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1.
Circ Heart Fail ; 12(12): e006231, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31813281

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The VANISH trial (Valsartan for Attenuating Disease Evolution in Early Sarcomeric Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy) targeted young sarcomeric gene mutation carriers with early-stage hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) to test whether valsartan can modify disease progression. We describe the baseline characteristics of the VANISH cohort and compare to previous trials evaluating angiotensin receptor blockers. METHODS: Applying a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled design, 178 participants with nonobstructive HCM (age, 23.3±10.1 years; 61% men) were randomized in the primary cohort and 34 (age, 16.5±4.9 years; 50% men) in the exploratory cohort of sarcomeric mutation carriers without left ventricular hypertrophy. RESULTS: In the primary cohort, maximal left ventricular wall thickness was 17±4 mm for adults and Z score 7.0±4.5 for children. Nineteen percent had late gadolinium enhancement on cardiac magnetic resonance. Mean peak oxygen consumption was 33 mL/kg per minute, and 92% of participants were New York Heart Association functional class I. New York Heart Association class II was associated with older age, MYH7 variants, and more prominent imaging abnormalities. Six previous trials of angiotensin receptor blockers in HCM enrolled a median of 24 patients (range, 19-133) with mean age of 51.2 years; 42% of patients were in New York Heart Association class ≥II, and sarcomeric mutations were not required. CONCLUSIONS: The VANISH cohort is much larger, younger, less heterogeneous, and has less advanced disease than prior angiotensin receptor blocker trials in HCM. Participants had relatively normal functional capacity and mild HCM features. New York Heart Association functional class II symptoms were associated with older age, more prominent imaging abnormalities, and MYH7 variants, suggesting both phenotype and genotype contribute to disease manifestations. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01912534.

2.
JAMA Cardiol ; 2019 Dec 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31799990

RESUMO

Importance: Racial differences are recognized in multiple cardiovascular parameters, including left ventricular hypertrophy and heart failure, which are 2 major manifestations of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. The association of race with disease expression and outcomes among patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is not well characterized. Objective: To assess the association between race, disease expression, care provision, and clinical outcomes among patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Design, Setting, and Participants: This retrospective cohort study included data on black and white patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy from the US-based sites of the Sarcomeric Human Cardiomyopathy Registry from 1989 through 2018. Exposures: Self-identified race. Main Outcomes and Measures: Baseline characteristics; genetic architecture; adverse outcomes, including cardiac arrest, cardiac transplantation or left ventricular assist device implantation, implantable cardioverter-defibrillator therapy, all-cause mortality, atrial fibrillation, stroke, and New York Heart Association (NYHA) functional class III or IV heart failure; and septal reduction therapies. The overall composite outcome consists of the first occurrence of any component of the ventricular arrhythmic composite end point, cardiac transplantation, left ventricular assist device implantation, NYHA class III or IV heart failure, atrial fibrillation, stroke, or all-cause mortality. Results: Of 2467 patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy at the time of analysis, 205 (8.3%) were black (130 male [63.4%]; mean [SD] age, 40.0 [18.6] years) and 2262 (91.7%) were white (1351 male [59.7%]; mean [SD] age, 45.5 [20.5] years). Compared with white patients, black patients were younger at the time of diagnosis (mean [SD], 36.5 [18.2] vs 41.9 [20.2] years; P < .001), had higher prevalence of NYHA class III or IV heart failure at presentation (36 of 205 [22.6%] vs 174 of 2262 [15.8%]; P = .001), had lower rates of genetic testing (111 [54.1%] vs 1404 [62.1%]; P = .03), and were less likely to have sarcomeric mutations identified by genetic testing (29 [26.1%] vs 569 [40.5%]; P = .006). Implantation of implantable cardioverter-defibrillators did not vary by race; however, invasive septal reduction was less common among black patients (30 [14.6%] vs 521 [23.0%]; P = .007). Black patients had less incident atrial fibrillation (35 [17.1%] vs 608 [26.9%]; P < .001). Black race was associated with increased development of NYHA class III or IV heart failure (hazard ratio, 1.45; 95% CI, 1.08-1.94) which persisted on multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression (hazard ratio, 1.97; 95% CI, 1.34-2.88). There were no differences in the associations of race with stroke, ventricular arrhythmias, all-cause mortality, or the overall composite outcome. Conclusions and Relevance: The findings suggest that black patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy are diagnosed at a younger age, are less likely to carry a sarcomere mutation, have a higher burden of functionally limited heart failure, and experience inequities in care with lower use of invasive septal reduction therapy and genetic testing compared with white patients. Further study is needed to assess whether higher rates of heart failure may be associated with underlying ancestry-based disease pathways, clinical management, or structural inequities.

3.
Curr Biol ; 29(23): 3974-3986.e4, 2019 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31735679

RESUMO

The human genetic diversity of the Americas has been affected by several events of gene flow that have continued since the colonial era and the Atlantic slave trade. Moreover, multiple waves of migration followed by local admixture occurred in the last two centuries, the impact of which has been largely unexplored. Here, we compiled a genome-wide dataset of ∼12,000 individuals from twelve American countries and ∼6,000 individuals from worldwide populations and applied haplotype-based methods to investigate how historical movements from outside the New World affected (1) the genetic structure, (2) the admixture profile, (3) the demographic history, and (4) sex-biased gene-flow dynamics of the Americas. We revealed a high degree of complexity underlying the genetic contribution of European and African populations in North and South America, from both geographic and temporal perspectives, identifying previously unreported sources related to Italy, the Middle East, and to specific regions of Africa.

4.
Eur J Clin Nutr ; 73(12): 1622-1625, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31695140

RESUMO

The association of components of a low saturated fat (SFA) and of a Mediterranean diet was tested with atherosclerosis biomarkers in 190 familial hypercholesterolemia adults (FH) from Brazil (BR) and Spain (SP). Median blood LDL-C, Apolipoprotein B (apoB), and C reactive protein (hs-CRP) concentrations were higher in BR than in SP: 179.0 vs.161 mg/dL; 141 vs. 103 mg/dL; and 1.6 vs. 0.8 mg/L respectively (all p < 0.001). In BR there was lower median total fat (22.3 vs. 38.3%) and SFA (8.1 vs. 12.5%) but higher cholesterol (283.3 mg vs.188.9 mg) and carbohydrate (57.1 vs. 42.5%) consumption (all p < 0.001). Inverse associations were encountered between fibers, mono, and polyunsaturated fats and their ratios to SFA with LDL-C and ApoB (all p < 0.001). There was a direct association respectively of cholesterol with lipid biomarkers and of carbohydrates and trans-fatty acids with hs-CRP while other fats showed inverse relations with the latter (p < 0.001).

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31702778

RESUMO

AIMS: The objective of this study was to evaluate if vascular age derived from coronary artery calcium (CAC) score improves atherosclerosis cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) risk discrimination in primary prevention asymptomatic heterozygous familial hypercholesterolaemia (FH) patients undergoing standard lipid-lowering therapy. METHODS AND RESULTS: Two hundred and six molecularly confirmed FH individuals (age 45 ± 14 years, 36% males, baseline LDL-cholesterol 6.2 ± 2.2 mmol/L; 239 ± 85mg/dL) were followed by 4.4 ± 2.9 years (median: 3.7 years, interquartile ranges 2.7-6.8). CAC measurement was performed, and lipid-lowering therapy was optimized according to FH guidelines. Vascular age was derived from CAC and calculated according to the Multi Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis algorithm. Risk estimation based on the Framingham equations was calculated for both biological (bFRS) and vascular (vaFRS) age. During follow-up, 15 ASCVD events (7.2%) were documented. The annualized rate of events for bFRS <10%, 10-20%, and >20% was respectively: 8.45 [95% confidence interval (CI) 3.17-22.52], 23.28 (95% CI 9.69-55.94), and 28.13 (95% CI 12.63-62.61) per 1000 patients. The annualized rate of events for vaFRS <10%, 10-20%, and >20% was respectively: 0, 0, and 50.37 (95% CI 30.37-83.56) per 1000 patients. vaFRS presented a better discrimination for ASCVD events compared to bFRS 0.7058 (95% CI 0.5866-0.8250) vs. vaFRS 0.8820 (95% CI 0.8286-0.9355), P = 0.0005. CONCLUSION: CAC derived vascular age can improve ASCVD risk discrimination in primary prevention FH subjects. This tool may help further stratify risk in FH patients already receiving lipid-lowering medication who might be candidates for further treatment with newer therapies.

6.
BMC Cardiovasc Disord ; 19(1): 251, 2019 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31706288

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Heart failure (HF) is a major public health problem with increasing prevalence worldwide. It is associated with high mortality and poor quality of life due to recurrent and costly hospital admissions. Several studies have been conducted to describe HF risk predictors in different races, countries and health systems. Nonetheless, understanding population-specific determinants of HF outcomes remains a great challenge. We aim to evaluate predictors of 1-year survival of individuals with systolic heart failure from the GENIUS-HF cohort. METHODS: We enrolled 700 consecutive patients with systolic heart failure from the SPA outpatient clinic of the Heart Institute, a tertiary health-center in Sao Paulo, Brazil. Inclusion criteria were age between 18 and 80 years old with heart failure diagnosis of different etiologies and left ventricular ejection fraction ≤50% in the previous 2 years of enrollment on the cohort. We recorded baseline demographic and clinical characteristics and followed-up patients at 6 months intervals by telephone interview. Study data were collected and data quality assurance by the Research Electronic Data Capture tools. Time to death was studied using Cox proportional hazards models adjusted for demographic, clinical and socioeconomic variables and medication use. RESULTS: We screened 2314 consecutive patients for eligibility and enrolled 700 participants. The overall mortality was 6.8% (47 patients); the composite outcome of death and hospitalization was 17.7% (123 patients) and 1% (7 patients) have been submitted to heart transplantation after one year of enrollment. After multivariate adjustment, baseline values of blood urea nitrogen (HR 1.017; CI 95% 1.008-1.027; p < 0.001), brain natriuretic peptide (HR 1.695; CI 95% 1.347-2.134; p < 0.001) and systolic blood pressure (HR 0.982;CI 95% 0.969-0.995; p = 0.008) were independently associated with death within 1 year. Kaplan Meier curves showed that ischemic patients have worse survival free of death and hospitalization compared to other etiologies. CONCLUSIONS: High levels of BUN and BNP and low systolic blood pressure were independent predictors of one-year overall mortality in our sample. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Current Controlled Trials NTC02043431, retrospectively registered at in January 23, 2014.

7.
Metabolites ; 9(7)2019 Jul 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31336989

RESUMO

High-throughput metabolomics investigations, when conducted in large human cohorts, represent a potentially powerful tool for elucidating the biochemical diversity underlying human health and disease. Large-scale metabolomics data sources, generated using either targeted or nontargeted platforms, are becoming more common. Appropriate statistical analysis of these complex high-dimensional data will be critical for extracting meaningful results from such large-scale human metabolomics studies. Therefore, we consider the statistical analytical approaches that have been employed in prior human metabolomics studies. Based on the lessons learned and collective experience to date in the field, we offer a step-by-step framework for pursuing statistical analyses of cohort-based human metabolomics data, with a focus on feature selection. We discuss the range of options and approaches that may be employed at each stage of data management, analysis, and interpretation and offer guidance on the analytical decisions that need to be considered over the course of implementing a data analysis workflow. Certain pervasive analytical challenges facing the field warrant ongoing focused research. Addressing these challenges, particularly those related to analyzing human metabolomics data, will allow for more standardization of as well as advances in how research in the field is practiced. In turn, such major analytical advances will lead to substantial improvements in the overall contributions of human metabolomics investigations.

8.
Genome Biol Evol ; 11(9): 2593-2604, 2019 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31328768

RESUMO

After the colonization of the Americas by Europeans and the consequent Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade, most Native American populations in eastern Brazil disappeared or went through an admixture process that configured a population composed of three main genetic components: the European, the sub-Saharan African, and the Native American. The study of the Native American genetic history is challenged by the lack of availability of genome-wide samples from Native American populations, the technical difficulties to develop ancient DNA studies, and the low proportions of the Native American component in the admixed Brazilian populations (on average 7%). We analyzed genome-wide data of 5,825 individuals from three locations of eastern Brazil: Salvador (North-East), Bambui (South-East), and Pelotas (South) and we reconstructed populations that emulate the Native American groups that were living in the 16th century around the sampling locations. This genetic reconstruction was performed after local ancestry analysis of the admixed Brazilian populations, through the rearrangement of the Native American haplotypes into reconstructed individuals with full Native American ancestry (51 reconstructed individuals in Salvador, 45 in Bambui, and 197 in Pelotas). We compared the reconstructed populations with nonadmixed Native American populations from other regions of Brazil through haplotype-based methods. Our results reveal a population structure shaped by the dichotomy of Tupi-/Jê-speaking ancestry related groups. We also show evidence of a decrease of the diversity of nonadmixed Native American groups after the European contact, in contrast with the reconstructed populations, suggesting a reservoir of the Native American genetic diversity within the admixed Brazilian population.

9.
Am J Epidemiol ; 188(6): 991-1012, 2019 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31155658

RESUMO

The Consortium of Metabolomics Studies (COMETS) was established in 2014 to facilitate large-scale collaborative research on the human metabolome and its relationship with disease etiology, diagnosis, and prognosis. COMETS comprises 47 cohorts from Asia, Europe, North America, and South America that together include more than 136,000 participants with blood metabolomics data on samples collected from 1985 to 2017. Metabolomics data were provided by 17 different platforms, with the most frequently used labs being Metabolon, Inc. (14 cohorts), the Broad Institute (15 cohorts), and Nightingale Health (11 cohorts). Participants have been followed for a median of 23 years for health outcomes including death, cancer, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and others; many of the studies are ongoing. Available exposure-related data include common clinical measurements and behavioral factors, as well as genome-wide genotype data. Two feasibility studies were conducted to evaluate the comparability of metabolomics platforms used by COMETS cohorts. The first study showed that the overlap between any 2 different laboratories ranged from 6 to 121 metabolites at 5 leading laboratories. The second study showed that the median Spearman correlation comparing 111 overlapping metabolites captured by Metabolon and the Broad Institute was 0.79 (interquartile range, 0.56-0.89).

10.
Lipids ; 54(6-7): 381-388, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31141200

RESUMO

Exercise training not only improves the plasma lipid profile but also reduces risk of developing coronary heart disease. We investigate whether plasma lipids and high density lipoprotein (HDL) metabolism are affected by aerobic training and whether the high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels at baseline influence exercise-induced changes in HDL. Seventy-one male sedentary volunteers were evaluated and allocated in two subgroups, according to the HLD-C levels (< or >40 mg/dL). Participants underwent an 18-week aerobic training period. Blood was sampled before and after training for biochemical analysis. Plasma lipids, apolipoproteins, HDL diameter, and VO2 peak were determined. Lipid transfers to HDL were determined in vitro by incubating plasma samples with a donor lipid artificial nanoemulsion. After the 18-week period of aerobic training, the VO2 peak increased, while the mean body mass index (BMI) decreased. HDL-C concentration was higher after the training period, but low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and non-HDL-C did not change. The transfer of esterified cholesterol and phospholipids was greater after exercise training, but the triacylglycerol and unesterified cholesterol transfers were unchanged. The HDL particle diameter increased after aerobic training in all participants. When the participants were separated in low-HDL and normal-HDL groups, the postaerobic exercise increment in HDL-C was higher in the low-HDL group, while the transfer of esterified cholesterol was lower. In conclusion, aerobic exercise training increases the lipid transfers to HDL, as measured by an in vitro method, which possibly contributes to the classical elevation of the HDL-C associated with training.

12.
PLoS One ; 14(3): e0213764, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30883578

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Studies on metabolomics and CKD have primarily addressed CKD incidence defined as a decline on eGFR or appearance of albuminuria in the general population, with very few evaluating hard outcomes. In the present study, we investigated the association between metabolites and mortality and ESRD in a CKD cohort. SETTING AND METHODS: Data on 454 participants of the Progredir Cohort Study, Sao Paulo, Brazil were used. Metabolomics was performed by GC-MS (Agilent MassHunter) and metabolites were identified using Agilent Fiehn GC/MS and NIST libraries. After excluding metabolites present in <50% of participants, 293 metabolites were analyzed. An FDR q value <0.05 criteria was applied in Cox models on the composite outcome (mortality or incident renal replacement therapy) adjusted for batch effect, resulting in 34 metabolites associated with the outcome. Multivariable-adjusted Cox models were then built for the composite outcome, death, and ESRD incident events. Competing risk analysis was also performed for ESRD. RESULTS: Mean age was 68±12y, mean eGFR-CKDEPI was 38.4±14.6 ml/min/1.73m2 and 57% were diabetic. After adjustments (GC-MS batch, sex, age, DM and eGFR), 18 metabolites remained significantly associated with the composite outcome. Nine metabolites were independently associated with death: D-malic acid (HR 1.84, 95%CI 1.32-2.56, p = 0.0003), acetohydroxamic acid (HR 1.90, 95%CI 1.30-2.78, p = 0.0008), butanoic acid (HR 1.59, 95%CI 1.17-2.15, p = 0.003), and docosahexaenoic acid (HR 0.58, 95%CI 0.39-0.88, p = 0.009), among the top associations. Lactose (SHR 1.49, 95%CI 1.04-2.12, p = 0.03), 2-O-glycerol-α-D-galactopyranoside (SHR 1.76, 95%CI 1.06-2.92, p = 0.03), and tyrosine (SHR 0.52, 95%CI 0.31-0.88, p = 0.02) were associated to ESRD risk, while D-threitol, mannitol and myo-inositol presented strong borderline associations. CONCLUSION: Our results identify specific metabolites related to hard outcomes in a CKD population. These findings point to the need of further exploration of these metabolites as biomarkers in CKD and the understanding of the underlying biological mechanisms related to the observed associations.

13.
Genome Med ; 11(1): 5, 2019 01 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30696458

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: International guidelines for variant interpretation in Mendelian disease set stringent criteria to report a variant as (likely) pathogenic, prioritising control of false-positive rate over test sensitivity and diagnostic yield. Genetic testing is also more likely informative in individuals with well-characterised variants from extensively studied European-ancestry populations. Inherited cardiomyopathies are relatively common Mendelian diseases that allow empirical calibration and assessment of this framework. METHODS: We compared rare variants in large hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) cohorts (up to 6179 cases) to reference populations to identify variant classes with high prior likelihoods of pathogenicity, as defined by etiological fraction (EF). We analysed the distribution of variants using a bespoke unsupervised clustering algorithm to identify gene regions in which variants are significantly clustered in cases. RESULTS: Analysis of variant distribution identified regions in which variants are significantly enriched in cases and variant location was a better discriminator of pathogenicity than generic computational functional prediction algorithms. Non-truncating variant classes with an EF ≥ 0.95 were identified in five established HCM genes. Applying this approach leads to an estimated 14-20% increase in cases with actionable HCM variants, i.e. variants classified as pathogenic/likely pathogenic that might be used for predictive testing in probands' relatives. CONCLUSIONS: When found in a patient confirmed to have disease, novel variants in some genes and regions are empirically shown to have a sufficiently high probability of pathogenicity to support a "likely pathogenic" classification, even without additional segregation or functional data. This could increase the yield of high confidence actionable variants, consistent with the framework and recommendations of current guidelines. The techniques outlined offer a consistent and unbiased approach to variant interpretation for Mendelian disease genetic testing. We propose adaptations to ACMG/AMP guidelines to incorporate such evidence in a quantitative and transparent manner.


Assuntos
Cardiomiopatia Hipertrófica/genética , Testes Genéticos/normas , Mutação , Cardiomiopatia Hipertrófica/patologia , Humanos , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto
14.
JACC Cardiovasc Imaging ; 12(9): 1797-1804, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30448145

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of coronary artery calcium (CAC) as a predictor of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) (fatal or not myocardial infarction, stroke, unstable angina requiring revascularization, and elective myocardial revascularization) events in asymptomatic primary prevention molecularly proven heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) subjects receiving standard lipid-lowering therapy. BACKGROUND: FH is associated with premature ASCVD. However, the clinical course of ASCVD in subjects with FH is heterogeneous. CAC score, a marker of subclinical atherosclerosis burden, may optimize ASCVD risk stratification in FH. METHODS: Subjects with FH underwent CAC measurement and were followed prospectively. The association of CAC with ASCVD was evaluated using multivariate analysis. RESULTS: A total of 206 subjects (mean age 45 ± 14 years, 36.4% men, baseline and on-treatment low-density lipoprotein cholesterol 269 ± 70 mg/dl and 150 ± 56 mg/dl, respectively) were followed for a median of 3.7 years (interquartile range: 2.7 to 6.8 years). CAC was present in 105 (51%), and 15 ASCVD events (7.2%) were documented. Almost one-half of events were hard outcomes, and the others were elective myocardial revascularizations. The annualized rates of events per 1,000 patients for CAC scores of 0 (n = 101 [49%]), 1 to 100 (n = 62 [30%]) and >100 (n = 43 [21%]) were, respectively, 0, 26.4 (95% confidence interval: 12.9 to 51.8), and 44.1 (95% confidence interval, 26.0 to 104.1). In multivariate Cox regression analysis, log(CAC score + 1) was independently associated with incident ASCVD events (hazard ratio: 3.33; 95% CI: 1.635 to 6.790; p = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: CAC was independently associated with ASCVD events in patients with FH receiving standard lipid-lowering therapy. This may help further stratify near-term risk in patients who might be candidates for further treatment with newer therapies.

15.
J Pathol ; 247(4): 456-470, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30565701

RESUMO

Endothelial-mesenchymal transition occurs during intimal hyperplasia and neointima formation via mechanisms that are incompletely understood. Endothelial MAPK7 signaling is a key mechanosensitive factor that protects against endothelial-mesenchymal transition, but its signaling activity is lost in vessel areas that are undergoing pathological remodeling. At sites of vascular remodeling in mice and pigs, endothelial MAPK7 signaling was lost. The TGFß-induced microRNA-374b targets MAPK7 and its downstream effectors in endothelial cells, and its expression induces endothelial-mesenchymal transition. Gain-of-function experiments, where endothelial MAPK7 signaling was restored, precluded endothelial-mesenchymal transition. In human coronary artery disease, disease severity is associated with decreased MAPK7 expression levels and increased miR-374b expression levels. Endothelial-mesenchymal transition occurs in intimal hyperplasia and early lesion formation and is governed in part by microRNA-374b-induced silencing of MAPK7 signaling. Restoration of MAPK7 signaling abrogated these pathological effects in endothelial cells expressing miR-374b. Thus, our data suggest that the TGFß-miR-374b-MAPK7 axis plays a key role in the induction of endothelial-mesenchymal transition during intimal hyperplasia and early lesion formation and might pose an interesting target for antiatherosclerosis therapy. © 2018 The Authors. The Journal of Pathology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland.

16.
Circulation ; 139(6): 730-743, 2019 02 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30586738

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Poor glycemic control is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM); however, little is known about mechanisms specific to T1DM. In T1DM, myocardial injury can induce persistent cardiac autoimmunity. Chronic hyperglycemia causes myocardial injury, raising the possibility that hyperglycemia-induced cardiac autoimmunity could contribute to long-term CVD complications in T1DM. METHODS: We measured the prevalence and profiles of cardiac autoantibodies (AAbs) in longitudinal samples from the DCCT (Diabetes Control and Complications Trial) in participants with mean hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) ≥9.0% (n=83) and ≤7.0% (n=83) during DCCT. We assessed subsequent coronary artery calcification (measured once during years 7-9 in the post-DCCT EDIC [Epidemiology of Diabetes Interventions and Complications] observational study), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (measured during EDIC years 4-6), and CVD events (defined as nonfatal myocardial infarction, stroke, death resulting from CVD, heart failure, or coronary artery bypass graft) over a 26-year median follow-up. Cardiac AAbs were also measured in matched patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus with HbA1c ≥9.0% (n=70) and ≤7.0% (n=140) and, as a control for cardiac autoimmunity, patients with Chagas cardiomyopathy (n=51). RESULTS: Apart from HbA1c levels, the DCCT groups shared similar CVD risk factors at the beginning and end of DCCT. The DCCT HbA1c ≥9.0% group showed markedly higher cardiac AAb levels than the HbA1c ≤7.0% group during DCCT, with a progressive increase and decrease in AAb levels over time in the 2 groups, respectively ( P<0.001). In the HbA1c ≥9.0% group, 46%, 22%, and 11% tested positive for ≥1, ≥2, and ≥3 different cardiac AAb types, respectively, similar to patients with Chagas cardiomyopathy, compared with 2%, 1%, and 0% in the HbA1c ≤7.0% group. Glycemic control was not associated with AAb prevalence in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Positivity for ≥2 AAbs during DCCT was associated with increased risk of CVD events (4 of 6; hazard ratio, 16.1; 95% CI, 3.0-88.2) and, in multivariable analyses, with detectable coronary artery calcification (13 of 31; odds ratio, 60.1; 95% CI, 8.4-410.0). Patients with ≥2 AAbs subsequently also showed elevated high-sensitivity C-reactive protein levels (6.0 mg/L versus 1.4 mg/L in patients with ≤1 AAbs; P=0.003). CONCLUSIONS: Poor glycemic control is associated with cardiac autoimmunity in T1DM. Furthermore, cardiac AAb positivity is associated with an increased risk of CVD decades later, suggesting a role for autoimmune mechanisms in the development of CVD in T1DM, possibly through inflammatory pathways.

17.
Atherosclerosis ; 277: 464-469, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30270086

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is a genetic disorder associated with high risk of early major cardiovascular events (MACE) that can impact the health related quality of life (HRQoL), however, this association is unclear. This study evaluated HRQoL in index cases (IC) and first-degree relatives (FDR) of individuals at high risk of FH undergoing genetic cascade screening. METHODS: Data collection was performed before awareness of molecular diagnosis results. Individuals were divided into four groups according to the molecular diagnosis: IC with (IC+) and without (IC-) identified mutations (n = 93 and n = 175, respectively), and affected (FDR+, n = 231) and non-affected (FDR-, n = 159) FDR of IC+. HRQoL measurements, mental (MCS) and physical component (PCS) scores were carried out with SF-12 questionnaire. Associations were tested by generalized linear models. RESULTS: The mean age was 49 ±â€¯15 years, 42.2% were men, MACE had occurred in 30.7%. Overall, both PCS and MCS did not differ between FH and non-FH individuals, however, IC trended to have lower PCS independent of FH presence (p=0.003). Lower PCS were associated with female sex (p=0.018), lower education (p<0.001), professional inactivity (p=0.028), previous MACE occurrence (p<0.001), hypertension (p=0.016), depression (p<0.001) and obesity (p<0.001). Lower MCS were associated with female sex (p=0.009), previous MACE occurrence (p=0.034), depression (p<0.001) and smoking (p=0.009). Neither the presence of FH causing mutations nor pharmacological lipid lowering treatment was associated with HRQoL. CONCLUSIONS: HRQoL is not reduced in both IC and FDR FH individuals in comparison with their non-affected counterparts. Previous MACE and co-morbidities are associated with reduced HRQoL.


Assuntos
LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Testes Genéticos/métodos , Hiperlipoproteinemia Tipo II/diagnóstico , Hiperlipoproteinemia Tipo II/genética , Mutação , Qualidade de Vida , Adulto , Anticolesterolemiantes/uso terapêutico , Biomarcadores/sangue , Brasil , Comorbidade , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Marcadores Genéticos , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Hereditariedade , Humanos , Hiperlipoproteinemia Tipo II/sangue , Hiperlipoproteinemia Tipo II/tratamento farmacológico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Linhagem , Fenótipo , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários , Resultado do Tratamento
18.
Atherosclerosis ; 277: 470-476, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30270087

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Familial hypercholesterolaemia (FH) is the commonest monogenic disorder that accelerates atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. We compared and contrasted the characteristics of patients from three specialist centres in the southern hemisphere. METHODS: Adult index-cases with molecularly diagnosed heterozygous FH attending specialist lipid centres in Cape Town, Perth and São Paulo were studied. Myocardial infarction, revascularisation, hypertension, diabetes, smoking and lipid-lowering treatment were recorded at the time of diagnosis and compared across the three centres. RESULTS: The spectrum of genetic variants causative of FH was significantly different in patients attending the centres in South Africa compared with Australia and Brazil. Hypertension and diabetes were more prevalent in Brazilian and Australian patients, than in South African patients, but the frequency of smoking was significantly greater in South Africa than the other two centres (p<0.01). Age, male sex and smoking were significant independent predictors of coronary artery disease (CAD) in all three countries (p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Patients with FH in three specialist centres in the southern hemisphere exhibit a high prevalence of non-cholesterol cardiovascular disease risk factors. Older age, male sex and smoking were more common among subjects with CAD. In all three countries, there should be vigorous programmes for the control of risk factors beyond good control of hypercholesterolaemia among patients with FH. Promotion of a healthy lifestyle, especially anti-smoking advice, is of paramount importance.


Assuntos
LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Estilo de Vida Saudável , Hiperlipoproteinemia Tipo II/diagnóstico , Hiperlipoproteinemia Tipo II/terapia , Comportamento de Redução do Risco , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Biomarcadores/sangue , Brasil/epidemiologia , Comorbidade , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/epidemiologia , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/genética , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/prevenção & controle , Diagnóstico Precoce , Feminino , Marcadores Genéticos , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Hiperlipoproteinemia Tipo II/epidemiologia , Hiperlipoproteinemia Tipo II/genética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Fenótipo , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Fumar/epidemiologia , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar , África do Sul/epidemiologia , Austrália Ocidental/epidemiologia
20.
Circulation ; 138(14): 1387-1398, 2018 10 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30297972

RESUMO

Background: A better understanding of the factors that contribute to heterogeneous outcomes and lifetime disease burden in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is critically needed to improve patient management and outcomes. The Sarcomeric Human Cardiomyopathy Registry (SHaRe) was established to provide the scale of data required to address these issues, aggregating longitudinal datasets curated by eight international HCM specialty centers. Methods: Data on 4591 HCM patients (2763 genotyped), followed for a mean of 5.4±6.9 years (24,791 patient-years; median [interquartile range] 2.9 [0.3-7.9] years) were analyzed regarding cardiac arrest, cardiac transplantation, appropriate implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) therapy, all-cause death, atrial fibrillation, stroke, New York Heart Association Functional Class III/IV symptoms (all comprising the overall composite endpoint), and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF)<35%. Outcomes were analyzed individually and as composite endpoints. Results: Median age of diagnosis was 45.8 [30.9-58.1] years and 37% of patients were female. Age of diagnosis and sarcomere mutation status were predictive of outcomes. Patients <40 years old at diagnosis had a 77% [95% confidence interval: 72%, 80%] cumulative incidence of the overall composite outcome by age 60, compared to 32% [29%, 36%] by age 70 for patients diagnosed >60 years. Young HCM patients (20-29 years) had 4-fold higher mortality than the general United States population at a similar age. Patients with pathogenic/likely pathogenic sarcomere mutations had two-fold greater risk for adverse outcomes compared to patients without mutations; sarcomere variants of uncertain significance were associated with intermediate risk. Heart failure and atrial fibrillation were the most prevalent adverse events, although typically not emerging for several years after diagnosis. Ventricular arrhythmias occurred in 32% [23%, 40%] of patients <40 years at diagnosis, but in 1% [1%, 2%] >60 years. Conclusions: The cumulative burden of HCM is substantial and dominated by heart failure and atrial fibrillation occurring many years following diagnosis. Young age of diagnosis and the presence of a sarcomere mutation are powerful predictors of adverse outcomes. These findings highlight the need for close surveillance throughout life, and the need to develop disease-modifying therapies.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial/genética , Cardiomiopatia Hipertrófica/genética , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Insuficiência Cardíaca/genética , Mutação , Sarcômeros/genética , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Fibrilação Atrial/mortalidade , Fibrilação Atrial/fisiopatologia , Fibrilação Atrial/terapia , Cardiomiopatia Hipertrófica/mortalidade , Cardiomiopatia Hipertrófica/fisiopatologia , Cardiomiopatia Hipertrófica/terapia , Causas de Morte , Bases de Dados Factuais , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Insuficiência Cardíaca/mortalidade , Insuficiência Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/terapia , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fenótipo , Prognóstico , Sistema de Registros , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
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