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1.
Pan Afr Med J ; 39: 128, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34527144

RESUMO

Introduction: Zimbabwe is one of the 30 countries globally with a high burden of multidrug-resistant TB or rifampicin-resistant TB. The World Health Organization recommended that patients diagnosed with multidrug-resistant TB be treated with 20-24 month standardized second-line drugs since 2010. However, factors associated with mortality and treatment success have not been systematically evaluated in Zimbabwe. The Objective of the study was to assess factors associated with Mortality and treatment success among multidrug-resistant-TB patients registered and treated under the National Tuberculosis programme in Zimbabwe. Methods: the study was conducted using secondary data routinely collected from the National tuberculosis (TB) programme. Categorical variables were summarised using frequencies and a generalized linear model with a log-link function and a Poisson distribution was used to assess factors associated with mortality and treatment success. The level of significance was set at P-Value < 0.05. Results: patient antiretroviral therapy (ART) status was a significant associated factor of treatment success or failure (RRR = 3.92, p < 0.001). Patients who were not on ART had a high risk of death by 3.92 times compared to patients who were on ART. In the age groups 45 - 54 years (relative risk ratios (RRR) = 1.41, p = 0.048), the risk of death was increased by 1.41 times compared to other age groups. Patients aged 55 years and above (RRR = 1.55, p = 0.017), had a risk of dying increased by 1.55 times compared to other age groups. Diagnosis time duration of 8 - 30 days (RRR = 0.62, p = 0.022) was found to be protective, a shorter diagnosis time duration between 8 to 30 days reduced the risk of TB deaths by 0.62 times compared to longer periods. Missed TB doses of > 10% (RRR = 2.03, p < 0.001) increased the risk of MDR/RR-TB deaths by 2.03 times compared to missing TB doses of ≤ 10%. Conclusion: not being on ART when HIV positive was a major significant predictor of mortality. Improving ART uptake among those ART-naïve and strategies aimed at improving treatment adherence are important in improving treatment success rates.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/administração & dosagem , Antituberculosos/administração & dosagem , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/tratamento farmacológico , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Antituberculosos/farmacologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Rifampina/farmacologia , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/diagnóstico , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/mortalidade , Adulto Jovem , Zimbábue
2.
Hum Resour Health ; 17(1): 39, 2019 05 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31151396

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Zimbabwe experienced a socio-economic crisis from 1997 to 2008 which heavily impacted all sectors. In this context, human resource managers were confronted with the challenge of health worker shortage in rural areas and, at the same time, had to operate under a highly centralised, government-centred system which defined health worker deployment policies. This study examines the implementation of deployment policies in Zimbabwe before, during and after the crisis in order to analyse how the official policy environment evolved over time, present the actual practices used by managers to cope with the crisis and draw lessons. 'Deployment' here was considered to include all the human resource management functions for getting staff into posts and managing subsequent movements: recruitment, bonding, transfer and secondment. The study contributes to address the existing paucity of evidence on flexibility on implementation of policies in crisis/conflict settings. METHODS: This retrospective study investigates deployment policies in government and faith-based organisation health facilities in Zimbabwe before, during and after the crisis. A document review was done to understand the policy environment. In-depth interviews with key informant including policy makers, managers and health workers in selected facilities in three mainly rural districts in the Midlands province were conducted. Data generated was analysed using a framework approach. RESULTS: Before the crisis, health workers were allowed to look for jobs on their own, while during the crisis, they were given three choices and after the crisis the preference choice was withdrawn. The government froze recruitment in all sectors during the crisis which severely affected health workers' deployment. In practice, the implementation of the deployment policies was relatively flexible. In some cases, health workers were transferred to retain them, the recruitment freeze was temporarily lifted to fill priority vacancies, the length of the bonding period was reduced including relaxation of withholding certificates, and managers used secondment to relocate workers to priority areas. CONCLUSION: Flexibility in the implementation of deployment policies during crises may increase the resilience of the system and contribute to the retention of health workers. This, in turn, may assist in ensuring coverage of health services in hard-to-reach areas.


Assuntos
Pessoal de Saúde/organização & administração , Recessão Econômica , Feminino , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Satisfação no Emprego , Masculino , Política Organizacional , Reorganização de Recursos Humanos , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Estudos Retrospectivos , Serviços de Saúde Rural/organização & administração , Zimbábue
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