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1.
J Clin Invest ; 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34597274

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is considerable variability in COVID-19 outcomes amongst younger adults-and some of this variation may be due to genetic predisposition. METHODS: We combined individual level data from 13,888 COVID-19 patients (N=7,185 hospitalized) from 17 cohorts in nine countries to assess the association of the major common COVID-19 genetic risk factor (chromosome 3 locus tagged by rs10490770) with mortality, COVID-19-related complications and laboratory values. We next performed meta-analyses using FinnGen and the Columbia University COVID-19 Biobank. RESULTS: We found that rs10490770 risk allele carriers experienced an increased risk of all-cause mortality (HR 1.4, 95%CI 1.2-1.7). Risk allele carriers had increased odds of several COVID-19 complications: severe respiratory failure (OR 2.1, 95%CI 1.6-2.6), venous thromboembolism (OR 1.7, 95%CI 1.2-2.4), and hepatic injury (OR 1.5, 95%CI 1.2-2.0). Risk allele carriers ≤60 years had higher odds of death or severe respiratory failure (OR 2.7, 95%CI 1.8-3.9) compared to those >60 years (OR 1.5, 95%CI 1.2-1.8, interaction-p=0.038). Amongst individuals ≤60 years who died or experienced severe respiratory failure, 32.3% were risk variant carriers, compared to 13.9% of those not experiencing these outcomes. The genetic risk improved the prediction of death or severe respiratory failure similarly to, or better than, most established clinical risk factors. CONCLUSIONS: The major common COVID-19 genetic risk factor is associated with increased risks of morbidity and mortality, which are more pronounced amongst individuals ≤60 years. The effect was similar in magnitude and more common than most established clinical risk factors, suggesting potential implications for future clinical risk management.

2.
Front Genet ; 12: 728526, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34659352

RESUMO

Pharmacological inhibition of PCSK9 (proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9) is an established therapeutic option to treat hypercholesterolemia, and plasma PCSK9 levels have been implicated in cardiovascular disease incidence. A number of genetic variants within the PCSK9 gene locus have been shown to modulate PCSK9 levels, but these only explain a very small percentage of the overall PCSK9 interindividual variation. Here we present data on the genetic association structure between PCSK9 levels and genom-wide genetic variation in a healthy sample from the general population. We performed a genome-wide association study of plasma PCSK9 levels in a sample of Brazilian individuals enrolled in the Estudo Longitudinal de Saude do Adulto cohort (n=810). Enrolled individuals were free from cardiovascular disease, diabetes and were not under lipid-lowering medication. Genome-wide genotyping was conducted using the Axiom_PMRA.r3 array, and imputation was performed using the TOPMED multi-ancestry sample panel as reference. Total PCSK9 plasma concentrations were determined using the Quantikine SPC900 ELISA kit. We observed two genome-wide significant loci and seven loci that reached the pre-defined value of p threshold of 1×10-6. Significant variants were near KCNA5 and KCNA1, and LINC00353. Genetic variation at the PCSK9 locus was able to explain approximately 4% of the overall interindividual variations in PCSK9 levels. Colocalization analysis using eQTL data suggested RWDD3, ATXN7L1, KCNA1, and FAM177A1 to be potential mediators of some of the observed associations. Our results suggest that PCSK9 levels may be modulated by trans genetic variation outside of the PCSK9 gene and this may have clinical implications. Understanding both environmental and genetic predictors of PCSK9 levels may help identify new targets for cardiovascular disease treatment and contribute to a better assessment of the benefits of long-term PCSK9 inhibition.

3.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 13(17): 20992-21008, 2021 09 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34493690

RESUMO

Despite the well-established association of gene expression deregulation with low muscle mass (LMM), the associated biological mechanisms remain unclear. Transcriptomic studies are capable to identify key mediators in complex diseases. We aimed to identify relevant mediators and biological mechanisms associated with age-related LMM. LMM-associated genes were detected by logistic regression using microarray data of 20 elderly women with LMM and 20 age and race-matched controls extracted from our SPAH Study (GSE152073). We performed weighted gene co-expression analysis (WGCNA) that correlated the identified gene modules with laboratorial characteristics. Gene enrichment analysis was performed and an LMM predictive model was constructed using Support Vector Machine (SVM). Overall, 821 discriminating transcripts clusters were identified (|beta coefficient| >1; p-value <0.01). From this list, 45 predictors of LMM were detected by SVM and validated with 0.7 of accuracy. Our results revealed that the well-described association of inflammation, immunity and metabolic alterations is also relevant at transcriptomic level. WGCNA highlighted a correlation of genes modules involved in immunity pathways with vitamin D level (R = 0.63, p = 0.004) and the Agatston score (R = 0.51, p = 0.02). Our study generated a predicted regulatory network and revealed significant metabolic pathways related to aging processes, showing key mediators that warrant further investigation.

