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1.
Nutr Cancer ; : 1-10, 2020 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32406264

RESUMO

There is a strong correlation between obesity and cancer. Here, we investigated the influence of IL-6 and gut microbiota of obese mice in melanoma development. We first evaluated B16F10 melanoma growth in preclinical models for obesity: mice deficient for leptin (ob/ob) or adiponectin (AdpKO) and in wild-type mice (WT, C57BL/6J) fed a high-fat diet (HFD; 60% kcal from fat) for 12 weeks. The survival rates of ob/ob and HFD-fed mice were lower than those of their respective controls. AdpKO mice also died earlier than WT control mice. We then verified the involvement of IL-6 signaling in obese mice that were inoculated with melanoma cells. Both ob/ob and AdpKO mice had higher circulating IL-6 levels than wild-type mice. Melanoma tumor volumes in IL-6 KO mice fed an HFD were reduced compared to those of WT mice subjected to the same diet. Also evaluated the effect of microbiota in tumor development. Cohousing and fecal matter transfer experiments revealed that microbiota from ob/ob mice can stimulate tumor development in lean WT mice. Taken together, our data show that in some conditions IL-6 and the gut microbiota are key mediators that link obesity and melanoma.

2.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(5): 2579-2587, 2020 02 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31964819

RESUMO

Degeneration of the retinal pigmented epithelium (RPE) and aberrant blood vessel growth in the eye are advanced-stage processes in blinding diseases such as age-related macular degeneration (AMD), which affect hundreds of millions of people worldwide. Loss of the RNase DICER1, an essential factor in micro-RNA biogenesis, is implicated in RPE atrophy. However, the functional implications of DICER1 loss in choroidal and retinal neovascularization are unknown. Here, we report that two independent hypomorphic mouse strains, as well as a separate model of postnatal RPE-specific DICER1 ablation, all presented with spontaneous RPE degeneration and choroidal and retinal neovascularization. DICER1 hypomorphic mice lacking critical inflammasome components or the innate immune adaptor MyD88 developed less severe RPE atrophy and pathological neovascularization. DICER1 abundance was also reduced in retinas of the JR5558 mouse model of spontaneous choroidal neovascularization. Finally, adenoassociated vector-mediated gene delivery of a truncated DICER1 variant (OptiDicer) reduced spontaneous choroidal neovascularization in JR5558 mice. Collectively, these findings significantly expand the repertoire of DICER1 in preserving retinal homeostasis by preventing both RPE degeneration and pathological neovascularization.

3.
J Infect Dis ; 221(2): 201-213, 2020 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31647546

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: For the purpose of studying functional human dendritic cells (DCs) in a humanized mouse model that mimics the human immune system (HIS), a model referred to as HIS mice was established. METHODS: Human immune system mice were made by engrafting NOD/SCID/IL2Rgammanull (NSG) mice with human hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) following the transduction of genes encoding human cytokines and human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-A2.1 by adeno-associated virus serotype 9 (AAV9) vectors. RESULTS: Our results indicate that human DC subsets, such as CD141+CD11c+ and CD1c+CD11c+ myeloid DCs, distribute throughout several organs in HIS mice including blood, bone marrow, spleen, and draining lymph nodes. The CD141+CD11c+ and CD1c+CD11c+ human DCs isolated from HIS mice immunized with adenoviruses expressing malaria/human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epitopes were able to induce the proliferation of malaria/HIV epitopes-specific human CD8+ T cells in vitro. Upregulation of CD1c was also observed in human CD141+ DCs 1 day after immunization with the adenovirus-based vaccines. CONCLUSIONS: Establishment of such a humanized mouse model that mounts functional human DCs enables preclinical assessment of the immunogenicity of human vaccines in vivo.

4.
Chemosphere ; 240: 124874, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31546184

RESUMO

The present study proposes the use of endophytic fungi for mercury bioremediation in in vitro and host-associated systems. We examined mercury resistance in 32 strains of endophytic fungi grown in culture medium supplemented with toxic metal concentrations. The residual mercury concentrations were quantified after mycelial growth. Aspergillus sp. A31, Curvularia geniculata P1, Lindgomycetaceae P87, and Westerdykella sp. P71 were selected and further tested for mercury bioremediation and bioaccumulation in vitro, as well as for growth promotion of Aeschynomene fluminensis and Zea mays in the presence or absence of the metal. Aspergillus sp. A31, C. geniculata P1, Lindgomycetaceae P87 and Westerdykella sp. P71 removed up to 100% of mercury from the culture medium in a species-dependent manner and they promoted A. fluminensis and Z. mays growth in substrates containing mercury or not (Dunnett's test, p < 0.05). Lindgomycetaceae P87 and C. geniculata P1 are dark septate endophytic fungi that endophytically colonize root cells of their host plants. The increase of host biomass correlated with the reduction of soil mercury concentration due to the metal bioaccumulation in host tissues and its possible volatilization. The soil mercury concentration was decreased by 7.69% and 57.14% in A. fluminensis plants inoculated with Lindgomycetaceae P87 + Aspergillus sp. A31 and Lindgomycetaceae P87, respectively (Dunnet's test, p < 0.05). The resistance mechanisms of mercury volatilization and bioaccumulation in plant tissues mediated by these endophytic fungi can contribute to bioremediation programs. The biochemical and genetic mechanisms involved in bioaccumulation and volatilization need to be elucidated in the future.


Assuntos
Biodegradação Ambiental , Fungos/química , Mercúrio/química
5.
Parasitol Int ; 74: 101978, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31470174

RESUMO

Sprentascaris mahnerti (Nematoda: Raphidascarididae) collected from Loricariichthys labialis (Siluriformes: Loricariidae) in the Pantanal wetlands, State of Mato Grosso do Sul (Brazil), was redescribed using light and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and genetically characterised along with two other raphidascaridids: Raphidascaroides brasiliensis and Ro. moraveci. Due to the systematic discussion regarding Raphidascaris and Sprentascaris, as well as the poor knowledge about the phylogenetic relationships within Raphidascarididae, phylogenies were reconstructed based on partial sequences of the 18S and 28S nuclear rRNA gene, the nuclear ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 and the cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (cox1) mtDNA. Morphological study of S. mahnerti, confirmed some previously described features, revealed new characteristics and permitted to elucidate some inconsistencies noted in the literature. Morphological and genetic characterisation of S. mahnerti supported its validity. Phylogenetic reconstructions supported the monophyly of Sprentascaris, which has three pairs of interlabial conspicuous cuticular projections as a synapomorphy. The relationships among several lineages of raphidascaridids were unsolved, albeit Goezia and Ichthyascaris formed well-supported monophyletic assemblages, in which the first included species with no relations regarding the habitat of hosts and the geographic origin. The present findings represent one more step towards the understanding of the interrelationships of raphidascaridid nematodes. In this sense, Sprentascaris should be considered valid as an independent lineage from Raphidascaris.


Assuntos
Ascaridoidea/classificação , Ascaridoidea/genética , Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia , Filogenia , Animais , Ascaridoidea/ultraestrutura , Brasil , Complexo IV da Cadeia de Transporte de Elétrons/genética , Feminino , Água Doce/parasitologia , Masculino , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , RNA Ribossômico 18S/genética , RNA Ribossômico 28S/genética
6.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 16387, 2019 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31705053

RESUMO

The number of draft genomes deposited in Genbank from the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) is higher than the complete ones. Draft genomes are assemblies that contain fragments of misassembled regions (gaps). Such draft genomes present a hindrance to the complete understanding of the biology and evolution of the organism since they lack genomic information. To overcome this problem, strategies to improve the assembly process are developed continuously. Also, the greatest challenge to the assembly progress is the presence of repetitive DNA regions. This article highlights the use of optical mapping, to detect and correct assembly errors in Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis. We also demonstrate that choosing a reference genome should be done with caution to avoid assembly errors and loss of genetic information.

