity at baseline, whereas higher PM2.5 exposure may independently predict shorter transplant-free survival.

8.
Eur Respir J ; 53(3)2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30655285

RESUMO

Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) is an important consequence of pulmonary embolism that is associated with abnormalities in haemostasis. We investigated the ADAMTS13-von Willebrand factor (VWF) axis in CTEPH, including its relationship with disease severity, inflammation, ABO groups and ADAMTS13 genetic variants.ADAMTS13 and VWF plasma antigen levels were measured in patients with CTEPH (n=208), chronic thromboembolic disease without pulmonary hypertension (CTED) (n=35), resolved pulmonary embolism (n=28), idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (n=30) and healthy controls (n=68). CTEPH genetic ABO associations and protein quantitative trait loci were investigated. ADAMTS13-VWF axis abnormalities were assessed in CTEPH and healthy control subsets by measuring ADAMTS13 activity, D-dimers and VWF multimeric size.Patients with CTEPH had decreased ADAMTS13 (adjusted ß -23.4%, 95% CI -30.9- -15.1%, p<0.001) and increased VWF levels (ß +75.5%, 95% CI 44.8-113%, p<0.001) compared to healthy controls. ADAMTS13 levels remained low after reversal of pulmonary hypertension by pulmonary endarterectomy surgery and were equally reduced in CTED. We identified a genetic variant near the ADAMTS13 gene associated with ADAMTS13 protein that accounted for ∼8% of the variation in levels.The ADAMTS13-VWF axis is dysregulated in CTEPH. This is unrelated to pulmonary hypertension, disease severity or markers of systemic inflammation and implicates the ADAMTS13-VWF axis in CTEPH pathobiology.

9.
Eur Respir J ; 53(1)2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30545980

RESUMO

Pulmonary hypertension (PH) frequently complicates the course of patients with various forms of chronic lung disease (CLD). CLD-associated PH (CLD-PH) is invariably associated with reduced functional ability, impaired quality of life, greater oxygen requirements and an increased risk of mortality. The aetiology of CLD-PH is complex and multifactorial, with differences in the pathogenic sequelae between the diverse forms of CLD. Haemodynamic evaluation of PH severity should be contextualised within the extent of the underlying lung disease, which is best gauged through a combination of physiological and imaging assessment. Who, when, if and how to screen for PH will be addressed in this article, as will the current state of knowledge with regard to the role of treatment with pulmonary vasoactive agents. Although such therapy cannot be endorsed given the current state of findings, future studies in this area are strongly encouraged.

11.
Eur Respir J ; 53(2)2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30578391

RESUMO

Objectives of this European Respiratory Society task force were to summarise current studies, to develop strategies for future research and to increase availability and awareness of exercise training for pulmonary hypertension (PH) patients.An evidence-based approach with clinical expertise of the task force members, based on both literature search and face-to-face meetings was conducted. The statement summarises current knowledge and open questions regarding clinical effects of exercise training in PH, training modalities, implementation strategies and pathophysiological mechanisms.In studies (784 PH patients in total, including six randomised controlled trials, three controlled trials, 10 prospective cohort studies and four meta-analyses), exercise training has been shown to improve exercise capacity, muscular function, quality of life and possibly right ventricular function and pulmonary haemodynamics. Nevertheless, further studies are needed to confirm these data, to investigate the impact on risk profiles and to identify the most advantageous training methodology and underlying pathophysiological mechanisms.As exercise training appears to be effective, cost-efficient and safe, but is scarcely reimbursed, support from healthcare institutions, commissioners of healthcare and research funding institutions is greatly needed. There is a strong need to establish specialised rehabilitation programmes for PH patients to enhance patient access to this treatment intervention.

13.
Circ Genom Precis Med ; 11(10): e002087, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30354297

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), pathological changes in pulmonary arterioles progressively raise pulmonary artery pressure and increase pulmonary vascular resistance, leading to right heart failure and high mortality rates. Recently, the first potassium channelopathy in PAH, because of mutations in KCNK3, was identified as a genetic cause and pharmacological target. METHODS: Exome sequencing was performed to identify novel genes in a cohort of 99 pediatric and 134 adult-onset group I PAH patients. Novel rare variants in the gene identified were independently identified in a cohort of 680 adult-onset patients. Variants were expressed in COS cells and function assessed by patch-clamp and rubidium flux analysis. RESULTS: We identified a de novo novel heterozygous predicted deleterious missense variant c.G2873A (p.R958H) in ABCC8 in a child with idiopathic PAH. We then evaluated all individuals in the original and a second cohort for rare or novel variants in ABCC8 and identified 11 additional heterozygous predicted damaging ABCC8 variants. ABCC8 encodes SUR1 (sulfonylurea receptor 1)-a regulatory subunit of the ATP-sensitive potassium channel. We observed loss of ATP-sensitive potassium channel function for all ABCC8 variants evaluated and pharmacological rescue of all channel currents in vitro by the SUR1 activator, diazoxide. CONCLUSIONS: Novel and rare missense variants in ABCC8 are associated with PAH. Identified ABCC8 mutations decreased ATP-sensitive potassium channel function, which was pharmacologically recovered.