4.
Eur Heart J ; 42(38): 3932-3944, 2021 10 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34491319

RESUMO

AIMS: Risk stratification algorithms for sudden cardiac death (SCD) in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) and regional differences in clinical practice have evolved over time. We sought to compare primary prevention implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) implantation rates and associated clinical outcomes in US vs. non-US tertiary HCM centres within the international Sarcomeric Human Cardiomyopathy Registry. METHODS AND RESULTS: We included patients with HCM enrolled from eight US sites (n = 2650) and five non-US (n = 2660) sites and used multivariable Cox-proportional hazards models to compare outcomes between sites. Primary prevention ICD implantation rates in US sites were two-fold higher than non-US sites (hazard ratio (HR) 2.27 [1.89-2.74]), including in individuals deemed at high 5-year SCD risk (≥6%) based on the HCM risk-SCD score (HR 3.27 [1.76-6.05]). US ICD recipients also had fewer traditional SCD risk factors. Among ICD recipients, rates of appropriate ICD therapy were significantly lower in US vs. non-US sites (HR 0.52 [0.28-0.97]). No significant difference was identified in the incidence of SCD/resuscitated cardiac arrest among non-recipients of ICDs in US vs. non-US sites (HR 1.21 [0.74-1.97]). CONCLUSION: Primary prevention ICDs are implanted more frequently in patients with HCM in US vs. non-US sites across the spectrum of SCD risk. There was a lower rate of appropriate ICD therapy in US sites, consistent with a lower-risk population, and no significant difference in SCD in US vs. non-US patients who did not receive an ICD. Further studies are needed to understand what drives malignant arrhythmias, optimize ICD allocation, and examine the impact of different ICD utilization strategies on long-term outcomes in HCM.


Assuntos
Cardiomiopatia Hipertrófica , Desfibriladores Implantáveis , Cardiomiopatia Hipertrófica/complicações , Cardiomiopatia Hipertrófica/terapia , Morte Súbita Cardíaca/epidemiologia , Morte Súbita Cardíaca/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Prevenção Primária , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco
5.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 17764, 2021 09 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34493753

RESUMO

Endothelial-mesenchymal transition (EndMT) is a form of endothelial dysfunction wherein endothelial cells acquire a mesenchymal phenotype and lose endothelial functions, which contributes to the pathogenesis of intimal hyperplasia and atherosclerosis. The mitogen activated protein kinase 7 (MAPK7) inhibits EndMT and decreases the expression of the histone methyltransferase Enhancer-of-Zeste homologue 2 (EZH2), thereby maintaining endothelial quiescence. EZH2 is the catalytic subunit of the Polycomb Repressive Complex 2 that methylates lysine 27 on histone 3 (H3K27me3). It is elusive how the crosstalk between MAPK7 and EZH2 is regulated in the endothelium and if the balance between MAPK7 and EZH2 is disturbed in vascular disease. In human coronary artery disease, we assessed the expression levels of MAPK7 and EZH2 and found that with increasing intima/media thickness ratio, MAPK7 expression decreased, whereas EZH2 expression increased. In vitro, MAPK7 activation decreased EZH2 expression, whereas endothelial cells deficient of EZH2 had increased MAPK7 activity. MAPK7 activation results in increased expression of microRNA (miR)-101, a repressor of EZH2. This loss of EZH2 in turn results in the increased expression of the miR-200 family, culminating in decreased expression of the dual-specificity phosphatases 1 and 6 who may repress MAPK7 activity. Transfection of endothelial cells with miR-200 family members decreased the endothelial sensitivity to TGFß1-induced EndMT. In endothelial cells there is reciprocity between MAPK7 signaling and EZH2 expression and disturbances in this reciprocal signaling associate with the induction of EndMT and severity of human coronary artery disease.


Assuntos
Transdiferenciação Celular/fisiologia , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/patologia , Endotélio Vascular/patologia , Proteína Potenciadora do Homólogo 2 de Zeste/fisiologia , Mesoderma/patologia , Proteína Quinase 7 Ativada por Mitógeno/fisiologia , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia , Túnica Íntima/patologia , Regiões 3' não Traduzidas/genética , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/enzimologia , Estenose Coronária/enzimologia , Estenose Coronária/patologia , Fosfatase 1 de Especificidade Dupla/biossíntese , Fosfatase 1 de Especificidade Dupla/genética , Fosfatase 6 de Especificidade Dupla/biossíntese , Fosfatase 6 de Especificidade Dupla/genética , Endotélio Vascular/enzimologia , Ativação Enzimática , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Genes Reporter , Código das Histonas , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana , Humanos , Hiperplasia , Mesoderma/enzimologia , MicroRNAs/biossíntese , MicroRNAs/genética , Túnica Média/patologia
6.
Nat Med ; 27(10): 1818-1824, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34556856

RESUMO

Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is often caused by pathogenic variants in sarcomeric genes and characterized by left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy, myocardial fibrosis and increased risk of heart failure and arrhythmias. There are no existing therapies to modify disease progression. In this study, we conducted a multi-center, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase 2 clinical trial to assess the safety and efficacy of the angiotensin II receptor blocker valsartan in attenuating disease evolution in early HCM. In total, 178 participants with early-stage sarcomeric HCM were randomized (1:1) to receive valsartan (320 mg daily in adults; 80-160 mg daily in children) or placebo for 2 years ( NCT01912534 ). Standardized changes from baseline to year 2 in LV wall thickness, mass and volumes; left atrial volume; tissue Doppler diastolic and systolic velocities; and serum levels of high-sensitivity troponin T and N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic protein were integrated into a single composite z-score as the primary outcome. Valsartan (n = 88) improved cardiac structure and function compared to placebo (n = 90), as reflected by an increase in the composite z-score (between-group difference +0.231, 95% confidence interval (+0.098, +0.364); P = 0.001), which met the primary endpoint of the study. Treatment was well-tolerated. These results indicate a key opportunity to attenuate disease progression in early-stage sarcomeric HCM with an accessible and safe medication.


Assuntos
Cardiomiopatia Hipertrófica/tratamento farmacológico , Insuficiência Cardíaca/tratamento farmacológico , Coração/efeitos dos fármacos , Valsartana/administração & dosagem , Adolescente , Adulto , Cardiomiopatia Hipertrófica/fisiopatologia , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Coração/fisiopatologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valsartana/efeitos adversos , Adulto Jovem
7.
J Biol Rhythms ; 36(5): 483-490, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34313481

RESUMO

It is well established that the oldest chronotype questionnaire, the morningness-eveningness questionnaire (MEQ), has significant heritability, and several associations have been reported between MEQ score and polymorphisms in candidate clock genes, a number of them reproducibly across populations. By contrast, there are no reports of heritability and genetic associations for the Munich chronotype questionnaire (MCTQ). Recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) from large cohorts have reported multiple associations with chronotype as assessed by a single self-evaluation question. We have taken advantage of the availability of data from all these instruments from a single sample of 597 participants from the Brazilian Baependi Heart Study. The family-based design of the cohort allowed us to calculate the heritability (h2) for these measures. Heritability values for the best-fitted models were 0.37 for MEQ, 0.32 for MCTQ, and 0.28 for single-question chronotype (MEQ Question 19). We also calculated the heritability for the two major factors recently derived from MEQ, "Dissipation of sleep pressure" (0.32) and "Build-up of sleep pressure" (0.28). This first heritability comparison of the major chronotype instruments in current use provides the first quantification of the genetic component of MCTQ score, supporting its future use in genetic analysis. Our findings also suggest that the single chronotype question that has been used for large GWAS analyses captures a larger proportion of the dimensions of chronotype than previously thought.


Assuntos
Ritmo Circadiano , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Ritmo Circadiano/genética , Estudos de Coortes , Humanos , Sono/genética , Inquéritos e Questionários
8.
Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis ; 31(7): 2014-2022, 2021 06 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34039501

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Familial Hypercholesterolemia (FH) is characterized by elevated LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) and high atherosclerosis risk. The impact of different dietary patterns on atherosclerosis biomarkers has been poorly studied in FH. This study verified the association of adherence to a Mediterranean diet with biomarkers of dyslipidemia and low-grade inflammation in molecularly proven FH adults from Brazil (BR) and Spain (SP). METHODS AND RESULTS: In this cross-sectional study adherence to the Mediterranean diet was assessed by a validated score and generalized estimating equations were used to evaluate its association with plasma LDL-C, apolipoprotein-B (ApoB) and high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) concentrations. We included 92 (mean age 45 years, 58.7% females) and 98 FH individuals (mean age 46.8 years, 60.2% females) respectively from BR and SP. FH causing variants did not differ between countries. LDL-C, ApoB and hs-CRP concentrations were higher in BR than in SP: 179 (135-250) and 161 (133-193) mg/dL; 141 (109-181) and 103 (88-134) mg/dL; and 1.6 (0.8-4.0) and 0.8 (0.4-1.5) mg/L respectively (all p < 0.001). Most of BR had low adherence (n = 77, 83.7%), while the majority of SP were divided into moderate (n = 35, 35.7%) and strong adherence to the Mediterranean diet (n = 37, 37.8%), p < 0.001. There was a significant inverse association of adherence to the Mediterranean diet score with higher LDL-C, ApoB, and hs-CRP after adjusting for socio economic parameters, caloric and fatty acid intakes as well as pharmacological lipid lowering therapies. CONCLUSIONS: Higher adherence to a Mediterranean diet was associated with better dyslipidemia and low-grade inflammation profiles in FH.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Dieta Saudável , Dieta Mediterrânea , Hiperlipoproteinemia Tipo II/dietoterapia , Mediadores da Inflamação/sangue , Inflamação/prevenção & controle , Lipídeos/sangue , Cooperação do Paciente , Comportamento de Redução do Risco , Adulto , Biomarcadores/sangue , Brasil/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/sangue , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Fatores de Risco de Doenças Cardíacas , Humanos , Hiperlipoproteinemia Tipo II/sangue , Hiperlipoproteinemia Tipo II/diagnóstico , Hiperlipoproteinemia Tipo II/epidemiologia , Inflamação/sangue , Inflamação/diagnóstico , Inflamação/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Nutritivo , Fatores de Proteção , Medição de Risco , Espanha/epidemiologia , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
9.
Epigenomics (Online) ; 13(10): 779-791, May., 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | Sec. Est. Saúde SP, CONASS, SESSP-IDPCPROD, Sec. Est. Saúde SP | ID: biblio-1247328

RESUMO

AIM: functional analysis of pcsk9 3'utr variants and mrna-mirna interactions were explored in patients with familial hypercholesterolemia (fh). MATERIALS & METHODS: PCSK9 3'UTR variants were identified by exon-targeted gene sequencing. Functional effects of 3'UTR variants and mRNA-miRNA interactions were analyzed using in silico and in vitro studies in HEK293FT and HepG2 cells. RESULTS: Twelve PCSK9 3'UTR variants were detected in 88 FH patients. c.*75C >T and c.*345C >T disrupted interactions with miR-6875, miR-4721 and miR-564. Transient transfection of the c.*345C >T decreased luciferase activity in HEK293FT cells. miR-4721 and miR-564 mimics reduced PCSK9 expression in HepG2 cells. CONCLUSION: PCSK9 c.*345C >T has a possible role as loss-of-function variant. miR-4721 and miR-564 downregulate PCSK9 and may be useful to improve lipid profile in FH patients.


Assuntos
MicroRNAs , Epigenômica , Hiperlipoproteinemia Tipo II , Pró-Proteína Convertase 9
10.
Nat Med ; 27(4): 668-676, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33837377

RESUMO

Drug repurposing provides a rapid approach to meet the urgent need for therapeutics to address COVID-19. To identify therapeutic targets relevant to COVID-19, we conducted Mendelian randomization analyses, deriving genetic instruments based on transcriptomic and proteomic data for 1,263 actionable proteins that are targeted by approved drugs or in clinical phase of drug development. Using summary statistics from the Host Genetics Initiative and the Million Veteran Program, we studied 7,554 patients hospitalized with COVID-19 and >1 million controls. We found significant Mendelian randomization results for three proteins (ACE2, P = 1.6 × 10-6; IFNAR2, P = 9.8 × 10-11 and IL-10RB, P = 2.3 × 10-14) using cis-expression quantitative trait loci genetic instruments that also had strong evidence for colocalization with COVID-19 hospitalization. To disentangle the shared expression quantitative trait loci signal for IL10RB and IFNAR2, we conducted phenome-wide association scans and pathway enrichment analysis, which suggested that IFNAR2 is more likely to play a role in COVID-19 hospitalization. Our findings prioritize trials of drugs targeting IFNAR2 and ACE2 for early management of COVID-19.


Assuntos
COVID-19/genética , Reposicionamento de Medicamentos , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana/métodos , SARS-CoV-2 , Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2/genética , Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2/fisiologia , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Subunidade beta de Receptor de Interleucina-10/genética , Subunidade beta de Receptor de Interleucina-10/fisiologia , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Receptor de Interferon alfa e beta/genética , Receptor de Interferon alfa e beta/fisiologia
11.
Epigenomics ; 13(10): 779-791, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33899508

RESUMO

Aim: Functional analysis of PCSK9 3'UTR variants and mRNA-miRNA interactions were explored in patients with familial hypercholesterolemia (FH). Materials & methods: PCSK9 3'UTR variants were identified by exon-targeted gene sequencing. Functional effects of 3'UTR variants and mRNA-miRNA interactions were analyzed using in silico and in vitro studies in HEK293FT and HepG2 cells. Results: Twelve PCSK9 3'UTR variants were detected in 88 FH patients. c.*75C >T and c.*345C >T disrupted interactions with miR-6875, miR-4721 and miR-564. Transient transfection of the c.*345C >T decreased luciferase activity in HEK293FT cells. miR-4721 and miR-564 mimics reduced PCSK9 expression in HepG2 cells. Conclusion: PCSK9 c.*345C >T has a possible role as loss-of-function variant. miR-4721 and miR-564 downregulate PCSK9 and may be useful to improve lipid profile in FH patients.

12.
medRxiv ; 2021 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33758887

RESUMO

Background: There is considerable variability in COVID-19 outcomes amongst younger adults-and some of this variation may be due to genetic predisposition. We characterized the clinical implications of the major genetic risk factor for COVID-19 severity, and its age-dependent effect, using individual-level data in a large international multi-centre consortium. Method: The major common COVID-19 genetic risk factor is a chromosome 3 locus, tagged by the marker rs10490770. We combined individual level data for 13,424 COVID-19 positive patients (N=6,689 hospitalized) from 17 cohorts in nine countries to assess the association of this genetic marker with mortality, COVID-19-related complications and laboratory values. We next examined if the magnitude of these associations varied by age and were independent from known clinical COVID-19 risk factors. Findings: We found that rs10490770 risk allele carriers experienced an increased risk of all-cause mortality (hazard ratio [HR] 1·4, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1·2-1·6) and COVID-19 related mortality (HR 1·5, 95%CI 1·3-1·8). Risk allele carriers had increased odds of several COVID-19 complications: severe respiratory failure (odds ratio [OR] 2·0, 95%CI 1·6-2·6), venous thromboembolism (OR 1·7, 95%CI 1·2-2·4), and hepatic injury (OR 1·6, 95%CI 1·2-2·0). Risk allele carriers ≤ 60 years had higher odds of death or severe respiratory failure (OR 2·6, 95%CI 1·8-3·9) compared to those > 60 years OR 1·5 (95%CI 1·3-1·9, interaction p-value=0·04). Amongst individuals ≤ 60 years who died or experienced severe respiratory COVID-19 outcome, we found that 31·8% (95%CI 27·6-36·2) were risk variant carriers, compared to 13·9% (95%CI 12·6-15·2%) of those not experiencing these outcomes. Prediction of death or severe respiratory failure among those ≤ 60 years improved when including the risk allele (AUC 0·82 vs 0·84, p=0·016) and the prediction ability of rs10490770 risk allele was similar to, or better than, most established clinical risk factors. Interpretation: The major common COVID-19 risk locus on chromosome 3 is associated with increased risks of morbidity and mortality-and these are more pronounced amongst individuals ≤ 60 years. The effect on COVID-19 severity was similar to, or larger than most established risk factors, suggesting potential implications for clinical risk management. Funding: Funding was obtained by each of the participating cohorts individually.

13.
Genet Med ; 23(7): 1281-1287, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33782553

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Variants in MYBPC3 causing loss of function are the most common cause of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). However, a substantial number of patients carry missense variants of uncertain significance (VUS) in MYBPC3. We hypothesize that a structural-based algorithm, STRUM, which estimates the effect of missense variants on protein folding, will identify a subgroup of HCM patients with a MYBPC3 VUS associated with increased clinical risk. METHODS: Among 7,963 patients in the multicenter Sarcomeric Human Cardiomyopathy Registry (SHaRe), 120 unique missense VUS in MYBPC3 were identified. Variants were evaluated for their effect on subdomain folding and a stratified time-to-event analysis for an overall composite endpoint (first occurrence of ventricular arrhythmia, heart failure, all-cause mortality, atrial fibrillation, and stroke) was performed for patients with HCM and a MYBPC3 missense VUS. RESULTS: We demonstrated that patients carrying a MYBPC3 VUS predicted to cause subdomain misfolding (STRUM+, ΔΔG ≤ -1.2 kcal/mol) exhibited a higher rate of adverse events compared with those with a STRUM- VUS (hazard ratio = 2.29, P = 0.0282). In silico saturation mutagenesis of MYBPC3 identified 4,943/23,427 (21%) missense variants that were predicted to cause subdomain misfolding. CONCLUSION: STRUM identifies patients with HCM and a MYBPC3 VUS who may be at higher clinical risk and provides supportive evidence for pathogenicity.


Assuntos
Cardiomiopatias , Cardiomiopatia Hipertrófica , Cardiomiopatia Hipertrófica/diagnóstico , Cardiomiopatia Hipertrófica/genética , Proteínas de Transporte/genética , Humanos , Mutação , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Medição de Risco
14.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(10)2021 03 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33658374

RESUMO

Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is a disease of heart muscle, which affects ∼1 in 500 individuals and is characterized by increased left ventricular wall thickness. While HCM is caused by pathogenic variants in any one of eight sarcomere protein genes, clinical expression varies considerably, even among patients with the same pathogenic variant. To determine whether background genetic variation or environmental factors drive these differences, we studied disease progression in 11 pairs of monozygotic HCM twins. The twin pairs were followed for 5 to 14 y, and left ventricular wall thickness, left atrial diameter, and left ventricular ejection fraction were collected from echocardiograms at various time points. All nine twin pairs with sarcomere protein gene variants and two with unknown disease etiologies had discordant morphologic features of the heart, demonstrating the influence of nonhereditable factors on clinical expression of HCM. Whole genome sequencing analysis of the six monozygotic twins with discordant HCM phenotypes did not reveal notable somatic genetic variants that might explain their clinical differences. Discordant cardiac morphology of identical twins highlights a significant role for epigenetics and environment in HCM disease progression.


Assuntos
Cardiomiopatia Hipertrófica , Ecocardiografia , Epigênese Genética , Ventrículos do Coração , Proteínas Musculares , Gêmeos Monozigóticos , Adolescente , Adulto , Cardiomiopatia Hipertrófica/genética , Cardiomiopatia Hipertrófica/metabolismo , Cardiomiopatia Hipertrófica/fisiopatologia , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Seguimentos , Ventrículos do Coração/metabolismo , Ventrículos do Coração/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteínas Musculares/genética , Proteínas Musculares/metabolismo
15.
Transfusion ; 61(6): 1923-1931, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33687082

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The genetic diversity of the RHCE gene locus has been explored in diverse populations of different racial backgrounds. Data referring to the diversity of RHCE encoding weakened expression of C, c, E, and e in multiethnic populations is still incomplete. METHODS: Samples from Brazilian blood donors presenting reduced expression of C, c, E, or e on gel method were selected for the study. All exons and flanking introns of RHCE were genotyped though direct Sanger sequencing for the included donors. RESULTS: Sixty-six donors were included: 23 with weak C, 22 with weak c, 6 with weak E, 14 with weak e, and 1 with weak c and E. Among the samples with weak C, the following altered RH*C were encountered: RHCE*CeMA (n = 3), RHCE*Ce941C (n = 1), and RHCE*CeVA (n = 1). RHD*D-CE(4-7)-D was detected in six cases, RHCE*CE was presumably present in five cases, and seven cases were unexplained. Two altered alleles underlay the weak c phenotype: RHCE*ceJAL (n = 20) and RHCE*ce340T (n = 2), and two altered RHCE justified weak e: RHCE*ceMO (n = 6) and RHCE*ceJAL (n = 8). Three variant RHCE were associated with weak E: RHCE*cEJU (n = 4), RHCE*cE382C (n = 1), and RHCE*cEIV (n = 1). The RHCE*cE905A justified one case of weak c and E. CONCLUSION: We describe the distribution of RHCE variants found in association with weak expression of C, c, E, and e in blood donors of multiethnic origin, which differs in comparison to that previously reported for people of African or Caucasian descent.


Assuntos
Doadores de Sangue , Sistema do Grupo Sanguíneo Rh-Hr/genética , Alelos , Brasil , Éxons , Frequência do Gene , Loci Gênicos , Variação Genética , Genótipo , Humanos , Íntrons
16.
Eur Heart J ; 42(20): 1988-1996, 2021 05 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33769460

RESUMO

AIMS: Childhood-onset hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is far less common than adult-onset disease, thus natural history is not well characterized. We aim to describe the characteristics and outcomes of childhood-onset HCM. METHODS AND RESULTS: We performed an observational cohort study of 7677 HCM patients from the Sarcomeric Human Cardiomyopathy Registry (SHaRe). Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy patients were stratified by age at diagnosis [<1 year (infancy), 1-18 years (childhood), >18 years (adulthood)] and assessed for composite endpoints reflecting heart failure (HF), life-threatening ventricular arrhythmias, atrial fibrillation (AF), and an overall composite that also included stroke and death. Stratifying by age of diagnosis, 184 (2.4%) patients were diagnosed in infancy; 1128 (14.7%) in childhood; and 6365 (82.9%) in adulthood. Childhood-onset HCM patients had an ∼2%/year event rate for the overall composite endpoint, with ventricular arrhythmias representing the most common event in the 1st decade following baseline visit, but HF and AF becoming more common by the end of the 2nd decade. Sarcomeric variants were more common in childhood-onset HCM (63%) and carried a worse prognosis than non-sarcomeric disease, including a greater than two-fold increased risk of HF [HRadj 2.39 (1.36-4.20), P = 0.003] and 67% increased risk of the overall composite outcome [HRadj 1.67 (1.16-2.41), P = 0.006]. When compared with adult-onset HCM, childhood-onset was 36% more likely to develop life-threatening ventricular arrhythmias [HRadj 1.36 (1.03-1.80)] and twice as likely to require transplant or ventricular assist device [HRadj 1.99 (1.23-3.23)]. CONCLUSION: Patients with childhood-onset HCM are more likely to have sarcomeric disease, carry a higher risk of life-threatening ventricular arrythmias, and have greater need for advanced HF therapies. These findings provide insight into the natural history of disease and can help inform clinical risk stratification.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial , Cardiomiopatia Hipertrófica , Insuficiência Cardíaca , Coração Auxiliar , Adulto , Cardiomiopatia Hipertrófica/epidemiologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/epidemiologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/etiologia , Humanos , Sistema de Registros
17.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(4)2021 Feb 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33669428

RESUMO

Chagas disease remains a major social and public health problem in Latin America. Benznidazole (BZN) is the main drug with activity against Trypanosoma cruzi. Due to the high number of adverse drug reactions (ADRs), BZN is underprescribed. The goal of this study was to evaluate the genetic and transcriptional basis of BZN adverse reactions. METHODS: A prospective cohort with 102 Chagas disease patients who underwent BZN treatment was established to identify ADRs and understand their genetic basis. The patients were classified into two groups: those with at least one ADR (n = 73), and those without ADRs (n = 29). Genomic analyses were performed comparing single nucleotide polymorphisms between groups. Transcriptome data were obtained comparing groups before and after treatment, and signaling pathways related to the main ADRs were evaluated. RESULTS: A total of 73 subjects (71.5%) experienced ADRs. Dermatological symptoms were most frequent (45.1%). One region of chromosome 16, at the gene LOC102724084 (rs1518601, rs11861761, and rs34091595), was associated with ADRs (p = 5.652 × 10-8). Transcriptomic data revealed three significantly enriched signaling pathways related to BZN ADRs. CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that part of adverse BZN reactions might be genetically determined and may facilitate patient risk stratification prior to starting BZN treatment.


Assuntos
Doença de Chagas/tratamento farmacológico , Doença de Chagas/genética , Nitroimidazóis/efeitos adversos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Transcriptoma , Tripanossomicidas/efeitos adversos , Trypanosoma cruzi/efeitos dos fármacos , Brasil/epidemiologia , Doença de Chagas/epidemiologia , Doença de Chagas/parasitologia , Feminino , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Risco , Transdução de Sinais/genética
18.
Int J Obes (Lond) ; 45(5): 1017-1029, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33633342

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Admixed populations are a resource to study the global genetic architecture of complex phenotypes, which is critical, considering that non-European populations are severely underrepresented in genomic studies. Here, we study the genetic architecture of BMI in children, young adults, and elderly individuals from the admixed population of Brazil. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Leveraging admixture in Brazilians, whose chromosomes are mosaics of fragments of Native American, European, and African origins, we used genome-wide data to perform admixture mapping/fine-mapping of body mass index (BMI) in three Brazilian population-based cohorts from Northeast (Salvador), Southeast (Bambuí), and South (Pelotas). RESULTS: We found significant associations with African-associated alleles in children from Salvador (PALD1 and ZMIZ1 genes), and in young adults from Pelotas (NOD2 and MTUS2 genes). More importantly, in Pelotas, rs114066381, mapped in a potential regulatory region, is significantly associated only in females (p = 2.76e-06). This variant is rare in Europeans but with frequencies of ~3% in West Africa and has a strong female-specific effect (95% CI: 2.32-5.65 kg/m2 per each A allele). We confirmed this sex-specific association and replicated its strong effect for an adjusted fat mass index in the same Pelotas cohort, and for BMI in another Brazilian cohort from São Paulo (Southeast Brazil). A meta-analysis confirmed the significant association. Remarkably, we observed that while the frequency of rs114066381-A allele ranges from 0.8 to 2.1% in the studied populations, it attains ~9% among women with morbid obesity from Pelotas, São Paulo, and Bambuí. The effect size of rs114066381 is at least five times higher than the FTO SNPs rs9939609 and rs1558902, already emblematic for their high effects. CONCLUSIONS: We identified six candidate SNPs associated with BMI. rs114066381 stands out for its high effect that was replicated and its high frequency in women with morbid obesity. We demonstrate how admixed populations are a source of new relevant phenotype-associated genetic variants.

19.
Transplant Rev (Orlando) ; 35(1): 100590, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33401139

RESUMO

For most patients with end-stage heart failure, heart transplantation is the treatment of choice. Allograft rejection is one of the major post-transplantation complications affecting graft outcome and survival. Recent advancements in science and technology offer an opportunity to integrate genomic and other omics-based biomarkers into clinical practice, facilitating noninvasive evaluation of allograft for diagnostic and prognostic purposes. Omics, including gene expression profiling (GEP) of blood immune cell components and donor-derived cell-free DNA (dd-cfDNA) are of special interest to researchers. Several studies have investigated levels of dd-cfDNA and miroRNAs in blood as potential markers for early detection of allograft rejection. One of the achievements in the field of transcriptomics is AlloMap, GEP of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), which can identify 11 differentially expressed genes and help with detection of moderate and severe acute cellular rejection in stable heart transplant recipients. In recent years, the utilization of GEP of PBMC for identifying differentially expressed genes to diagnose acute antibody-mediated rejection and cardiac allograft vasculopathy has yielded promising results. Advancements in the field of metabolomics and proteomics as well as their potential implications have been further discussed in this paper.


Assuntos
Transplante de Coração , Leucócitos Mononucleares , Biomarcadores , Rejeição de Enxerto/diagnóstico , Humanos , Doadores de Tecidos
20.
Atherosclerosis ; 318: 32-37, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33450476

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is characterized by high LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) and early atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD). With a lipid lowering therapy (LLT), most individuals with FH may have a longer ASCVD-free survival. However, there is scant data about older individuals with FH. METHODS: We compared characteristics of genetically defined FH older individuals with age-matched non-FH counterparts. RESULTS: From 4111 genotyped individuals, 462 older than 60 years were included (198 positive and 264 negative for FH variants). There were no differences regarding median age [%25; 75%] 66.0 (62.0; 71.0) and 66.0 (62.2; 71.0) years, p = 0.68 for FH and non-FH, respectively. In both groups, there was a higher frequency of females, however, there were more males in the FH group 37.4% vs. 24.2%, p = 0.002. No differences were seen between FH and non-FH in LLT use: 88.5% vs. 91.5%, p = 0.29. Despite a longer LLT duration in FH patients (with 11.0 (7.0; 20.0) vs. 7.0 (3.0; 13.0) years, p < 0.001), treatment was started late in both groups: at 54.0 (47.0; 61.0) and 59.0 (52.0; 64.0) years, p < 0.001, in FH and non-FH, respectively. FH had greater frequencies of previous and early ASCVD (40.9% vs. 27.3%, p = 0.002, and 22.2% vs. 9.0%, p < 0.001). In FH, male sex [HR (95%CI)] 2.67 (1.50-4.73), p = 0.001, and LLT onset age 0.96 (0.93-0.99), p = 0.009, were independently associated with ASCVD. CONCLUSIONS: Among hypercholesterolemic older individuals participating in a cascade screening program, the genetic diagnosis of FH was associated with higher ASCVD rates, emphasizing the relevance of a monogenic defect as the cause of long-lasting hypercholesterolemia and ASCVD risk, particularly in men.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Hipercolesterolemia , Hiperlipoproteinemia Tipo II , Idoso , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/genética , LDL-Colesterol , Feminino , Humanos , Hiperlipoproteinemia Tipo II/diagnóstico , Hiperlipoproteinemia Tipo II/epidemiologia , Hiperlipoproteinemia Tipo II/genética , Lactente , Masculino , Fatores de Risco
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