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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33225435

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In patients eligible for coronary artery bypass grafting, no data assess the importance of the Heart Team in programming the best surgical strategy for patients with diffuse coronary artery disease (CAD). This study aims to determine the contribution of the Heart Team in predicting the feasibility of coronary artery bypass graft and angiographic surgical success in these patients based on visual angiographic analysis. METHODS: Patients with diffuse and severe CAD undergoing incomplete coronary artery bypass graft surgery were prospectively included. One-year postoperative coronary angiograms were obtained to evaluate graft occlusion. Two clinical cardiologists, two cardiovascular surgeons, and one interventional cardiologist retrospectively analyzed preoperative angiograms. A subjective scale was applied at a single moment to quantify the chance of successful coronary artery bypass grafting for each coronary territory with anatomical indication for revascularization. Based on individual scores, the Heart Team's and the specialists' scores were calculated and compared. RESULTS: The examiners evaluated 154 coronary territories, of which 85 (55.2%) were protected. The Heart Team's accuracy for predicting the angiographic success of the surgery was 74.9%, almost equal to that of the surgeons alone (73.2%). Only the interventional cardiologist predicted left anterior descending territory grafting success. The Heart Team had good specificity and reasonable sensitivity, and the surgeons had high sensitivity and low specificity in predicting angiographic success. CONCLUSION: The multispecialty Heart Team achieved good accuracy in predicting the angiographic coronary artery bypass graft success in patients with diffuse CAD, with a high specificity and reasonable sensitivity.

2.
Transfusion ; 2020 Nov 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33231305

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Genetic variants in the SLC14A1, ACKR1, and KEL genes, which encode Kidd, Duffy, and Kell red blood cell antigens, respectively, may result in weakened expression of antigens or a null phenotype. These variants are of particular interest to individuals with sickle cell disease (SCD), who frequently undergo chronic transfusion therapy with antigen-matched units. The goal was to describe the diversity and the frequency of variants in SLC14A1, ACKR1, and KEL genes among individuals with SCD using whole genome sequencing (WGS) data. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Two large SCD cohorts were studied: the Recipient Epidemiology and Donor Evaluation Study III (REDS-III) (n = 2634) and the Outcome Modifying Gene in SCD (OMG) (n = 640). Most of the studied individuals were of mixed origin. WGS was performed as part of the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute's Trans-Omics for Precision Medicine (TOPMed) program. RESULTS: In SLC14A1, variants included four encoding a weak Jka phenotype and five null alleles (JKnull ). JKA*01N.09 was the most common JKnull . One possible JKnull mutation was novel: c.812G>T. In ACKR1, identified variants included two that predicted Fyx (FY*X) and one corresponding to the c.-67T>C GATA mutation. The c.-67T>C mutation was associated with FY*A (FY*01N.01) in four participants. FY*X was identified in 49 individuals. In KEL, identified variants included three null alleles (KEL*02N.17, KEL*02N.26, and KEL*02N.04) and one allele predicting Kmod phenotype, all in heterozygosity. CONCLUSIONS: We described the diversity and distribution of SLC14A1, ACKR1, and KEL variants in two large SCD cohorts, comprising mostly individuals of mixed ancestry. This information may be useful for planning the transfusion support of patients with SCD.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33128510

RESUMO

We report the clinical and molecular data of a large cohort comprising 242 individuals with RASopathies, from a single Tertiary Center in Brazil, the largest study from Latin America. Noonan syndrome represented 76% of the subjects, with heterozygous variants in nine different genes, mainly PTPN11, SOS1, RAF1, LZTR1, and RIT1, detected by Sanger and next-generation sequencing. The latter was applied to 126 individuals, with a positive yield of 63% in genes of the RAS/MAPK cascade. We present evidence that there are some allelic differences in PTPN11 across distinct populations. We highlight the clinical aspects that pose more medical concerns, such as the cardiac anomalies, bleeding diathesis and proliferative lesions. The genotype-phenotype analysis between the RASopathies showed statistically significant differences in some cardinal features, such as craniofacial and cardiac anomalies, the latter also statistically significant for different genes in Noonan syndrome. We present two individuals with a Noonan syndrome phenotype, one with an atypical, structural cardiac defect, harboring variants in genes mainly associated with isolated hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and discuss the role of these variants in their phenotype.