Assuntos
Exoma , Hipertensão Pulmonar Primária Familiar/genética , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Receptores Sulfonilureia/genética , Adulto , Substituição de Aminoácidos , Criança , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Hipertensão Pulmonar Primária Familiar/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
14.
Eur Respir J ; 52(5)2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30337446

RESUMO

Abbreviated versions of the risk stratification strategy of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC)/European Respiratory Society (ERS) pulmonary hypertension guidelines have been recently validated in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension. We aimed to investigate their prognostic value in medically treated chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) patients from the COMPERA registry, which collects six variables of interest (World Health Organization Functional Class, 6-min walk distance, brain natriuretic peptide, right atrial pressure, cardiac index and mixed venous oxygen saturation).We included patients with at least one follow-up visit, no pulmonary endarterectomy and at least three of the six variables available, and classified the patients into low-, intermediate- and high-risk groups. As a secondary analysis, the number of noninvasive low-risk criteria was counted. The association between risk assessment and survival was evaluated.Data from inclusion and follow-up (median 7 months) visits were available for 561 and 231 patients, respectively. Baseline 1- and 5-year survival estimates were significantly different (p<0.0001) in the baseline low-risk (98.6% and 88.3%, respectively), intermediate-risk (94.9% and 61.8%, respectively) and high-risk (75.5% and 32.9%, respectively) cohorts. Follow-up data were even more discriminative, with 100%, 92% and 69% 1-year survival, respectively. The number of low-risk noninvasive criteria was also associated with survival.These analyses suggest that the ESC/ERS risk assessment may be applicable in patients with medically treated CTEPH.


Assuntos
Hipertensão Pulmonar/mortalidade , Hipertensão Pulmonar/fisiopatologia , Embolia Pulmonar/complicações , Medição de Risco/métodos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Doença Crônica , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão Pulmonar/terapia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Prognóstico , Sistema de Registros , Sociedades Médicas , Análise de Sobrevida
15.
Eur Respir J ; 52(3)2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30002102

RESUMO

Pulmonary endarterectomy (PEA) is the gold standard treatment for operable chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH). However, a proportion of patients with operable disease decline surgery. There are currently no published data on this patient group. The aim of this study was to identify outcomes and prognostic factors in a large cohort of consecutive patients with CTEPH.Data were collected for consecutive, treatment-naive CTEPH patients at the Pulmonary Vascular Disease Unit of the Royal Hallamshire Hospital (Sheffield, UK) between 2001 and 2014.Of 550 CTEPH patients (mean±sd age 63±15 years, follow-up 4±3 years), 49% underwent surgery, 32% had technically operable disease and did not undergo surgery (including patient choice n=72 and unfit for surgery n=63), and 19% had inoperable disease due to disease distribution. The 5-year survival was superior in patients undergoing PEA (83%) versus technically operable disease who did not undergo surgery (53%) and inoperable due to disease distribution (59%) (p<0.001). Survival was superior in patients following PEA compared with those offered but declining surgery (55%) (p<0.001). In patients offered PEA, independent prognostic factors included mixed venous oxygen saturation, gas transfer and patient decision to proceed to surgery.Outcomes in CTEPH following PEA are excellent and superior to patients declining surgery, and strongly favour consideration of a surgical intervention in eligible patients.


