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1.
Animal ; : 1-7, 2019 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31155019

RESUMO

Vitamins play an essential role in broiler nutrition. They are fundamental for normal metabolic and physiological process, and their requirements for poultry are not fixed and can be affected by multiple factors. In contrast, mycotoxins are a challenging issue because they hinder performance and the immune system. Vitamin supplementation above minimum requirements would permit improvement in productive potential, health, bone and meat quality in a situation of mycotoxin challenge. The objective of this study was to determine the influence of optimum vitamin nutrition in diets contaminated with aflatoxin in broilers from 1 to 44 days of age. A total of 1800 Cobb 500 male chicks were randomized to 15 sets of eight treatment groups, each containing 15 birds using a 2 × 2 × 2 factorial design (commercial vitamin levels and high vitamin levels, two levels of aflatoxin - 0 and 0.5 ppm with binder levels of 0 and 10 000 mg/kg). The mash diets were corn and soybean meal based, formulated according to commercial practices. Feed intake, weight gain and feed conversion were analyzed for birds from 1 to 44 days of age. To determine carcass characteristics (carcass yield, breast yield and leg yield) and black bone syndrome, two birds were slaughtered from each group at 45 days. Other analyses included breast tenderness, water loss by dripping and malonaldehyde concentrations. The results demonstrated that broilers that were fed high levels of vitamins showed better weight gain, feed conversion, carcass yield and breast yield than broilers that were fed diets with commercial vitamin levels (P < 0.05); also, broilers that were fed diets containing 0.5 ppm aflatoxin had lower weight gain, carcass yield and breast yield (P < 0.05). The use of 10 000 mg/kg of binder improved (P < 0.05) feed conversion throughout the rearing period. We conclude that aflatoxin negatively affects performance and carcass yield; however, feeding optimum vitamin nutrition improved these performance traits.

2.
Ecotoxicology ; 27(10): 1414, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30327904

RESUMO

Acknowledgements This work was supported by LEAF (UID/AGR/04129/2013) and CESAM (UID/AMB/50017/2013) from FCT/MEC through national funds, and the cofunding by FEDER (POCI-01-0145-FEDER-007638), within the PT2020 Partnership Agreement and Compete2020.

3.
Ecotoxicology ; 27(7): 956-967, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29700712

RESUMO

In a regulatory perspective addressing the cumulative effect of co-occurring chemicals is the first and most important step in providing a more realistic hazard assessment of chemical cocktails to both man and environment. This study was conducted to show if joint effects on the immobilisation of the crustacean Daphnia magna and on the growth inhibition of algae Raphidocelis subcapitata follow additivity (concentration addition (CA) or independent action (IA) predictions) or if there is an interaction between chemicals in the organisms upon exposure to an environmentally realistic mixture of chlorpyrifos and terbuthylazine, with expected different molecular sites of action. A pattern of antagonism at lower doses and synergism at higher doses was found for acute immobility data, while no deviation from the additive conceptual models was observed in the algae inhibition test. Results in relation to the relevant set of regulatory acceptable concentrations (RACs) and environmental quality standards (EQSs) derived for individual chlorpyrifos and terbuthylazine were evaluated.

4.
Animal ; 12(2): 256-264, 2018 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28735589

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of the energy restriction of gestation of adult ewes from day 45 to day 115 on lamb live performance parameters, carcass and meat traits. In experiment I, dietary energy was restricted at 70% of the metabolizable energy (ME) requirements, after which ewes were re-fed ad libitum until lambing. In experiment II, dietary energy was restricted at 60% of the ME requirements, and ewes were re-fed to ME requirements until lambing. All ewes grazed together from the end of the restriction periods to weaning. Lambs were weaned and lot fed until slaughter. Feed intake, weight gain and feed efficiency were recorded, and body fat thickness and ribeye area (REA) were measured in the longissimus thoracis muscle. After slaughter, carcass weight and yield, fat depth, carcass and leg length, and frenched rack and leg weights and yields were determined. Muscle fiber type composition, Warner-Bratzler shear force, pH and color were determined in the longissimus lumborum muscle. In experiment I, energy restriction followed by ad libitum feeding affected lamb birth weight (P0.05) were observed on later BW, REA, BF or carcass traits. Lambs born to non-restricted-fed ewes had higher (P<0.05) weight and yield of the frenched rack cut and their meat tended (P=0.11) to be tender compared with that of lambs from restricted ewes. The percentage of oxidative muscle fibers was lower for lambs born to non-restricted ewes (P<0.05); however, no effects of ewe treatment were observed on other muscle fiber types. For experiment II, energy restriction followed by ME requirements feeding, affected (P<0.01) pre-weaning live weight gain, weaning and final weights. Lambs from restricted ewes had higher (P<0.05) feed intake as % of leg weight and a trend to be less efficient (P=0.16) than lambs from unrestricted dams. Ribeye area and BF were not influenced by treatment. Treatment significantly affected slaughter weight, but had no effects on carcass yield and traits or on meat traits. The results obtained in both experiments indicate submitting ewes to energy restriction during gestation affects the performance of their progeny but the final outcome would depend on the ewe's re-feeding level during late gestation and the capacity of the offspring to compensate the in utero restriction after birth.


Assuntos
Ingestão de Alimentos , Ingestão de Energia , Carne Vermelha/normas , Ovinos/fisiologia , Ração Animal , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Peso ao Nascer , Dieta/veterinária , Feminino , Fibras Musculares Esqueléticas/fisiologia , Fenótipo , Gravidez , Ovinos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Desmame , Ganho de Peso
5.
J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr (Berl) ; 102(1): 122-130, 2018 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28032379

RESUMO

Changes in physiological parameters that are induced by acute exercise on a treadmill in healthy military dogs have not been thoroughly investigated, especially with regard to age. This study investigated the effects of acute exercise on a treadmill on cardiovascular function, biochemical parameters and gastric antral motility in military dogs. Thermography was used to assess variations in superficial hindlimb muscle temperature. Nine healthy dogs were distributed into three groups according to their age (Group I: 25 ± 7 months; Group II: 51 ± 12 months; Group III: 95 ± 10 months) and sequentially subjected to running exercise on a treadmill for 12 min (3.2 km/h at 0° incline for 4 min, 6.4 km/h at 0° incline for 4 min and 6.4 km/h at 10° incline for 4 min). Heart rate, systolic and diastolic arterial pressure (DAP), gastric motility, haematocrit and biochemical analyses were performed at rest and after each session of treadmill exercise. Infrared thermographic images of muscles in the pelvic member were taken. Exercise decreased DAP in Group I, increased systolic arterial pressure in Groups II and III and increased mean arterial pressure in Group III (all p < 0.05). After the exercise protocol, plasma creatine kinase and aspartate aminotransferase levels increased only in Group I (p < 0.05). Exercise increased heart rate and decreased the gastric motility of a solid meal at 180 min in all groups (all p < 0.05). Exercise also elevated temperature in the femoral biceps muscles in Group I compared with the older dogs. The results indicate that acute exercise decreased gastric motility in dogs, regardless of age, and caused more pronounced cardiovascular changes in older dogs than in younger dogs. Acute exercise also altered biochemical parameters and superficial hindlimb muscle temperature in younger military dogs.


Assuntos
Pressão Sanguínea , Temperatura Corporal/fisiologia , Cães/fisiologia , Motilidade Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Frequência Cardíaca , Condicionamento Físico Animal/fisiologia , Animais , Teste de Esforço/veterinária , Masculino , Militares , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Esforço Físico
6.
Mol Divers ; 21(4): 809-820, 2017 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28924942

RESUMO

Pelargonium sidoides DC (Geraniaceae) is a medicinal plant indigenous to Southern Africa that has been widely evaluated for its use in the treatment of upper respiratory tract infections. In recent studies, the anti-proliferative potential of P. sidoides was shown, and several phenolic compounds were identified as the bioactive compounds. Little, however, is known regarding their anti-proliferative protein targets. In this study, the anti-proliferative mechanisms of P. sidoides through in silico target identification and network pharmacology methodologies were evaluated. The protein targets of the 12 phenolic compounds were identified using the target identification server PharmMapper and the server for predicting Drug Repositioning and Adverse Reactions via the Chemical-Protein Interactome (DRAR-CPI). Protein-protein and protein-pathway interaction networks were subsequently constructed with Cytoscape 3.4.0 to evaluate potential mechanisms of action. A total of 142 potential human target proteins were identified with the in silico target identification servers, and 90 of these were found to be related to cancer. The protein interaction network was constructed from 86 proteins involved in 209 interactions with each other, and two protein clusters were observed. A pathway enrichment analysis identified over 80 Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathways enriched with the protein targets and included several pathways specifically related to cancer as well as various signaling pathways that have been found to be dysregulated in cancer. These results indicate that the anti-proliferative activity of P. sidoides may be multifactorial and arises from the collective regulation of several interconnected cell signaling pathways.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Simulação por Computador , Pelargonium/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/química , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Terapia de Alvo Molecular , Extratos Vegetais/química , Mapeamento de Interação de Proteínas , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos
7.
Genet Mol Res ; 15(2)2016 May 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27323049

RESUMO

We obtained heritability and (co)variance component estimates for slaughter conformation scores at 420 days of age (SCS420), age at calving (first, AFC; second, ASC), calving occurrence until 38 months of age (CP38), weight at 420 days of age (W420), and scrotal circumference at 420 days (SC420) in Canchim (5/8 Charolais + 3/8 Zebu) cattle. A total of 23,168 records of Canchim animals, including 12,493 females and 10,675 males, were analyzed. SCS420 indicated carcass structure, muscle development, and subcutaneous fat deposition. The slaughter conformation score of each animal was relative to the whole contemporary group; 1 corresponded to the lowest expression of the trait and 6 to the highest. Heritabilities, and genetic and residual correlation estimates between SCS420 and reproductive and weight traits, were estimated by multitrait analyses using an animal model with Bayesian inference, employing a linear model for AFC, ASC, SC420, and W420 and a threshold model for CP38 and SCS420. Heritability estimates for SCS420, AFC, ASC, CP38, W420, and SC420 were 0.11, 0.15, 0.15, 0.15, 0.30, and 0.30, respectively. Genetic correlation estimates between SCS420 and the other traits were 0.08 (AFC), 0.58 (ASC), 0.08 (CP38), 0.43 (W420), and 0.17 (SC420). Visual slaughter conformation scores respond to individual selection and can be used as selection criteria in Canchim cattle. Selection to improve sexual precocity would not be effective in improving carcass conformation and composition, and selection for animals with high breeding values for yearling weight may improve slaughter conformation at the yearling stage.


Assuntos
Peso Corporal/genética , Reprodução/genética , Matadouros , Fatores Etários , Animais , Teorema de Bayes , Cruzamento , Bovinos , Feminino , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Fenótipo , Maturidade Sexual/genética
8.
Rev. bras. plantas med ; 18(2,supl.1): 613-620, 2016. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-830060

RESUMO

ABSTRACT Zinc (Zn) participates of numerous metabolic processes in plants. However, it can become toxic to plants in excessive concentrations in the soil. Pfaffia glomerata is a Brazilian medicinal species that has stood out because of its numerous chemical and functional properties, mainly by the triterpene saponins and ecdysteroids accumulated in its roots. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of zinc excess on many root morphological parameters of Pfaffia glomerata. A 4 x 3 factorial design was employed in a completely randomized scheme with 3 replicates. The treatments consisted of four concentrations of Zn (2, 100, 200, and 300 µM) and three accessions of P. glomerata (BRA, GD, and JB) grown in a hydroponic system for 7 and 14 days. Differences in root morphology and dry mass production were observed among the three accessions in response to excessive Zn. Some growth parameters of GD accession increased with the addition of Zn, ranging from 36 to 79 µM. However, the GD and JB accessions presented reduction in dry mass production, root area, length, and volume with increasing Zn levels. The BRA accession, which had the lowest growth among accessions, presented chlorotic leaves. The shoot/root dry mass ratio and root diameter increased linearly for BRA and GD accessions at 7 days. Based on the evaluated parameters, we observed the following order of Zn excess tolerance in P. glomerata accessions: GD> JB> BRA.


RESUMO O zinco (Zn) participa de numerosos processos metabólicos nas plantas. No entanto, em concentrações excessivas no solo pode tornar-se tóxico para os vegetais. Pfaffia glomerata é uma espécie medicinal brasileira que tem se destacado devido as suas inúmeras propriedades químicas e funcionais, devido principalmente às saponinas triterpênicas e ecdisteróides acumuladas em suas raízes. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar os efeitos do excesso de Zn sobre vários parâmetros morfológicos radiculares de Pfaffia glomerata. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado com três repetições, dispostos em um arranjo fatorial (4 x 3). Os tratamentos consistiram em quatro níveis de Zn (2, 100, 200 e 300µM) e três acessos (BRA, GD e JB) de P. glomerata cultivados em sistema hidropônico em casa de vegetação por 7 e 14 dias. Diferenças na morfologia radicular e na produção de material seca foram observadas entre os três acessos em resposta ao excesso de Zn. Alguns parâmetros de crescimento do acesso GD aumentaram sob a adição de Zn variando entre 36 e 79 µM. No entanto, os acessos GD e JB apresentaram redução na matéria seca, bem como na área de superfície, comprimento e volume radicular com o aumento dos níveis de Zn. O acesso BRA, que teve o menor crescimento entre os acessos, apresentou folhas cloróticas. A razão entre matéria seca da parte aérea e raízes e o diâmetro radicular aumentou linearmente para os acessos BRA e GD aos 7 dias de cultivo. Baseando-se nos parâmetros avaliados foi observada a seguinte ordem de tolerância ao excesso de Zn: GD> JB> BRA.


Assuntos
Amaranthaceae , Panax , Zinco/análise , Crescimento , Metais Pesados/análise
9.
Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom ; 29(8): 735-44, 2015 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26406488

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Approximately 1 billion m(3) of oil sands process-affected water (OSPW) is currently stored in tailings ponds in Northern Alberta, Canada. The dissolved organic compounds in OSPW have been termed a supercomplex mixture of bitumen-derived substances and continuing efforts to understand its underlying chemical composition are important for evaluating its environmental hazards. METHODS: Packed column supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) was applied to OSPW analysis for the first time. By combining four columns in series (each 25 cm × 4.6 mm I.D., 5.0 µm bare silica) approximately 80,000 plates were achieved on a 1 m column. Using a simple fixed restrictor, the SFC eluent was coupled directly to ultrahigh-resolution orbitrap mass spectrometry (SFC/Orbitrap-MS). RESULTS: SFC/Orbitrap-MS, with positive and negative atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI +/-), revealed the partial or full chromatographic separation of isomers for a wide array of chemical species, including naphthenic acids (Cn H2n + Z O2 ) and unknown sulfur- and nitrogen-containing molecules. For smaller compounds (e.g. naphthenic acids where n ≤10), or for larger structurally constrained compounds (e.g. C16 naphthenic acid with 9 double-bond equivalents), apparent baseline resolution of many isomers was possible. Isomer-specific MS/MS experiments furthermore allowed characterization of functional groups in novel species. For example, in APCI+ mode, up to 16 isomers of C6 H11 ON were revealed to have amide and amino functionalities. CONCLUSIONS: This combination of high efficiency chromatography and ultra-high mass resolution detection resulted in a powerful method with capabilities for characterizing or 'fingerprinting' unknown species with little interference. The method has great promise for environmental monitoring and forensics in the oil sands region, as well as for further studies on the composition of dissolved organic compounds in OSPW.


Assuntos
Ácidos Carboxílicos/análise , Compostos de Nitrogênio/análise , Campos de Petróleo e Gás/química , Compostos de Enxofre/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Água/análise , Cromatografia com Fluido Supercrítico/métodos , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Espectrometria de Massas/métodos
10.
Vox Sang ; 109(3): 214-20, 2015 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25900231

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The influence that blood component separation methods have on changes to the red blood cell membrane during storage is not well understood. In Canada, red cell concentrates (RCCs) are produced using the buffy coat (BC, top/bottom) and the whole-blood filtration (WBF, top/top) methods, and this study aimed at comparing their influence on the characteristics of the extracellular vesicles (EV) which accumulated in the respective products during storage. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Using flow cytometry, dynamic light scattering and mass spectrometry, we assessed RCC EVs for concentration, size, lipid composition and correlation with supernatant haemoglobin (Hb). RESULTS: Accumulation of RBC EVs (CD235a(+) ) with storage time was similar in WBF and BC RCCs. The size of the EVs changed from <100 nm at d5 to near 200 nm by d42, with the EVs from WBF being smaller (P < 0·001) than BC RCCs at all storage times. The amount of EV-bound Hb in the WBF and BC units was similar (about 10% of total supernatant Hb). WBF EVs and BC EVs displayed similar lipid composition. CONCLUSION: Haemolysis and EVs increase in BC and WBF RCCs during storage. Differences in the size characteristics of the EVs in WBF and BC RCCs suggest that non-RBC EVs are more prevalent in WBF products. Understanding the impact that manufacturing has on the characteristics of the different populations of EVs in RCCs will aid quality improvement efforts.


Assuntos
Remoção de Componentes Sanguíneos/métodos , Eritrócitos/citologia , Vesículas Extracelulares/fisiologia , Buffy Coat/citologia , Preservação de Sangue , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Cromatografia de Fase Reversa , Difusão Dinâmica da Luz , Eritrócitos/metabolismo , Vesículas Extracelulares/química , Filtração , Citometria de Fluxo , Hemoglobinas/análise , Hemoglobinas/metabolismo , Hemólise , Humanos , Tamanho da Partícula , Fosfolipídeos/análise , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
11.
J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr (Berl) ; 99(2): 201-9, 2015 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25110114

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of whole raw soybean (WRS) in the finishing diet of Nellore cattle on productive performance, carcass traits, meat quality, fatty acid profile of meat, and blood parameters. In a completely randomized design, 52 Nellore bulls (mean body weight ± SD: 380 ± 34 kg) were allotted for 84 days. The animals received the following diets with a forage: concentrate ratio of 40/60: (i) WRS0: control diet without soybean grains; (ii) WRS8: diet containing 8% WRS in dry matter basis; (iii) WRS16: diet containing 16% WRS, and (iv) WRS24: diet containing 24% WRS. At intervals of 28 days, the animals were weighed, muscle and adipose tissue was analysed by ultrasound, and blood samples were collected. The animals were slaughtered on day 85 and liver weight and hot carcass weight were measured during slaughter. The pH and carcass dressing were calculated at 24 h after slaughter. Longissimus dorsi muscle samples were collected for the determination of fatty acid profile of meat, ether extract, tenderness and sensory analysis of meat aged for 14 days. Blood cholesterol content increased linearly with increasing proportion of whole raw soybean grains. The diet did not affect performance or carcass attributes. The WRS8 had the highest shear force values. In fatty acid profile, C14:0 decreased (p = 0.05), whereas 16:1, 20:0 and 20:1 fatty acids increased linearly with increasing proportion of WRS (p < 0.05). However, concentration of conjugated linoleic acid cis 9, trans 11 and 17:0 increased with WRS24 and WRS16. In the sensory analysis, WRS24 was more tender with respect to the other treatments (p < 0.05). Finally, the inclusion of WRS in the finishing diet of feedlot Nellore bulls only evidenced little changes in fatty acid profile and tenderness, in animals fed diets containing 16 or 24% soybean.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Dieta/veterinária , Carne/normas , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Composição Corporal , Bovinos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Hospitais Veterinários , Fígado/anatomia & histologia , Masculino , Tamanho do Órgão
12.
Rev. bras. plantas med ; 17(4,supl.3): 1007-1015, 2015. tab, graf
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: lil-776607

RESUMO

RESUMO O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o potencial fungitóxicos dos óleos essenciais de Cymbopogon citratus, Lippia sidoides, e de seus constituintes majoritários, sobre o crescimento micelial dos fitopatógenos Rhizoctonia solani e Sclerotium rolfsii. A caracterização química do óleo de L. sidoides demonstrou a presença do carvacrol (33,27%) e o 1,8-cineol (24,41%) como seus componentes majoritários. Enquanto que o citral (77,6%) foi o constituinte majoritário do óleo essencial de C. citratus. A avaliação do potencial fungitóxico dos óleos essenciais e de seus constituintes majoritários foi realizada por meio de ensaios in vitro, avaliando a inibição do crescimento micelial dos microrganismos. Ambos os óleos essenciais inibiram totalmente o crescimento micelial de R. solani na concentração de 400 µg mL-1. O crescimento micelial de S. rolfsii foi inibido pelo óleo essencial de C. citratus na concentração de 300 µg mL-1 e pelo óleo essencial de L. sidoides na concentração de 400 µg mL-1. Em relação aos constituintes majoritários, o 1,8-cineol não apresentou efeito fungitóxico nas concentrações avaliadas. No entanto, o carvacrol e o citral foram mais efetivos que os óleos essenciais havendo ausência de crescimento micelial de R. solani e de S. rolfsii nas concentrações de 200 µg mL-1 e 225 µg mL-1, respectivamente.


ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to evaluate the fungitoxic potentials of the essential oils of Cymbopogon citratus, Lippia sidoides, and of its major constituents, on the mycelial growth of phytopathogens Rhizoctonia solani and Sclerotium rolfsii. The chemical characterization of L. sidoides oil showed the presence of carvacrol (33.27%) and of 1,8-cineole (24.41%) as its major components, whereas citral (77.6%) was the major constituent of C. citratus essential oil. The evaluation of the fungitoxic potential of the essential oils and of its major constituents was performed through in vitro assays, the microorganisms mycelial growth inhibition. Both essential oils totally inhibited the mycelial growth of R. solani at 400 µg mL-1. Regarding the major constituents, the 1,8-cineole did not show fungitoxic effect at the concentrations evaluated. However, the carvacrol and the citral were more effective than the essential oils and there was no mycelial growth of R. solani and of S. rolfsii at the concentrations of 200 µg mL-1 and 225 µg mL-1, respectively.


Assuntos
Cymbopogon/classificação , Técnicas In Vitro/instrumentação , Lippia/classificação , Óleos Voláteis/análise , Rhizoctonia/classificação , Química
13.
Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom ; 28(21): 2352-62, 2014 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25279749

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Characterising complex mixtures of organic compounds in polar fractions of heavy petroleum is challenging, but is important for pollution studies and for exploration and production geochemistry. Oil sands process-affected water (OSPW) stored in large tailings ponds by Canadian oil sands industries contains such mixtures. METHODS: A polar OSPW fraction was obtained by silver ion solid-phase extraction with methanol elution. This was examined by numerous methods, including electrospray ionisation (ESI) Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FTICRMS) and ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography (uHPLC)/Orbitrap MS, in multiple ionisation and MS/MS modes. Compounds were also synthesised for comparison. RESULTS: The major ESI ionisable compounds detected (+ion mode) were C15-28 SO3 species with 3-7 double bond equivalents (DBE) and C27-28 SO5 species with 5 DBE. ESI-MS/MS collision-induced losses were due to water, methanol, water plus methanol and water plus methyl formate, typical of methyl esters of hydroxy acids. Once the fraction was re-saponified, species originally detected by positive ion MS, could be detected only by negative ion MS, consistent with their assignment as sulphur-containing hydroxy carboxylic acids. The free acid of a keto dibenzothiophene alkanoic acid was added to an unesterified acid extract of OSPW in known concentrations as a putative internal standard, but attempted quantification in this way proved unreliable. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest the more polar acidic organic SO3 constituents of OSPW include C15-28 S-containing, alicyclic and aromatic hydroxy carboxylic acids. SO5 species are possibly sulphone analogues of these. The origin of such compounds is probably via further biotransformation (hydroxylation) of the related S-containing carboxylic acids identified previously in a less polar OSPW fraction. The environmental risks, corrosivity and oil flow assurance effects should be easier to assess, given that partial structures are now known, although further identification is still needed.


Assuntos
Campos de Petróleo e Gás/química , Compostos Orgânicos/química , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray/métodos , Compostos de Enxofre/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Ésteres/química , Extração em Fase Sólida
14.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec ; 66(5): 1531-1538, Sep-Oct/2014. tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: lil-729758

RESUMO

Foram conduzidos dois ensaios para avaliar a utilização do farelo do farelo integral de arroz parboilizado (FIAP) em rações para leitões na fase de creche. No primeiro, foram utilizados 14 suínos machos castrados para a avaliação nutricional do ingrediente em ensaio de digestibilidade. O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente ao acaso, com dois tratamentos e sete repetições por tratamento. O FIAP apresenta 17,15% de PB, elevado teor em fibras (33,75% de FDN e 15,91% de FDA) e teor reduzido de energia metabolizável, próximo a 2320kcal/kg. No segundo experimento, foram utilizados 60 leitões machos castrados, com o objetivo de avaliar o desempenho zootécnico, a ocorrência de diarreia e a viabilidade econômica do farelo de arroz parboilizado. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos ao acaso, com cinco tratamentos (0, 4, 8, 12 e 16% de inclusão) e seis repetições. Não houve diferença significativa entre o tratamento controle e os tratamentos teste (P>0,05), assim como para a análise de regressão, em que os crescentes níveis de inclusão do ingrediente não resultaram em piora no desempenho (P>0,05). O FIAP pode ser incluído até o nível de 16% em rações para leitões na fase de creche...


Two assays were conducted to evaluate the parboiled rice bran in piglet's diets in the nursery phase. In the first, 14 male castrated piglets were allotted to determine the nutritional value of parboiled rice bran in a digestibility assay. A completely randomized design, with 2 treatments and 7 replicates per treatment were used. The parboiled rice bran presents 17.15% of CP and high fiber content (33.75% of NDF and 15.91% of ADF) and low metabolizable energy (2320kcal/kg). In the second assay, 60 male castrated piglets were used to evaluate the effect of inclusion on productive performance, diarrhea incidence and economic viability of parboiled rice bran. A randomized block design was used, with 5 treatments (0, 4, 8, 12 and 16%) and 6 replicates. There was no difference between treatments and control treatment as well as in regression analysis, and the increasing levels of parboiled rice bran did not reduce the performance of animals. In conclusion, parboiled rice bran can be included up to 16% in diets for piglets in the nursery phase...


Assuntos
Animais , Oryza , Ração Animal/análise , Suínos , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Diarreia , Economia dos Alimentos
15.
J Anim Sci ; 91(3): 1207-15, 2013 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23296817

RESUMO

The amount of fat in the carcass has been proposed as a regulator of initiation of puberty in cattle. To test if changes in energy intake and in circulating leptin concentration are each capable of altering age, BW, and body composition at puberty, 36 prepubertal Nellore heifers, 18 to 20 mo old, 275.8 ± 17.2kg BW, and BCS of 5 ± 0.5 (1 to 9 scale), were randomly assigned to each of 3 treatments (n = 12): High (high energy diet), Low (low energy diet), and LL [low energy diet + ovine leptin (oLeptin)]. Diets were formulated to promote BW gain of 0.4 kg/d (groups Low and LL) or 1.2 kg/d (High group). After 14 d of adjustment to diet, heifers in LL group received subcutaneous injections of oLeptin at 4.8 µg/kg BW twice a day for 56 d. Groups High and Low received similar injections of 2 mL saline solution. Age at puberty was considered to be the age on first detection of a corpus luteum, confirmed by plasma concentrations of progesterone of >1 ng/mL. Heifers were slaughtered on the second day after first corpus luteum detection. Expression of leptin gene was quantified by real-time PCR using ribosomal protein-L19 (RP-L19) as a control gene. Leptin administration increased (P = 0.04) leptin serum concentration but had no effect (P > 0.05) on age, BW, or BCS at puberty. High energy intake increased (P < 0.01) leptin concentration, accelerated (P = 0.02) puberty, and increased (P < 0.01) BCS at puberty, without altering (P = 0.17) BW at puberty. High energy intake also accelerated (P = 0.04) follicular development. Leptin administration caused a significant (P < 0.05) but transient increase in follicular development, which was similar to the transient increase in leptin serum concentration. Results from leptin gene expression demonstrated that high energy intake increased (P < 0.01) and leptin administration decreased (P < 0.01) leptin expression in 3 adipose tissues. The observed decrease in leptin gene expression after administration of leptin could explain the reduction in leptin serum concentration after 30 d of treatment and consequently the failure of leptin to accelerate puberty. Our findings did not support the hypothesis that reduced serum concentration of leptin is an important hindrance for puberty onset in malnourished zebu heifers. Although exogenous administration of leptin temporarily enhanced rate of follicular growth, it did not accelerate puberty.


Assuntos
Bovinos/fisiologia , Ingestão de Energia , Leptina/genética , Leptina/metabolismo , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Envelhecimento , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Constituição Corporal , Peso Corporal , Bovinos/genética , Bovinos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Dieta/veterinária , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Leptina/administração & dosagem , Folículo Ovariano/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Radioimunoensaio/veterinária , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/veterinária , Proteínas Recombinantes/administração & dosagem , Proteínas Recombinantes/metabolismo , Maturidade Sexual , Ovinos
16.
Parasitol Res ; 112(3): 1087-96, 2013 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23263251

RESUMO

In northeastern Brazil, the schistosomiasis is historically endemic and considered as a public health problem. The Schistosoma mansoni São Lourenço da Mata (SLM-PE, Brazil) strain was used in several paper already published; however, morphological and morphometric studies about this strain was never done. In this work, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used in morphological and morphometric analysis of cercariae and adult worms. Cercariae were obtained from Biomphalaria glabrata snails and adult worms from mice, both infected by the S. mansoni SLM strain, fixed and prepared for SEM. The results showed that cercariae of S. mansoni measures 254.9 µm of length. The bodies are covered by spines, with a ventral sucker, an oral sucker with sensory receivers, and a pair of penetration glands in the head. The area of tail and body and the distance between suckers were 3,011.77, 1,530.32, and 42.9 µm, respectively. Adult worms of S. mansoni were divided into three main regions: the anterior, medial, and posterior, besides the gynecophoral canal in males. The measure of adult worms of S. mansoni was 4 mm males and 5 mm females. The anterior region length of the male was 470 µm and of the female 271 µm. All the parameters were assayed in ten samples. The morphometric values found in the SLM strain were smaller than other S. mansoni strains described in the literature as well as other helminths. This is the first morphological and morphometric study with the SLM strain of S. mansoni being extremely important for improving control strategies and life quality of the local population.


Assuntos
Cercárias/anatomia & histologia , Cercárias/isolamento & purificação , Schistosoma mansoni/anatomia & histologia , Schistosoma mansoni/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Biometria , Biomphalaria/parasitologia , Brasil , Feminino , Masculino , Camundongos , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura
17.
Rev. bras. plantas med ; 15(4): 595-604, 2013. tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS-Express | ID: lil-695246

RESUMO

Este trabalho teve como objetivo realizar o levantamento etnobotânico das principais espécies utilizadas para fins medicinais pela comunidade Salobrinho, no município de Ilhéus (BA). Foi realizada entrevista com aplicação de questionário semi-estruturado juntamente com a coleta de material vegetal para identificação das espécies citadas. Apesar do elevado número de citações de plantas nas residências dos entrevistados apenas 51 espécies são cultivadas, as quais estão distribuídas em 32 famílias e 42 gêneros, sendo a família Lamiaceae a mais representativa, seguida por Euphorbiaceae, Asteraceae, Verbenaceae e Poaceae. A maioria destas espécies é de porte herbáceo ou arbustivo e são plantas introduzidas. A parte mais utilizada para o preparo de remédios foi a folha (86%), sendo o chá a forma de preparo mais comum (70%). Dentre 86 diferentes indicações de uso terapêutico, as mais citadas foram relacionadas à problemas gastrointestinais com 308 citações, seguida por 171 citações referente a afecções respiratórias. A espécie com maior índice de concordância de uso corrigido foi a Lippia alba, indicada para o tratamento de dor de barriga e como calmante. Conclui-se que a localização afastada do bairro em relação aos espaços construídos da cidade, a origem rural dos seus moradores, e sua condição sócio-econômica, possivelmente contribuíram para o acúmulo de conhecimento sobre o tratamento de diversas enfermidades utilizando preparados feitos à base de plantas medicinais.


This study aimed to conduct an ethnobotanical survey of the main speciesused for medicinal purposes by the Salobrinho community in Ilhéus (BA). Several interviews were conducted wit theh application of a semi-structured questionnaire and the collection of plant material for identification. Despite the high number of cited plants, only 51 cultivated species were found in the households of the respondents which are distributed into 32 families and 42 genera, with Lamiaceae as the most representative family, followed by Euphorbiaceae, Asteraceae, Poaceae and Verbenaceae. Most of them were herbaceous or shrub introduced plants. The leaves were the most used portion of the plant to prepare medications (86%) and the tea was the main use (70%). There were 86 different indications and the most cited ones were related to gastrointestinal problems, with 308 citations, followed by 171 indications relating to respiratory diseases. The species with the highest corrected concordance use index was Lippia alba, indicated for the treatment of stomachache and as a tranquilizer. It was concluded that the remote location of the district in relation to the built areas of the city, the rural origins of its inhabitants, and their socioeconomic status possibly contributed to the accumulation of knowledge about the treatment of various diseases using medicinal plants.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22651995

RESUMO

In the present study, a fast, sensitive and robust method to quantify dextromethorphan, dextrorphan and doxylamine in human plasma using deuterated internal standards (IS) is described. The analytes and the IS were extracted from plasma by a liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) using diethyl-ether/hexane (80/20, v/v). Extracted samples were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS/MS). Chromatographic separation was performed by pumping the mobile phase (acetonitrile/water/formic acid (90/9/1, v/v/v) during 4.0min at a flow-rate of 1.5 mL min⁻¹ into a Phenomenex Gemini® C18, 5 µm analytical column (150 × 4.6 mm i.d.). The calibration curve was linear over the range from 0.2 to 200 ng mL⁻¹ for dextromethorphan and doxylamine and 0.05 to 10 ng mL⁻¹ for dextrorphan. The intra-batch precision and accuracy (%CV) of the method ranged from 2.5 to 9.5%, and 88.9 to 105.1%, respectively. Method inter-batch precision (%CV) and accuracy ranged from 6.7 to 10.3%, and 92.2 to 107.1%, respectively. The run-time was for 4 min. The analytical procedure herein described was used to assess the pharmacokinetics of dextromethorphan, dextrorphan and doxylamine in healthy volunteers after a single oral dose of a formulation containing 30 mg of dextromethorphan hydrobromide and 12.5mg of doxylamine succinate. The method has high sensitivity, specificity and allows high throughput analysis required for a pharmacokinetic study.


Assuntos
Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Dextrometorfano/sangue , Dextrorfano/sangue , Doxilamina/sangue , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Dextrometorfano/farmacocinética , Dextrorfano/farmacocinética , Doxilamina/farmacocinética , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Adulto Jovem
19.
Genet Mol Res ; 11(1): 731-8, 2012 Mar 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22576831

RESUMO

Little is known about the molecular genetic diversity of most Passiflora species. We used RAPD markers to evaluate the genetic diversity of 24 genotypes of the 'sleep' passion fruit (Passiflora setacea). Twelve primers generated 95 markers, 88% of which were polymorphic. The genetic distance estimated by the complement of the Dice index ranged from 0.29 (among accessions Ps-G1 and Ps-G13) to 0.69 (among accessions Ps-G21 and Ps-G23). Genotype grouping based on the UPGMA algorithm showed considerable variability among genotypes. We conclude that P. setacea has a broad genetic base that could be exploited in breeding programs.


Assuntos
Variação Genética , Passiflora/genética , Análise por Conglomerados , Marcadores Genéticos , Genótipo , Passiflora/classificação , Filogenia , Técnica de Amplificação ao Acaso de DNA Polimórfico
20.
Genet Mol Res ; 9(4): 2421-8, 2010 Dec 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21174261

RESUMO

The genetic diversity and characteristics of commercial interest of Passiflora species make it useful to characterize wild germplasm, because of their potential use for fruit, ornamental and medicinal purposes. We evaluated genetic diversity, using RAPD markers, of 32 genotypes of Passiflora cincinnata collected from the wild in the region of Vitória da Conquista, Bahia, Brazil. Thirteen primers generated 95 polymorphic markers and only one monomorphic marker. The mean genetic distance between the genotypes estimated by the complement of the Dice index was 0.51 (ranging from 0.20-0.85), and genotype grouping based on the UPGMA algorithm showed wide variability among the genotypes. This type of information contributes to identification and conservation of the biodiversity of this species and for the identification of pairs of divergent individuals for maximum exploitation of existing variability.


Assuntos
Passiflora/classificação , Passiflora/genética , Brasil , Marcadores Genéticos , Variação Genética , Genótipo , Técnica de Amplificação ao Acaso de DNA Polimórfico
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