7.
Parasitol Res ; 118(12): 3337-3347, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31664517

RESUMO

The Amazon represents one of the most complex biomes in the world; however, the temporal variations in parasite community structure of fishes inhabiting this region remain poorly understood. Therefore, processes generating such variations are still unknown. The present study evaluated the long-term temporal variation of community structure of metazoan parasites of Pimelodus blochii collected in Iaco River, State of Acre (Southwestern Brazilian Amazon). A total of 196 parasites were collected over a 6-year period (2012-2017). Twenty-four different taxa of parasites were found, of which 5 Monogenea, 11 Nematoda, 3 Digenea, 1 Acanthocephala, 1 Cestoda, and 3 Crustacea. The overall species richness ranged from 4 in 2012 to 17 in 2016, in which nematodes (larvae and adults) showed higher numerical dominance, diversity, and species richness. However, the annual species richness was similar between the study years, except in 2016, where it showed a distinctly higher value. The overall parasite diversity was also different in 2012 and 2016, whereas the overall abundance differed in 2013 and 2017. The prevalence and abundance of some infracommunities of parasites varied over time. The temporal changes in the parasite community structure of P. blochii are probably related to variations in host-related features, i.e., body size and shift in diet composition as well as to the occurrence of parasites with distinct life history and biology (mainly monogeneans, digeneans, and nematodes). This is the first evaluation of a long-term temporal variation in the structure of the parasite community in fish from the Amazon.


Assuntos
Acantocéfalos/isolamento & purificação , Peixes-Gato/parasitologia , Cestoides/isolamento & purificação , Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia , Nematoides/isolamento & purificação , Trematódeos/isolamento & purificação , Acantocéfalos/classificação , Animais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Cestoides/classificação , Crustáceos/classificação , Ecossistema , Larva , Nematoides/classificação , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais/epidemiologia , Rios/parasitologia , Trematódeos/classificação
8.
Clin Sci (Lond) ; 133(17): 1901-1916, 2019 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31471462

RESUMO

NLRP3 inflammasome [NLR (nucleotide-binding domain, leucine-rich repeat containing protein) Pyrin-domain-containing 3 ] functions as an innate sensor of several PAMPs and DAMPs (pathogen- and damage-associated molecular patterns). It has been also reported as a transcription factor related to Th2 pattern, although its role in the adaptive immunity has been controversial, mainly because the studies were performed using gene deletion approaches. In the present study, we have investigated the NLRP3 gain-of-function in the context of encephalomyelitis autoimmune disease (EAE), considered to be a Th1- and Th17-mediated disease. We took advantage of an animal model with NLRP3 gain-of-function exclusively to T CD4+ lymphocytes (CD4CreNLRP3fl/fl). These mice presented reduced clinical score, accompanied by less infiltrating T CD4+ cells expressing both IFN-γ and IL-17 at the central nervous system (CNS) during the peak of the disease. However, besides NLRP3 gain-of-function in lymphocytes, these mice lack NLRP3 expression in non-T CD4+ cells. Therefore, in order to circumvent this deficiency, we transferred naive CD4+ T cells from WT, NLRP3-/- or CD4CreNLRP3fl/fl into Rag-1-/- mice and immunized them with MOG35-55 Likewise, the animals repopulated with CD4CreNLRP3fl/fl T CD4+ cells presented reduced clinical score and decreased IFN-γ production at the peak of the disease. Additionally, primary effector CD4+ T cells derived from these mice presented reduced glycolytic profile, a metabolic profile compatible with Th2 cells. Finally, naive CD4+ T cells from CD4CreNLRP3fl/fl mice under a Th2-related cytokine milieu cocktail exhibited in vitro an increased IL-4 and IL-13 production. Conversely, naive CD4+ T cells from CD4CreNLRP3fl/fl mice under Th1 differentiation produced less IFN-γ and T-bet. Altogether, our data evidence that the NLRP3 gain-of-function promotes a Th2-related response, a pathway that could be better explored in the treatment of multiple sclerosis.

10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31508244

RESUMO

Background: Functional and anatomical evaluation of patients with ischemic diabetic macular edema after monthly injections of Bevacizumab. Methods: Five eyes from five patients with diabetic macular edema associated with macular ischemia in fluorescein angiography (FA), received 6 monthly intravitreal injections of Bevacizumab. All subjects underwent SD-OCT, FA, OCT angiography (OCTA) and microperimetry at baseline and after 6 months follow-up. Primary outcome measures were improvement of best corrected visual acuity (BCVA), microperimetry and assessment of macular perfusion (foveal avascular zone size and capillary loss). Results: Five patients completed the follow-up. BCVA improved from 20/180 to 20/74 (p = 0.01) and macular sensitivity improved from 11.66 to 16.26 dB (p < 0.007). We also observed that areas of ischemia on OCTA represented areas of lower macular sensitivity on microperimetry. No changes in macular perfusion status were noted. Conclusions: Monthly intravitreal Bevacizumab in patients with ischemic diabetic macular edema improved BCVA and macular sensitivity without compromise of perfusion in the macula. Capillary dropout areas in OCTA correlated with lower retinal sensitivity on microperimetry.

11.
Int J Parasitol Parasites Wildl ; 10: 41-58, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31372335

RESUMO

Little information is available on host-parasite relationships between bivalves and larval nematodes. Herein, we describe nematode larvae (likely stage 2) in the infraorder Ascaridomorpha infecting the foot, intestine, and mantle of a freshwater mussel (Alabama rainbow, Villosa nebulosa [Conrad, 1834]) and detail histopathological changes to infected tissues. A total of 43 live mussels from the South Fork of Terrapin Creek, Alabama, were collected between 2010 and 2014, with 14 sectioned for histopathology and 29 dissected. Of the 14 sectioned mussels, 5 appeared to be uninfected, and 7, 1, and 1 had histozoic infections observed in the foot and intestine, intestine only, and mantle edge and foot, respectively. Twenty-three of 29 (79%) of the mussels dissected were infected by live nematodes, and mean nematode abundance was 8.3 (CL = 5.23-13), with 2 mussels infected with >100 nematodes each. Thus, with a total of 32 of the 43 collected mussels observed with nematodes, overall infection prevalence was 74.4% (CL = 0.594-0.855). The 18S rDNA of this nematode was 99% similar to that of several ascaridids (species of Kathlaniidae Lane, 1914 and Quimperiidae Baylis, 1930) that mature in aquatic/semi-aquatic vertebrates; the recovered 18S phylogenetic tree indicated this nematode from V. nebulosa shares a recent common ancestor with Ichthyobronema hamulatum (Ascaridomorpha: Quimperiidae; GenBank Accession Number KY476351). Pathological changes to tissue associated with these infections comprised focal tissue damage, but a cellular response was not evident. The Alabama rainbow possibly represents an intermediate or paratenic host. Given these results, the nematode is likely not pathogenic under normal stream conditions; however, high intensity infections in the foot could inhibit pedal extension and retraction; which would have demonstrable health consequences to a freshwater mussel. Based on our review of the bivalve mollusc parasite literature, a collective biodiversity of 61 nematodes reportedly exhibit some degree of symbiosis (from commensal to parasitic) with 21 bivalves (28 nematode spp. from 17 marine bivalve spp.; 33 nematode spp. from 4 freshwater bivalve spp.); only four records exist of putatively parasitic nematodes from Unionida. The present study represents the first description of a nematode species that invades the tissues of a Unionidae species.

12.
Rev Bras Ortop (Sao Paulo) ; 54(4): 402-407, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31435106

RESUMO

Objective To evaluate predictive factors of death in patients aged ≥ 70 years old with proximal femoral fracture (PFF) submitted to surgical treatment. Methods An analysis of medical records by creating a retrospective cohort with a 6-month follow-up. A total of 124 charts were analyzed after applying the inclusion and exclusion criteria. All of the patients were treated by a single orthopedic surgeon under uniform conditions. Results The mortality rate was of 34.7%, and the most common profile was female, 85 years old, and with at least 1 comorbidity. Patients > 85 years old, hospitalized for > 7 days, with at least 1 comorbidity, and staying at the intensive care unit (ICU) had a higher risk of death (2, 2.5, 4, and 4 times higher, respectively). Conclusion Regarding the death outcome, although we did not find a statistically significant difference in the topography of the lesion and in its behavior in its coexistence with ICU hospitalization, we believe that further investigations under this perspective are required in a population with the studied profile.

13.
Parasitol Res ; 118(10): 2819-2829, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31463595

RESUMO

Procamallanus (Spirocamallanus) huacraensis infecting the catfish Trichomycterus spegazzinii from Escoipe River, Salta province (Argentina), is redescribed and genetically characterised for the first time, based on three genetic markers (nuclear 18S and 28S rRNA; cytochrome c oxidase subunit I [cox1] mtDNA). The phylogeny of Camallanidae was also discussed. Morphological evaluation of P. (S.) huacraensis using light and scanning electron microscopy revealed the previously undescribed features: location of deirids, accurate morphology of larvae (L1) and ovijector in females, as well as phasmids in males. Differences were found comparing the newly collected material and the type specimens, probably because the original description lacked detailing. Unfortunately, type specimens of P. (S.) huacraensis were no available for loan. The results of morphological and genetic analyses supported the validity of P. (S.) huacraensis. Inconsistencies regarding the taxonomic identification of species of Camallanidae in GenBank database were noted. Based on the current genetic database of Camallanidae, phylogenetic reconstructions using the 18S rRNA sequences were most consistent, due to the inclusion of higher number of taxa. Procamallanus (S.) huacraensis appeared as sister group of P. (S.) rarus, also isolated from a catfish in a neighbouring region. The order and habitat of hosts were also similar within some well-supported parasite lineages, but without common geographic origin. However, it is still premature to make definitive affirmations regarding the role of such features in the phylogenetic patterns of Camallanidae, given the scarcity of genetic data. The phylogenetic reconstructions also confirmed the artificiality of the morphology-based systematics of the family.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia , Infecções por Spirurida/veterinária , Espirurídios/classificação , Espirurídios/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Argentina , Peixes-Gato/parasitologia , DNA de Helmintos/genética , Feminino , Masculino , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 28S/genética , Rios/parasitologia , Espirurídios/genética , Espirurídios/fisiologia , Infecções por Spirurida/parasitologia
14.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2053: 221-229, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31452108

RESUMO

Docking process is one of the most significant activities for the analysis of protein-protein or protein-ligand complexes. These tools have become of unique importance when allocated in web services, collaborating scientifically with several areas of knowledge in an interdisciplinary way. Among the several web services dedicated to carrying out molecular docking simulations, we selected the DockThor web service. To illustrate the application of DockThor to protein-ligand docking simulations, we analyzed the docking of a ligand against the structure of epidermal growth factor receptor, an essential molecular marker in cancer research.

15.
Doc Ophthalmol ; 139(3): 227-234, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31286364

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To report a case of a child with strabismus and delayed discovery of a metallic intraocular foreign body with good recovery of visual acuity and stereopsis with 36-month follow-up. METHODS: A 4-year-old girl was evaluated due to exotropia of right eye initiated 9 months before with progressive worsening. Visual acuity was 1.00 logMAR (20/200) in the right eye and 0.00 logMAR (20/20) in the left eye. Anterior segment evidenced a small paracentral corneal leukoma, posterior synechia and mild lens opacity in the temporal quadrant only in the right eye. Fundus examination in the right eye identified the presence of an intraocular foreign body, with appearance of metallic components surrounded by retinal pigmented endothelial cells atrophy. Full-field electroretinography (ERG) showed reduced amplitudes and delayed implicit times for both rods and cones in the affected eye. All tests were normal in the fellow eye. RESULTS: Pars plana vitrectomy was promptly performed in the right eye, followed by phacoemulsification with intraocular lens implantation 4 months later due to worsening of the lens opacification. The full-field ERG was repeated after the surgical procedures. The ERG showed mild worsening of all responses in the right eye. After 36 months of follow-up, visual acuity was 0.20 logMAR (20/32) with improvement of the ocular misalignment and with 60 s of arc stereopsis with ERG responses unchanged. CONCLUSION: In this young girl perforating ocular trauma with metallic material was lately diagnosed with strabismus as a sign of alert. Prompt surgical intervention and proper management were essential to provide reasonable visual function including some degree of stereopsis, even though retinal dysfunction characterized by ERG was persistent.


Assuntos
Corpos Estranhos no Olho/diagnóstico , Ferimentos Oculares Penetrantes/diagnóstico , Metais , Retina/lesões , Atrofia , Pré-Escolar , Diagnóstico Tardio , Percepção de Profundidade/fisiologia , Eletrorretinografia , Exotropia/diagnóstico , Corpos Estranhos no Olho/fisiopatologia , Corpos Estranhos no Olho/cirurgia , Ferimentos Oculares Penetrantes/fisiopatologia , Ferimentos Oculares Penetrantes/cirurgia , Feminino , Humanos , Implante de Lente Intraocular , Facoemulsificação , Refração Ocular/fisiologia , Retina/fisiopatologia , Epitélio Pigmentado da Retina/patologia , Acuidade Visual/fisiologia , Vitrectomia
16.
Rev. bras. ortop ; 54(4): 402-407, July-Aug. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1042430

RESUMO

Abstract Objective To evaluate predictive factors of death in patients aged ≥ 70 years old with proximal femoral fracture (PFF) submitted to surgical treatment. Methods An analysis of medical records by creating a retrospective cohort with a 6- month follow-up. A total of 124 charts were analyzed after applying the inclusion and exclusion criteria. All of the patients were treated by a single orthopedic surgeon under uniform conditions. Results The mortality rate was of 34.7%, and the most common profile was female, 85 years old, and with at least 1 comorbidity. Patients > 85 years old, hospitalized for > 7 days, with at least 1 comorbidity, and staying at the intensive care unit (ICU) had a higher risk of death (2, 2.5, 4, and 4 times higher, respectively). Conclusion Regarding the death outcome, although we did not find a statistically significant difference in the topography of the lesion and in its behavior in its coexistence with ICU hospitalization, we believe that further investigations under this perspective are required in a population with the studied profile.


Resumo Objetivo Avaliar fatores preditivos de morte em pacientes de idade igual ou superior a 70 anos com fratura proximal do fêmur submetidos a tratamento cirúrgico. Métodos Análise de prontuários médicos criando-se uma coorte retrospectiva com seguimento de 6meses. Foramanalisados 124 prontuários após aplicação dos critérios de inclusão e exclusão. Todos os pacientes foram tratados por um único cirurgião ortopédico em condições de uniformidade. Resultados Taxa de mortalidade de 34.7%, sendo o perfil mais comum de paciente o indivíduo do gênero feminino, com 85 anos e ao menos 1 comorbidade. Os pacientes com idade superior a 85 anos, internação hospitalar por mais de 7 dias, ao menos 1 comorbidade presente e internação em centro de terapia intensiva (CTI) apresentaram maior risco de óbito (respectivamente 2; 2,5; 4 e 4 vezes maior). Conclusão Em relação ao desfecho óbito, apesar de não encontramos diferença estatisticamente significativa no que se refere à topografia da lesão e como essas se comportamnomomento em que coexistemjunto a internação em CTI, acreditamos na necessidade de maiores investigações sob essa ótica na população com o perfil estudado.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Fraturas do Quadril/cirurgia , Fraturas do Quadril/mortalidade , Fraturas do Quadril/terapia
17.
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 69(3): 315-318, May-June 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-1013411

RESUMO

Abstract Background: Trigeminocardiac reflex is a physiological phenomenon that may occur in head and neck surgery, and is usually benign. However, it may present with exaggerated responses with severe morbidity. Case report: Male patient, 26 years old, candidate for surgical treatment of zygomatic-orbital complex fracture. The surgery with bilateral nasal packing placed at the end of the procedure was uneventful. After being admitted to the post-anesthesia care unity, the patient complained of shortness of breath and nausea. Pulse oximetry fell below 90% in ambient air, and 100% O2 was then offered through a Hudson mask. He showed no improvement in oximetry and presented with worsening dyspnea, diffuse wheezing, reduced heart rate, and blood pressure. Atropine was given, which raised the heart rate, but without resolution of hypotension and bronchospasm. Our suspicion was of a trigeminal-cardiac reflex, and then the removal of the nasal packing was done with complete remission of the signs and symptoms. Discussion: Florian Kratschmer (1870) was the first to describe the influences of nasal mucosal reflexes on respiration and circulation, which became known as Kratschmer's reflex. It is a reflex arc whose afferent originates in the nerve endings of the trigeminal nerve. The clinical presentation of trigeminocardiac reflex is the occurrence of sudden bradycardia, hypotension, apnea, and gastric hypermotility. Conclusion: Trigeminocardiac reflex may be a protective neurogenic, oxygen-conserving response with low morbidity, however, exacerbated in certain situations. The interaction between surgeon and anesthesiologist, together with a careful monitoring of blood pressure and heart rate are fundamental for diagnosis and treatment.


Resumo Justificativa: O reflexo trigêmino-cardíaco é um fenômeno fisiológico passível de ocorrer em cirurgias da cabeça e pescoço, e normalmente é benigno. Contudo, pode apresentar respostas exageradas, com grave morbidade. Relato de caso: Paciente masculino, 26 anos, candidato a tratamento cirúrgico de fratura do complexo zigomático-orbitário. Ato cirúrgico sem intercorrências com tamponamento nasal bilateral ao final. Após admitido na sala de recuperação pós-anestésica, queixou-se de "falta de ar" e náusea. A oximetria de pulso caiu abaixo 90% em ar ambiente e foi ofertado então O2 a 100% sob máscara de Hudson. Não houve melhora da oximetria e apresentou piora da dispneia, com sibilos difusos, redução da frequência cardíaca e da pressão arterial. Administrada atropina, que elevou a frequência cardíaca, mas sem resolução da hipotensão arterial e broncoespasmo. Aventamos a hipótese de reflexo trigêmino-cardíaco e então foi feita a remoção do tamponamento nasal com remissão completa dos sinais e sintomas. Discussão: Florian Kratschmer (1870) foi o primeiro a descrever as influências de reflexos da mucosa nasal na respiração e na circulação, o que ficou conhecido como reflexo de Kratschmer. Trata-se de um arco reflexo cuja aferência é originária nas terminações nervosas do nervo trigêmeo. A apresentação clínica do reflexo trigêmino-cardíaco é a ocorrência de súbita bradicardia, hipotensão, apneia e hipermotilidade gástrica. Conclusão: O reflexo trigêmino-cardíaco pode ser uma resposta neurogênica protetora, oxigênio-conservadora, de baixa morbidade, contudo exacerbada em determinadas situações. A interação entre cirurgião e anestesiologista, aliada à monitoração criteriosa da pressão arterial e do ritmo cardíaco, é fundamental para o diagnóstico e o tratamento.

18.
Syst Parasitol ; 96(4-5): 399-406, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31087201

RESUMO

Ameloblastella amazonica n. sp. (Monogenea: Dactylogyridae) collected on the gills of Pimelodus blochii Valenciennes (Siluriformes: Pimelodidae) from Rivers Acre and Iaco, State of Acre (Brazil) is described. The new species differs from the congeners mainly by the morphology of the dorsal bar, i.e. slightly U-shaped bearing a posteriorly directed flap, arising from the anterior edge of its middle third. The most morphologically similar congeners, A. paranaensis (França, Isaac, Pavanelli & Takemoto, 2003) and A. satoi Monteiro, Kritsky & Brasil-Sato, 2010, resemble A. amazonica n. sp. regarding the general structure of the copulatory complex; however, besides other features, they also differ from the new species because their hooks are similar in size (vs hooks with three different sizes). In addition to the dorsal bar lacking a flap, A. amazonica n. sp. can be differentiated from all congeners based on the combination of the following features: size of hooks (one or two different sizes), shape of the dorsal bar (other than slightly U-shaped), anchor points largely passing the level of superficial root (vs not or slightly passing it), number of MCO rings (other than 3-4) and structure of the articulation between the MCO base and the accessory piece (other than thick, medium-sized, smooth and tubular). Demidospermus leptosynophallus Kritsky & Gutierrez, 1998 and Scleroductus yuncensi Jara & Cone, 1989 were also found infesting P. blochii, both representing new host and locality records.


Assuntos
Peixes-Gato/parasitologia , Trematódeos/classificação , Trematódeos/fisiologia , Animais , Brasil , Rios , Especificidade da Espécie , Trematódeos/anatomia & histologia
19.
Microb Pathog ; 133: 103548, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31112771

RESUMO

One of the major challenges in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L.) farming is the occurrence of bacterial infections, and the Francisella noatunensis subsp. orientalis (FNO) is an important pathogen that has emerged in last decades. Francisellosis outbreaks have been reported in the literature as occurring seasonally when water temperature is below 24 °C. The aim of this study was to quantify the median lethal doses (LD50) of FNO in experimental challenges at 28 °C and 22 °C, and to investigate the impact of temperature changes in whole genome expression using microarray technology. The LD50 for Nile tilapia at 28 °C was ∼105.7, whereas at 22 °C, the LD50 was ∼102.2, showing that the decrease in temperature enhanced disease outcome. Out of 1917 genes screened, a total of 31 and 19 genes were down- and up-regulated at 22 °C, respectively. These genes were grouped by orthology into functional categories of: amino acid, inorganic ion, and carbohydrate transport and metabolism; transcription; and posttranslational modification, protein turnover, and chaperones. Expression of genes related to metabolism, oxidative stress, and thermal shock were regulated by temperature changes, reflecting an ability of FNO to adapt to the environment. Expression of virulence genes usually required for the Francisella genus was not changed between tested temperatures, including that of genes located on the Francisella Pathogenicity Island.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Peixes/microbiologia , Peixes/microbiologia , Francisella/genética , Francisella/metabolismo , Francisella/patogenicidade , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/veterinária , Temperatura , Transcriptoma , Animais , Ciclídeos/microbiologia , Regulação para Baixo , Regulação Bacteriana da Expressão Gênica , Genes Bacterianos/genética , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/microbiologia , Dose Letal Mediana , Estresse Oxidativo , Regulação para Cima , Virulência/genética
20.
Bioorg Med Chem ; 27(12): 2537-2545, 2019 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30962115

RESUMO

Protease roles in cancer progression have been demonstrated and their inhibitors display antitumor effects. Cathepsins are lysosomal cysteine proteases that have increased expression in tumor cells, and tellurium compounds were described as potent cysteine protease inhibitors and also assayed in several animal models. In this work, the two enantiomeric forms of 1-[Butyl(dichloro)-λ4-tellanyl]-2-[1S-methoxyethyl]benzene (organotelluranes RF-13R and RF-13S) were evaluated as inhibitors of cathepsins B and L, showing significant enantiodiscrimination. We observed their cytotoxic effects on a murine melanoma model, effectively inhibiting tumor progression in vivo. The enantiomers were able to inhibit melanoma cell viability, migration and invasion in vitro. Besides, RF-13S and RF-13R were able to inhibit endothelial cell angiogenesis using a tube formation assay in vitro, in a stereodependent manner. These organotelluranes affected cell morphology, showing disassembling of the actin cytoskeleton. These results suggest organotelluranes as potential antitumor agents, acting directly on tumor cell proliferation, migration and invasion, and on endothelial cells, disrupting angiogenesis, showing low toxicity and high efficiency. Taken together our results suggest that this class of compounds should be further studied to reveal their potential as antitumoral agents.

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