Assuntos
Endarterectomia , Hipertensão Pulmonar/cirurgia , Artéria Pulmonar/cirurgia , Embolia Pulmonar/cirurgia , Recusa do Paciente ao Tratamento , Idoso , Angioplastia com Balão , Pressão Arterial , Doença Crônica , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão Pulmonar/diagnóstico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Preferência do Paciente , Artéria Pulmonar/fisiopatologia , Embolia Pulmonar/diagnóstico , Troca Gasosa Pulmonar , Estudos Retrospectivos , Análise de Sobrevida , Fatores de Tempo , Reino Unido/epidemiologia , Resistência Vascular
16.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 1416, 2018 04 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29650961

RESUMO

Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a rare disorder with a poor prognosis. Deleterious variation within components of the transforming growth factor-ß pathway, particularly the bone morphogenetic protein type 2 receptor (BMPR2), underlies most heritable forms of PAH. To identify the missing heritability we perform whole-genome sequencing in 1038 PAH index cases and 6385 PAH-negative control subjects. Case-control analyses reveal significant overrepresentation of rare variants in ATP13A3, AQP1 and SOX17, and provide independent validation of a critical role for GDF2 in PAH. We demonstrate familial segregation of mutations in SOX17 and AQP1 with PAH. Mutations in GDF2, encoding a BMPR2 ligand, lead to reduced secretion from transfected cells. In addition, we identify pathogenic mutations in the majority of previously reported PAH genes, and provide evidence for further putative genes. Taken together these findings contribute new insights into the molecular basis of PAH and indicate unexplored pathways for therapeutic intervention.


Assuntos
Adenosina Trifosfatases/química , Aquaporina 1/química , Hipertensão Pulmonar Primária Familiar/genética , Fatores de Diferenciação de Crescimento/química , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras/química , Mutação , Fatores de Transcrição SOXF/química , Adenosina Trifosfatases/genética , Adenosina Trifosfatases/metabolismo , Adulto , Aquaporina 1/genética , Aquaporina 1/metabolismo , Sequência de Bases , Receptores de Proteínas Morfogenéticas Ósseas Tipo II/genética , Receptores de Proteínas Morfogenéticas Ósseas Tipo II/metabolismo , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Hipertensão Pulmonar Primária Familiar/diagnóstico , Hipertensão Pulmonar Primária Familiar/metabolismo , Hipertensão Pulmonar Primária Familiar/patologia , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Fatores de Diferenciação de Crescimento/genética , Fatores de Diferenciação de Crescimento/metabolismo , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Masculino , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras/genética , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras/metabolismo , Modelos Moleculares , Prognóstico , Fatores de Transcrição SOXF/genética , Fatores de Transcrição SOXF/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/genética , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/metabolismo , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
17.
Interact Cardiovasc Thorac Surg ; 26(6): 932-937, 2018 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29373658

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Pulmonary endarterectomy (PEA) is the treatment of choice for patients with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (PH). Despite excellent outcomes following PEA, a small proportion of patients have residual proximal disease or present with recurrent chronic thromboembolic PH and may benefit from further surgery. The aim of this study was to analyse outcomes following reoperative PEA at a high-volume national tertiary referral centre for the management of chronic thromboembolic PH. METHODS: This retrospective analysis was performed using our prospectively maintained PH database to identify all patients who underwent reoperative PEA surgery between the commencement of the programme in 1997 and January 2017, and the patients' data were collected for analysis. RESULTS: Twelve patients underwent reoperative PEA during the period of study. The mean interval between primary procedure and reoperative procedure was 6.3 years. Significant improvements were observed in pulmonary haemodynamics following reoperative PEA. Mean pulmonary arterial pressure decreased from 46.8 to 29.8 mmHg (P < 0.0001) and pulmonary vascular resistance decreased from 662 to 362 dyne·s·cm-5 (P = 0.0007). A significant functional improvement in the 6-min walking test distance was also observed, increasing from 327 to 460 m at 6 months postoperatively (P = 0.0018). Median length of hospital stay was 12 days. In-hospital mortality was 8.3% with 1-year survival of 83.3%. CONCLUSIONS: Reoperative PEA is technically possible and relatively safe, achieving good functional and physiological outcomes. Patients must be carefully selected by a multidisciplinary team, and surgery should be performed in experienced centres.


Assuntos
Endarterectomia , Hipertensão Pulmonar/cirurgia , Embolia Pulmonar/cirurgia , Reoperação , Adulto , Doença Crônica , Feminino , Hemodinâmica , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento , Resistência Vascular , Adulto Jovem
18.
Pulm Circ ; 8(2): 2045893217749114, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29251549