4.
Elife ; 92020 10 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33054971

RESUMO

Damaging GATA6 variants cause cardiac outflow tract defects, sometimes with pancreatic and diaphragmic malformations. To define molecular mechanisms for these diverse developmental defects, we studied transcriptional and epigenetic responses to GATA6 loss of function (LoF) and missense variants during cardiomyocyte differentiation of isogenic human induced pluripotent stem cells. We show that GATA6 is a pioneer factor in cardiac development, regulating SMYD1 that activates HAND2, and KDR that with HAND2 orchestrates outflow tract formation. LoF variants perturbed cardiac genes and also endoderm lineage genes that direct PDX1 expression and pancreatic development. Remarkably, an exon 4 GATA6 missense variant, highly associated with extra-cardiac malformations, caused ectopic pioneer activities, profoundly diminishing GATA4, FOXA1/2, and PDX1 expression and increasing normal retinoic acid signaling that promotes diaphragm development. These aberrant epigenetic and transcriptional signatures illuminate the molecular mechanisms for cardiovascular malformations, pancreas and diaphragm dysgenesis that arise in patients with distinct GATA6 variants.

5.
Am J Hum Genet ; 107(4): 589-595, 2020 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33007198

RESUMO

In the post-genomic era, genomic medicine interventions as a key component of personalized medicine and tailored-made health care are greatly anticipated following recent scientific and technological advances. Indeed, large-scale sequencing efforts that explore human genomic variation have been initiated in several, mostly developed, countries across the globe, such as the United States, the United Kingdom, and a few others. Here, we highlight the successful implementation of large-scale national genomic initiatives, namely the Genome of Greece (GoGreece) and the DNA do Brasil (DNABr), aiming to emphasize the importance of implementing such initiatives in developing countries. Based on this experience, we also provide a roadmap for replicating these projects in other low-resource settings, thereby bringing genomic medicine in these countries closer to clinical fruition.

6.
JAMA Cardiol ; 2020 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33084842

RESUMO

Importance: Patients with congenital heart disease (CHD), the most common birth defect, have increased risks for cancer. Identification of the variables that contribute to cancer risk is essential for recognizing patients with CHD who warrant longitudinal surveillance and early interventions. Objective: To compare the frequency of damaging variants in cancer risk genes among patients with CHD and control participants and identify associated clinical variables in patients with CHD who have cancer risk variants. Design, Setting, and Participants: This multicenter case-control study included participants with CHD who had previously been recruited to the Pediatric Cardiac Genomics Consortium based on presence of structural cardiac anomaly without genetic diagnosis at the time of enrollment. Permission to use published sequencing data from unaffected adult participants was obtained from 2 parent studies. Data were collected for this study from December 2010 to April 2019. Exposures: Presence of rare (allele frequency, <1 × 10-5) loss-of-function (LoF) variants in cancer risk genes. Main Outcomes and Measures: Frequency of LoF variants in cancer risk genes (defined in the Catalogue of Somatic Mutations in Cancer-Cancer Gene Consensus database), were statistically assessed by binomial tests in patients with CHD and control participants. Results: A total of 4443 individuals with CHD (mean [range] age, 13.0 [0-84] years; 2225 of 3771 with reported sex [59.0%] male) and 9808 control participants (mean [range] age, 52.1 [1-92] years; 4967 of 9808 [50.6%] male) were included. The frequency of LoF variants in regulatory cancer risk genes was significantly higher in patients with CHD than control participants (143 of 4443 [3.2%] vs 166 of 9808 [1.7%]; odds ratio [OR], 1.93 [95% CI, 1.54-2.42]; P = 1.38 × 10-12), and among CHD genes previously associated with cancer risk (58 of 4443 [1.3%] vs 18 of 9808 [0.18%]; OR, 7.2 [95% CI, 4.2-12.2]; P < 2.2 × 10-16). The LoF variants were also nominally increased in 14 constrained cancer risk genes with high expression in the developing heart. Seven of these genes (ARHGEF12, CTNNB1, LPP, MLLT4, PTEN, TCF12, and TFRC) harbored LoF variants in multiple patients with unexplained CHD. The highest rates for LoF variants in cancer risk genes occurred in patients with CHD and extracardiac anomalies (248 of 1482 individuals [16.7%]; control: 1099 of 9808 individuals [11.2%]; OR, 1.59 [95% CI, 1.37-1.85]; P = 1.3 × 10-10) and/or neurodevelopmental delay (209 of 1393 individuals [15.0%]; control: 1099 of 9808 individuals [11.2%]; OR, 1.40 [95% CI, 1.19-1.64]; P = 9.6 × 10-6). Conclusions and Relevance: Genotypes of CHD may account for increased cancer risks. In this cohort, damaging variants were prominent in the 216 genes that predominantly encode regulatory proteins. Consistent with their fundamental developmental functions, patients with CHD and damaging variants in these genes often had extracardiac manifestations. These data may also implicate cancer risk genes that are repeatedly varied in patients with unexplained CHD as CHD genes.

7.
Genet Med ; 2020 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33046849

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Accurate discrimination of benign and pathogenic rare variation remains a priority for clinical genome interpretation. State-of-the-art machine learning variant prioritization tools are imprecise and ignore important parameters defining gene-disease relationships, e.g., distinct consequences of gain-of-function versus loss-of-function variants. We hypothesized that incorporating disease-specific information would improve tool performance. METHODS: We developed a disease-specific variant classifier, CardioBoost, that estimates the probability of pathogenicity for rare missense variants in inherited cardiomyopathies and arrhythmias. We assessed CardioBoost's ability to discriminate known pathogenic from benign variants, prioritize disease-associated variants, and stratify patient outcomes. RESULTS: CardioBoost has high global discrimination accuracy (precision recall area under the curve [AUC] 0.91 for cardiomyopathies; 0.96 for arrhythmias), outperforming existing tools (4-24% improvement). CardioBoost obtains excellent accuracy (cardiomyopathies 90.2%; arrhythmias 91.9%) for variants classified with >90% confidence, and increases the proportion of variants classified with high confidence more than twofold compared with existing tools. Variants classified as disease-causing are associated with both disease status and clinical severity, including a 21% increased risk (95% confidence interval [CI] 11-29%) of severe adverse outcomes by age 60 in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. CONCLUSIONS: A disease-specific variant classifier outperforms state-of-the-art genome-wide tools for rare missense variants in inherited cardiac conditions ( https://www.cardiodb.org/cardioboost/ ), highlighting broad opportunities for improved pathogenicity prediction through disease specificity.

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32870538

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Brugada syndrome (BrS) has diagnostic challenges and controversial risk assessment. We aimed to investigate invasive and non-invasive parameters in symptomatic and asymptomatic patients from a Brazilian cohort of type-1 BrS. METHODS: Patients with spontaneous and drug-induced type-1 BrS were classified in two groups, asymptomatic (n=116, 84.1%) and symptomatic (n=22, 15.9%, 13 with arrhythmogenic syncope, 9 with aborted sudden cardiac death). Genetic testing, EPS parameters, and ECG parameters were analysed. RESULTS: 138 consecutive patients were eligible, 101 men (73.2%), mean 41.4 years, mostly probands (79%). Spontaneous pattern, observed in 77.5% of the patients, was associated to symptoms only if expressed in V1 and V2 standard position (not high precordial leads) (p=0.014). All symptomatic patients were probands. The presence of RV outflow tract conduction delay (RVOTcd) signs, positive EPS and SCN5A status was similar between symptomatic and asymptomatic subjects. During mean 75-month follow-up, 8 patients had appropriate therapies. All had spontaneous type-1 ECG pattern and 2/8 (25%) were asymptomatic, with positive EPS. The overall LAE incidence of 1.1%/year dropped to 0.27% in asymptomatic patients. RVOTcd occurred more frequently in SCN5A carriers (QRS-f 33.3% vs 7.7%, p=0.005; AVR sign 58.3% vs 13.6%, p<0.001; deep S in lead I 75% vs 48.5%, p=0.025%), as well as longer HV interval (66ms vs 49ms, p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Spontaneous type-1 Brugada pattern in standard leads and proband status were more frequent in symptomatic subjects. RVOTcd, more common in SCN5A carriers, did not predict symptoms in BrS patients. EPS exhibited limited prognostic value for this low risk population. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

9.
Mech Ageing Dev ; 191: 111352, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32920076

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) emerged as regulatory elements, with up to 70 % of all miRNAs found in the brain, playing key roles in the onset of Alzheimer's disease (AD). OBJECTIVE: to broadly assess the expression levels of miRNAs in post-mortem brain (PMB) samples of individuals deceased with or without AD. METHODS: A high-throughput microarray platform was used to sketch miRNA samples isolated from superior and middle temporal gyrus of A+T+ AD cases, compared to samples from age- and sex-matched AD-devoid donors, all pulled from the University of São Paulo's Brain Biobank. The miRNAs identified by microarray were subjected to validation with specific qRT-PCR assays employing independent PMB samples. RESULTS: The analyses yielded 6 miRNAs differentially expressed (miR-30e_3p; miR-365b_5p; miR-664_3p; miR-1202; miR-4286; miR-4449), and their interplay with specific AD-related genes and signaling pathways was explored using bioinformatics analyses (including the KEGG package, mirPath v.3). In the end, 3 miRNAs, 7 target genes and 11 pathways were found closely interrelated and implicated with the AD pathophysiology. CONCLUSION: A dysregulation on a subset of these miRNAs appear to affect a range of genes (notably PTEN) and pathways (emphasis to PI3K-AKT) so to provide grounds for neuronal death by apoptotic signaling, autophagy and/or oxidative damage.

10.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238772, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32946454

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a complex condition comprising a 'clustering' of components representing cardiometabolic risk factors for heart disease and diabetes; its prevalence rate is high and consequences serious. Evidence suggests that light exposure patterns and misalignment of circadian rhythms might contribute to MetS etiology by impacting energy metabolism and glucose regulation. OBJECTIVE: We hypothesised that individuals with MetS would show disrupted circadian and sleep parameters alongside differences in light exposure profiles. We investigated this using data from a cohort study in Brazil. METHODS: Data from 103 individuals from the Baependi Heart Cohort Study aged between 50 and 70 were analysed. Motor activity and light exposure were measured using wrist-worn actigraphy devices. Cardiometabolic data were used to calculate the number of MetS components present in each participant, and participants grouped as MetS/non-MetS according to standard guidelines. Between-group comparisons were made for the actigraphy measures; additionally, correlation analyses were conducted. RESULTS: Motor activity and circadian profiles showed no differences between groups. However, the MetS group presented lower light exposure during the day and higher light exposure at night. Correlation analyses, including all participants, showed that greater daytime light exposure and greater light exposure difference between day and night were associated with reduced MetS risk (a lower number of MetS components). Also, the light exposure difference between day and night correlated with body mass index across all participants. CONCLUSIONS: The observed results suggest a direct association between light exposure and MetS which appears to not be attributable to disruptions in circadian activity rhythm nor to sleep parameters. This link between light exposure patterns and MetS risk could inform possible prevention strategies.


Assuntos
Luz , Síndrome Metabólica/etiologia , Actigrafia/métodos , Idoso , Brasil/epidemiologia , Ritmo Circadiano , Estudos de Coortes , Correlação de Dados , Feminino , Glucose/metabolismo , Humanos , Masculino , Síndrome Metabólica/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Sono
11.
Genomics ; 2020 Sep 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32971215

RESUMO

The association between Coronary Artery Calcification (CAC) and osteoporosis has been reported but not fully understood. Therefore, using an original bioinformatic framework we analyzed transcriptomic profiles of 20 elderly women with high CAC score and 31 age- and sex-matching controls from São Paulo Ageing & Health study (SPAH). We integrated differentially expressed microRNA (miRNA) and long-noncoding RNA (lncRNA) interactions with coding genes associated with CAC, in the context of bone-metabolism genes mined from literature. Top non-coding regulators of bone metabolism in CAC included miRNA 497-5p/195 and 106a-5p, and lncRNA FAM197Y7. Top non-coding RNAs revealed significant interplay between genes regulating bone metabolism, vascularization-related processes, chromatin organization, prostaglandin and calcium co-signaling. Prostaglandin E2 receptor 3 (PTGER3), Fibroblasts Growth Factor Receptor 1 (FGFR1), and One Cut Homeobox 2 (ONECUT2) were identified as the most susceptible to regulation by the top non-coding RNAs. This study provides a flexible transcriptomic framework including non-coding regulation for biomarker-related studies.

12.
Atherosclerosis ; 309: 8-15, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32858396

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: There are limited data on serial coronary artery calcium (CAC) assessments outside North American and European populations. We sought to investigate risk factors for CAC incidence and progression in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil). METHODS: We included individuals with no prior cardiovascular disease and two CAC measurements in ELSA-Brasil. Incident CAC was defined as a baseline CAC of 0 followed by CAC >0 on the second study. CAC progression was defined according to multiple published criteria. We performed logistic and linear regression to identify risk factors for CAC incidence and progression. We also examined risk factor effect modification by baseline CAC (0 vs. >0). RESULTS: A total of 2707 individuals were included (57% women, age 48.6 ± 7.7 years). Participants self-identified as white (55%), brown (24%), black (16%), Asian (4%) and Indigenous (1%). The mean period between CAC assessments was 5.1 ± 0.9 years. CAC incidence occurred in 282 (13.3%) of 2127 individuals with baseline CAC of 0. CAC progression occurred in 319 (55%) of 580 participants with baseline CAC >0. Risk factors for CAC incidence included older age, male sex, white race, hypertension, diabetes, higher BMI, smoking, lower HDL-C, higher LDL-C and triglycerides, and metabolic syndrome. Older age and elevated LDL-C were associated with CAC incidence, but not progression. Risk factors consistently associated with CAC progression were hypertension, diabetes, hypertriglyceridemia, and metabolic syndrome. On interaction testing, these four risk factors were more strongly associated with CAC progression as compared to CAC incidence. CONCLUSIONS: CAC incidence was associated with multiple traditional risk factors, whereas the only risk factors associated with progression of CAC were hypertension, diabetes, hypertriglyceridemia, and metabolic syndrome.

13.
Circ Genom Precis Med ; 13(5): 424-434, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32815737

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To assess the genetic architecture of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) in patients of predominantly Chinese ancestry. METHODS: We sequenced HCM disease genes in Singaporean patients (n=224) and Singaporean controls (n=3634), compared findings with additional populations and White HCM cohorts (n=6179), and performed in vitro functional studies. RESULTS: Singaporean HCM patients had significantly fewer confidently interpreted HCM disease variants (pathogenic/likely pathogenic: 18%, P<0.0001) but an excess of variants of uncertain significance (24%, P<0.0001), as compared to Whites (pathogenic/likely pathogenic: 31%, excess of variants of uncertain significance: 7%). Two missense variants in thin filament encoding genes were commonly seen in Singaporean HCM (TNNI3:p.R79C, disease allele frequency [AF]=0.018; TNNT2:p.R286H, disease AF=0.022) and are enriched in Singaporean HCM when compared with Asian controls (TNNI3:p.R79C, Singaporean controls AF=0.0055, P=0.0057, genome aggregation database-East Asian AF=0.0062, P=0.0086; TNNT2:p.R286H, Singaporean controls AF=0.0017, P<0.0001, genome aggregation database-East Asian AF=0.0009, P<0.0001). Both these variants have conflicting annotations in ClinVar and are of low penetrance (TNNI3:p.R79C, 0.7%; TNNT2:p.R286H, 2.7%) but are predicted to be deleterious by computational tools. In population controls, TNNI3:p.R79C carriers had significantly thicker left ventricular walls compared with noncarriers while its etiological fraction is limited (0.70 [95% CI, 0.35-0.86]) and thus TNNI3:p.R79C is considered variant of uncertain significance. Mutant TNNT2:p.R286H iPSC-CMs (induced pluripotent stem cells derived cardiomyocytes) show hypercontractility, increased metabolic requirements, and cellular hypertrophy and the etiological fraction (0.93 [95% CI, 0.83-0.97]) support the likely pathogenicity of TNNT2:p.R286H. CONCLUSIONS: As compared with Whites, Chinese HCM patients commonly have low penetrance risk alleles in TNNT2 or TNNI3 but exhibit few clinically actionable HCM variants overall. This highlights the need for greater study of HCM genetics in non-White populations.

14.
Circ Genom Precis Med ; 13(5): 396-405, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32841044

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pathogenic variants in MYBPC3, encoding cardiac MyBP-C (myosin binding protein C), are the most common cause of familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. A large number of unique MYBPC3 variants and relatively small genotyped hypertrophic cardiomyopathy cohorts have precluded detailed genotype-phenotype correlations. METHODS: Patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and MYBPC3 variants were identified from the Sarcomeric Human Cardiomyopathy Registry. Variant types and locations were analyzed, morphological severity was assessed, and time-event analysis was performed (composite clinical outcome of sudden death, class III/IV heart failure, left ventricular assist device/transplant, atrial fibrillation). For selected missense variants falling in enriched domains, myofilament localization and degradation rates were measured in vitro. RESULTS: Among 4756 genotyped patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in Sarcomeric Human Cardiomyopathy Registry, 1316 patients were identified with adjudicated pathogenic truncating (N=234 unique variants, 1047 patients) or nontruncating (N=22 unique variants, 191 patients) variants in MYBPC3. Truncating variants were evenly dispersed throughout the gene, and hypertrophy severity and outcomes were not associated with variant location (grouped by 5'-3' quartiles or by founder variant subgroup). Nontruncating pathogenic variants clustered in the C3, C6, and C10 domains (18 of 22, 82%, P<0.001 versus Genome Aggregation Database common variants) and were associated with similar hypertrophy severity and adverse event rates as observed with truncating variants. MyBP-C with variants in the C3, C6, and C10 domains was expressed in rat ventricular myocytes. C10 mutant MyBP-C failed to incorporate into myofilaments and degradation rates were accelerated by ≈90%, while C3 and C6 mutant MyBP-C incorporated normally with degradation rate similar to wild-type. CONCLUSIONS: Truncating variants account for 91% of MYBPC3 pathogenic variants and cause similar clinical severity and outcomes regardless of location, consistent with locus-independent loss-of-function. Nontruncating MYBPC3 pathogenic variants are regionally clustered, and a subset also cause loss of function through failure of myofilament incorporation and rapid degradation. Cardiac morphology and clinical outcomes are similar in patients with truncating versus nontruncating variants.

16.
Mol Genet Genomic Med ; 8(9): e1391, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32602654

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Vertebral fractures (VFs) are the most common clinical manifestation of osteoporosis associated with high morbimortality. A personal/familiar history of fractures increases the risk of fractures. The purpose of this study is to identify possible molecular markers associated with osteoporotic VFs in elderly women from community. METHODS: Transcriptomic analysis using Affymetrix HTA2 microarray was performed using whole blood samples of 240 subjects from a population-based survey (Sao Paulo Ageing & Health [SPAH] study). Only elderly women with osteoporosis diagnosis by densitometry were analyzed, and divided in two groups: VF: women with osteoporosis and VFs versus no vertebral fracture (NVF): women with osteoporosis and NVFs. They were matched for age, chronic disease, medication use, and bone mineral density (BMD). The logistic regression model adjusted for age was applied for transcriptome data analysis. SYBR green-based quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) was used to validate the most significant expression changes obtained in the microarray experiment. RESULTS: Microarray analysis identified 142 differentially expressed genes (DEGs, p < .01), 57 upregulated and 85 downregulated, compared VF versus NVF groups. The DEG with the greatest expression difference was the Gamma2-Syntrophin (SNTG2) (ß = 31.88, p = .005). Validation by qPCR confirmed increased expression in VF group of Syntrophin (SNTG2, fold change = 2.79, p = .009), TRAF3 Interacting Protein2 (TRAF3IP2, fold change = 2.79, p = .020), and Integrin Subunit Alpha 6 (ITGA6, fold change = 2.86, p = .038). CONCLUSION: Our data identified and validated the association of SNTG2 (608715), TRAF3IP2 (607043), and ITGA6 (147556) with osteoporotic VF in elderly women, independently of BMD. These results suggest that these transcripts have potential clinical significance and may help to explain the molecular mechanisms and biological functions of vertebral fracture.

17.
J Pineal Res ; 69(3): e12675, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32598502

RESUMO

Studying communities at different stages of urbanisation and industrialisation can teach us how timing and intensity of light affect the circadian clock under real-life conditions. We have previously described a strong tendency towards morningness in the Baependi Heart Study, located in a small rural town in Brazil. Here, we tested the hypothesis that this morningness tendency is associated with early circadian phase based on objective measurements (as determined by dim light melatonin onset, DLMO, and activity) and light exposure. We also analysed how well the previously collected chronotype questionnaire data were able to predict these DLMO values. The average DLMO observed in 73 participants (40 female) was 20:03 ± 01:21, SD, with an earlier average onset in men (19:38 ± 01:16) than in women (20:24 ± 01:21; P ≤ .01). However, men presented larger phase angle between DLMO and sleep onset time as measured by actigraphy (4.11 hours vs 3.16 hours; P ≤ .01). Correlational analysis indicated associations between light exposure, activity rhythms and DLMO, such that early DLMO was observed in participants with higher exposure to light, higher activity and earlier light exposure. The strongest significant predictor of DLMO was morningness-eveningness questionnaire (MEQ) (beta=-0.35, P ≤ .05), followed by age (beta = -0.47, P ≤ .01). Sex, light exposure and variables derived from the Munich chronotype questionnaire were not significant predictors. Our observations demonstrate that both early sleep patterns and earlier circadian phase have been retained in this small rural town in spite of availability of electrification, in contrast to metropolitan postindustrial areas.

18.
ESC Heart Fail ; 7(4): 1744-1752, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32383349

RESUMO

AIMS: Exhaled breath acetone (EBA) has been described as a new biomarker of heart failure (HF) diagnosis. EBA concentration increases according to severity of HF and is associated with poor prognosis, especially in acute decompensated HF. However, there are no data on chronic HF patients. The aim is to evaluate the role of EBA for predicting cardiac and overall mortality in chronic HF patients. METHODS AND RESULTS: In GENIUS-HF cohort, chronic patients were enrolled between August 2012 and December 2014. All patients had left ventricular ejection fraction ≤ 50%, and the diagnosis was established according to Framingham criteria. After consent, patients were submitted to clinical evaluation and exhaled breath collection. EBA identification and quantitative determination were done by spectrophotometry. The clinical characteristics associated with acetone were identified. All participants were followed for 18 months to assess cardiac and overall mortality. Around 700 participants were enrolled in the current analysis. Patients were 55.4 ± 12.2 years old, 67.6% male patients, and 81% New York Heart Association I/II with left ventricular ejection fraction of 32 ± 8.6%. EBA median concentration was 0.6 (0.3-1.2) ug/L. Acetone levels increased with the number of symptoms of HF and were associated with right HF signs/symptoms and liver biochemical changes. EBA at highest quartile (EBA > 1.2ug/L) was associated with a significantly worse prognosis (log rank test, P < 0.001). Cox proportional multivariable regression model revealed that EBA > 1.20ug/L was an independent predictor of cardiac (P = 0.011) and overall (P = 0.010) mortality in our population. CONCLUSIONS: This study shows that EBA levels reflect clinical HF features, especially right HF signs/symptoms. EBA is an independent predictor of cardiac and overall mortality in chronic HF patients.

19.
Cell Stem Cell ; 27(1): 147-157.e7, 2020 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32413331

RESUMO

Although susceptibility to cardiovascular disease (CVD) is different for every patient, why some patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) develop CVD while others are protected has not yet been clarified. Using T2DM-patient-derived human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs), we found that in patients protected from CVD, there was significantly elevated expression of an esterase, arylacetamide deacetylase (AADAC), in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). We overexpressed this esterase in human primary VSMCs and VSMCs differentiated from hiPSCs and observed that the number of lipid droplets was significantly diminished. Further metabolomic analyses revealed a marked reduction in storage lipids and an increase in membrane phospholipids, suggesting changes in the Kennedy pathway of lipid bioassembly. Cell migration and proliferation were also significantly decreased in AADAC-overexpressing VSMCs. Moreover, apolipoprotein E (Apoe)-knockout mice overexpressing VSMC-specific Aadac showed amelioration of atherosclerotic lesions. Our findings suggest that higher AADAC expression in VSMCs protects T2DM patients from CVD.

20.
Circulation ; 142(3): 217-229, 2020 07 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32418493

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is the leading cause of sudden cardiac death (SCD) in children and young adults. Our objective was to develop and validate a SCD risk prediction model in pediatric hypertrophic cardiomyopathy to guide SCD prevention strategies. METHODS: In an international multicenter observational cohort study, phenotype-positive patients with isolated hypertrophic cardiomyopathy <18 years of age at diagnosis were eligible. The primary outcome variable was the time from diagnosis to a composite of SCD events at 5-year follow-up: SCD, resuscitated sudden cardiac arrest, and aborted SCD, that is, appropriate shock following primary prevention implantable cardioverter defibrillators. Competing risk models with cause-specific hazard regression were used to identify and quantify clinical and genetic factors associated with SCD. The cause-specific regression model was implemented using boosting, and tuned with 10 repeated 4-fold cross-validations. The final model was fitted using all data with the tuned hyperparameter value that maximizes the c-statistic, and its performance was characterized by using the c-statistic for competing risk models. The final model was validated in an independent external cohort (SHaRe [Sarcomeric Human Cardiomyopathy Registry], n=285). RESULTS: Overall, 572 patients met eligibility criteria with 2855 patient-years of follow-up. The 5-year cumulative proportion of SCD events was 9.1% (14 SCD, 25 resuscitated sudden cardiac arrests, and 14 aborted SCD). Risk predictors included age at diagnosis, documented nonsustained ventricular tachycardia, unexplained syncope, septal diameter z-score, left ventricular posterior wall diameter z score, left atrial diameter z score, peak left ventricular outflow tract gradient, and presence of a pathogenic variant. Unlike in adults, left ventricular outflow tract gradient had an inverse association, and family history of SCD had no association with SCD. Clinical and clinical/genetic models were developed to predict 5-year freedom from SCD. Both models adequately discriminated between patients with and without SCD events with a c-statistic of 0.75 and 0.76, respectively, and demonstrated good agreement between predicted and observed events in the primary and validation cohorts (validation c-statistic 0.71 and 0.72, respectively). CONCLUSION: Our study provides a validated SCD risk prediction model with >70% prediction accuracy and incorporates risk factors that are unique to pediatric hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. An individualized risk prediction model has the potential to improve the application of clinical practice guidelines and shared decision making for implantable cardioverter defibrillator insertion. Registration: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov; Unique identifier: NCT0403679.

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