RESUMO

Right ventricular failure is a leading cause of mortality in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). However, up to 25% of such patients die unexpectedly, without warning signs of hemodynamical decompensation. We previously documented that pulmonary artery (PA) dilatation significantly increases the risk of those deaths. Some of them may be due to dissection of PA resulting in cardiac tamponade. However, direct confirmation of this mechanism is difficult as most of such deaths occur outside hospitals. We present 4 patients with severe PAH and PA dilatation in whom PA dissection has been confirmed. Three patients had IPAH, one had PAH associated with congenital heart disease. All patients had mean pulmonary artery pressure (PAP) > 50 mmHg at diagnosis and dissection occurred late in the course of apparently well controlled disease (6 to 14 years). Several clinical elements were common to our patients - high systolic PAP, long lasting PH, progressive dilatation of PA to more than 50 mm with chest pain prior to dissection. However, clinical course followed three different patterns: sudden death due to cardiac tamponade, hemopericarditis caused by blood leaking from dissected aneurysm with imminent but not immediate cardiac tamponade, or chronic asymptomatic PA dissection. Indeed, two of our patients are alive and on lung transplantation waiting list for more than 2 years now. Further research is needed to suggest optimal management strategies for patients with stable PAH but significantly dilated proximal pulmonary arteries or confirmed PA dissection depending on the clinical presentation and expected outcome.

19.
Pulm Circ ; 8(1): 2045893217743616, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29099657

RESUMO

The aims of this study were to investigate the medication adherence of patients on pulmonary hypertension (PH)-targeted therapies and uncover factors that might influence adherence values. Patients taking at least one specialist medicine (sildenafil, tadalafil, bosentan, ambrisentan, iloprost, epoprostenol, treprostinil) completed a Morisky Medication Adherence Scale-8 (MMAS-8) questionnaire. Participants' MMAS-8 scores were used to estimate overall medicine adherence. Potential adherence co-factor data were collected from patient databases and hospital discharge summaries. The MMAS-8 questionnaire was completed by 263 patients (mean age = 61.6 ± 14.8 years, 70.6% women). Data from MMAS-8 showed that 47.9% reported high adherence, 40.3% moderate adherence, and 11.8% low adherence. Factors associated with adherence as measured by the MMAS-8 included: older age; taking monotherapy; and having a higher number of co-morbidities or concurrent medicines. Higher administration frequency, greater length of time on targeted therapy, and use of a compliance aid had a negative association with adherence. Overall adherence to PH specialist medicines is relatively high but a proportion of patients report sub-optimal adherence behavior. A number of factors may help to recognize susceptible patients.

20.
BMC Pulm Med ; 17(1): 216, 2017 Dec 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29282032

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Following positive results from the Phase III CHEST-1 study in patients with inoperable or persistent/recurrent chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH), the Phase IIIb CTEPH early access study (EAS) was designed to assess the safety and tolerability of riociguat in real-world clinical practice, as well as to provide patients with early access to riociguat before launch. Riociguat is approved for the treatment of inoperable and persistent/recurrent CTEPH. METHODS: We performed an open-label, uncontrolled, single-arm, early access study in which 300 adult patients with inoperable or persistent/recurrent CTEPH received riociguat adjusted from 1 mg three times daily (tid) to a maximum of 2.5 mg tid. Patients switching from unsatisfactory prior pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH)-targeted therapy (n = 84) underwent a washout period of at least 3 days before initiating riociguat. The primary aim was to assess the safety and tolerability of riociguat, with World Health Organization functional class and 6-min walking distance (6MWD) as exploratory efficacy endpoints. RESULTS: In total, 262 patients (87%) completed study treatment and entered the safety follow-up (median treatment duration 47 weeks). Adverse events were reported in 273 patients (91%). The most frequently reported serious adverse events were syncope (6%), right ventricular failure (3%), and pneumonia (2%). There were five deaths, none of which was considered related to study medication. The safety and tolerability of riociguat was similar in patients switched from other PAH-targeted therapies and those who were treatment naïve. In patients with data available, mean ± standard deviation 6MWD had increased by 33 ± 42 m at Week 12 with no clinically relevant differences between the switched and treatment-naïve subgroups. CONCLUSIONS: Riociguat was well tolerated in patients with CTEPH who were treatment naïve, and in those who were switched from other PAH-targeted therapies. No new safety signals were observed. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.org NCT01784562 . Registered February 4, 2013.


Assuntos
Anti-Hipertensivos/uso terapêutico , Hipertensão Pulmonar/tratamento farmacológico , Pirazóis/uso terapêutico , Pirimidinas/uso terapêutico , Tromboembolia/complicações , Idoso , Anti-Hipertensivos/administração & dosagem , Anti-Hipertensivos/efeitos adversos , Doença Crônica , Esquema de Medicação , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão Pulmonar/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pirazóis/administração & dosagem , Pirazóis/efeitos adversos , Pirimidinas/administração & dosagem , Pirimidinas/efeitos adversos , Síncope/induzido quimicamente , Resultado do Tratamento
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA