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3.
Fungal Genet Biol ; 126: 50-55, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30794952

RESUMO

The fungus Moniliophthora perniciosa is the causal agent of witches' broom disease (WBD), one of the most devastating diseases of cacao, the chocolate tree. Many strategies to control WBD have been tested so far, including the use of agrochemicals such as the strobilurins. Strobilurins are fungicides of the QoI family, and they are used in the control of a wide array of fungal diseases in many different crops, including cereals, field crops, fruits, tree nuts, and vegetables. These drugs act by specifically inhibiting fungal respiration at the Qo site of complex III, which is a component of the main mitochondrial respiratory chain. However, M. perniciosa is resistant to this family of chemicals. It has been postulated that this resistant phenotype is, at least in part, a result of the strong ability of this fungus to counteract the oxidative stress generated by the impairment of the main mitochondrial respiratory chain, through the activation of an alternative oxidase (Mp-AOX). To test this hypothesis, we expressed functional mitochondria-localized Mp-AOX in the model yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We demonstrated that heterologous expression of Mp-AOX strongly inhibits hydrogen peroxide production by mitochondria. It also diminishes the total cell amount of oxidized glutathione (GSSG), resulting in a fifty-fold higher GSH/GSSG ratio in cells expressing Mp-AOX than in wild type cells. In addition, Mp-AOX activity decreases yeast growth rate and leads to low biomass production. Therefore, we propose the use of this heterologous expression system to direct the development of new inhibitors of fungal AOX by comparing the differences in optical density of Mp-AOX-expressing cells in the presence and absence of potential AOX inhibitors. Together, our results confirm the antioxidant role of Mp-AOX and provide an in vivo platform to be used in the screening of new fungicides based on Mp-AOX inhibition.


Assuntos
Agaricales/enzimologia , Agaricales/patogenicidade , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Proteínas Fúngicas/genética , Proteínas Mitocondriais/genética , Oxirredutases/genética , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Fungicidas Industriais , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética
4.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 71(1): 291-302, jan.-fev. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Português | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-989373

RESUMO

Objetivou-se com o presente trabalho caracterizar o processo de compostagem de fluxo contínuo e aeração passiva de resíduos da produção e abate da caprino-ovinocultura e de seu composto orgânico gerado. O processo de compostagem utilizou resíduos sólidos provenientes da produção e do abate de caprinos e ovinos e foi realizado em galpão de alvenaria. Os resíduos agropecuários utilizados incluíram sobras de capim-elefante triturado seco, poda de árvores, esterco e carcaça de caprinos e ovinos. Os tratamentos empregados foram três níveis de umidade aplicados nas leiras de compostagem (30, 50 e 70% com base no peso da carcaça dos animais) e épocas do ano de montagem (período seco, transição e úmido) com base na precipitação, com três repetições. As variáveis avaliadas foram atributos químicos, físicos, microbiológicos e parasitológicos do composto e sua comparação com a legislação vigente. O composto orgânico gerado atende as especificações das legislações utilizadas para comparação. Independentemente da época do ano ou da umidade aplicada, o processo de compostagem foi eficiente em reduzir passivos ambientais, como carcaças. A compostagem promoveu a eliminação dos patógenos avaliados, indicando que o composto não oferece risco de transmissão e pode ser utilizado de forma segura.(AU)


The objective of this study to characterize the process of continuous flow of composting and passive aeration of waste production and slaughter the goat and sheep industry and its generated organic compound. The composting process, performed in a brick barn, used solid residues (manure and carcass parts) from the slaughter of goats and sheep along with chopped dry elephant grass and tree trimmings. The treatments employed three moisture levels in the piles and four collections of samples from the piles at timed intervals (0, 30, 60 and 120 days), with three repetitions. The variables evaluated were the chemical and physical attributes of the compost generated. The treatments were three moisture levels applied in compost piles (30, 50 and 70% based on the housing of animals) and assembly times of the year (dry, transitional and humid) based on rainfall, with three replications. The variables were chemical, physical, microbiological and parasitological of the compound and its comparison with current legislation. The generated organic compound meets the specifications of the laws used for comparison. Regardless of the time of year or moisture applied, the composting process was effective in reducing environmental liabilities as carcasses. Composting promoted elimination of this pathogen, indicating that the compound can be used safely.(AU)


Assuntos
Compostagem/métodos , Técnicas Microbiológicas/métodos , Propriedades Físicas , Gerenciamento de Resíduos
6.
Transfus Med ; 28(6): 433-439, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30144203

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study assessed the prevalence of visceral leishmaniasis in blood donors from three endemic regions in Brazil and evaluated the risk of transmission by transfusion. BACKGROUND: Despite strong evidence of the transmission of visceral leishmaniasis through blood transfusion, the real risk, an essential condition for taking effective measures to control this serious disease, has not been determined. METHODS: A multicentre study was performed in highly endemic areas. Candidates eligible for their first blood donation underwent a socio-epidemiological interview, and blood samples were collected for enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) analysis, Western blot and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Patients transfused with red blood cells or random platelet concentrates collected from these donors were also studied. The results were analysed using descriptive statistics and prevalence estimates, with significance defined as p-values <0·05. RESULTS: Of the 608 eligible donors, 37 (6·1%) were positive for visceral leishmaniasis as per ELISA. The socio-epidemiological analysis showed a significantly higher prevalence in non-Caucasians (p = 0·008). Among 296 patients who received blood components from these donors, the pre-transfusion seropositivity was 7·7%, and 13 patients received blood positive for Leishmania infantum. Six patients were followed up for 90 days, of which two (33·3%) had serological conversion at 60 days. CONCLUSIONS: The results confirm the high prevalence of L. infantum seropositivity among donors in the three regions; the seroconversion in a short period of time in two of six patients suggests the possibility of transmission of the infection by transfusion.


Assuntos
Doadores de Sangue , Transfusão de Sangue , Seleção do Doador , Leishmania infantum , Leishmaniose Visceral/sangue , Adolescente , Adulto , Brasil/epidemiologia , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Feminino , Humanos , Leishmaniose Visceral/epidemiologia , Leishmaniose Visceral/transmissão , Masculino , Prevalência , Fatores Socioeconômicos
8.
Lupus ; 27(5): 853-857, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28857716

RESUMO

Introduction Chronic cutaneous lupus erythematosus (CCLE) usually presents as characteristic erythematous patches and infiltrated coin-shaped plaques. However, there are some atypical clinical variants that may mimic other dermatological conditions. Haroon et al. reported in 1972 an unusual presentation of CCLE with hypertrophic follicular scars seen in acne vulgaris. Acneiform presentation is one of the most rarely reported and one of the most confusing, as it resembles a very common inflammatory skin disease. A brief review of the literature using PubMed found only nine other reports. Case report A 32-year-old woman presented with two-year pruritic infiltrated acneiform and comedonal eruption on the right chin treated as acne with isotretinoin without improvement. On examination the patient presented with erythematous-infiltrated plaque, papules, open comedones, pitting scars and hypopigmented atrophic scars on the right chin area and scalp hair loss. An incisional skin biopsy on the chin and scalp lesions was performed and the anatomopathological and immunofluorescence exam showed findings that are consistent with CCLE. Additional tests ruled out systemic involvement. The patient was treated with prednisone and chloroquine diphosphate with great improvement. After four years the lesion is stable, with some scarring. Discussion In a literature review we found nine other cases of acneiform presentation of lupus erythematosus: Three cases were systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and seven others were diagnosed as CCLE (including our patient). All three patients who had SLE tested positive for antinuclear antibodies (ANA), and only one patient with CCLE, had a low titer of positive ANA (1:80). Ages varied from 24 to 60 years old, with a median of 32 years old, the same as our patient's age and consistent with the literature. Seven were females and three were males, with a ratio of 2.3:1. Most cases, such as our patient, showed acneiform lesions mainly on the face, a common site of typical CCLE. The present case and literature review illustrates the need to expand the differential diagnosis of atypical acneiform and comedonal lesions. CCLE should be considered especially in a localized lesion, which can be itchy and does not improve with conventional treatment for acne vulgaris.


Assuntos
Erupções Acneiformes/diagnóstico , Lúpus Eritematoso Cutâneo/diagnóstico , Pele/patologia , Erupções Acneiformes/patologia , Adulto , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/uso terapêutico , Biópsia , Cloroquina/análogos & derivados , Cloroquina/uso terapêutico , Doença Crônica , Erros de Diagnóstico , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Imunofluorescência , Glucocorticoides/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Lúpus Eritematoso Cutâneo/tratamento farmacológico , Lúpus Eritematoso Cutâneo/patologia , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prednisona/uso terapêutico , Pele/efeitos dos fármacos , Resultado do Tratamento
9.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 69(6): 1653-1659, nov.-dez. 2017. tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-911288

RESUMO

Objetivou-se avaliar a influência de dietas contendo silagem de diferentes cultivares de sorgo sobre as características físicas e químicas na carne de ovinos sem padrão racial definido, com idade entre cinco e sete meses e peso vivo médio de 17,7±3,7kg, alimentados com dietas contendo silagem de diferentes cultivares de sorgo. O experimento foi conduzido na Estação Experimental Pendência, pertencente à Empresa Estadual de Pesquisa Agropecuária - Emepa, tendo um período experimental de 42 dias. Utilizou-se um delineamento inteiramente ao acaso, com cinco tratamentos (silagem de sorgo BRS 610, BRS 655, BRS 800, BRS 810 e Ponta Negra) e sete repetições. Ao atingirem o peso de abate de 26,24kg, os animais foram encaminhados ao abate. Procedeu-se à análise do pH, da cor, da perda de peso por cocção, da força de cisalhamento, bem como à determinação de umidade, proteínas, cinzas e lipídeos totais no músculo Longissimus dorsi. As dietas não influenciaram os parâmetros de pH (5,64), cor (L*23,13, a* 18,00, b*15,78), perdas de peso por cocção (34,43%), umidade (72,53%), proteína (24,08%), cinzas (1,09%) e lipídeos (2,99%). A força de cisalhamento diferiu entre as dietas, com a silagem do cultivar BRS 655 propiciando uma carne mais macia (2,10kgf/cm2). As silagens de sorgo utilizadas na confecção das dietas de cordeiros em confinamento não interferem nas características de qualidade da carne de ovinos sem padrão racial definido. Dietas contendo silagem de sorgo granífero BRS 655 proporcionaram uma carne mais macia.(AU)


This study aimed to evaluate the influence of diets containing silage of different sorghum cultivars on the physical and chemical characteristics in the meat of lambs. Thirty five animals of undefined breed with average age between 5 and 7 months and average body weight of 17. 7±3.7kg were used. The lambs were randomly assigned to five treatments (sorghum silage BRS 610, BRS 655, BRS 800, BRS 810 e Ponta Negra) with seven replicates. When they reach 26.24kg of weight, the animals were sent to be slaughtered. Proceeded to the analysis of pH, color, cooking losses, shear force, determination of humidity, protein, ash and total amount of lipids in the Longissimus dorsi. The diets did not influence the parameters of pH (5.64), color (L*23.13, a* 18.00, b*15.78), cooking losses (34.43%), humidity (72.53%), protein (24.08%), ash (1.09%) or lipids (2.99%). The shear force differed among the diets, with the silage of cultivar BRS 655 providing a tender meat (2.10kgf/cm2). The sorghum silages used in in the diets did not interfere in the meat quality characteristics of feedlot lambs. Diets containing sorghum grain silage BRS 655 provided a tender meat.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Carne Vermelha/análise , Ovinos , Silagem/estatística & dados numéricos , Sorghum , Ração Animal/análise , Fenômenos Químicos
10.
Braz. j. biol ; 77(2): 240-243, Apr.-June 2017. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-888763

RESUMO

Abstract Sicalis luteola occurs from Mexico to South America. In the Northeastern Brazilian region its biology, population dynamics and threats are poorly known. The subspecies S. luteola luteiventris apparently migrates northward during austral winter. The specific aims of this work were: 1) to verify the seasonality of the species; 2) to analyze information on molting and breeding, and 3) to check the main threats to this bird in northeastern Brazil. The highest number of records were in March, April, and May (51.12%) and the lowest in November and December (3%).We found a greater population peak in April in the states of Rio Grande do Norte and Ceará, and in April and May in Pernambuco. In Paraíba there was not an apparent seasonal variation in frequency. We captured 66 individuals, all adults, being 38 males and 28 females. 30% of the captured birds showed contour feathers molt, mainly on the head. A total of 23 individuals had brood patch, all being females. Six nests were found and four contained two to three eggs. We found that the main threat is the illegal trade. Our findings may support conservation plans for this bird in the region.


Resumo Sicalis luteola ocorre do México a América do Sul. No Nordeste do Brasil sua biologia, dinâmica populacional e ameaças são pouco conhecidas. A subespécie S. luteola luteiventris aparentemente migra em direção ao norte durante o inverno austral. Os objetivos específicos deste trabalho foram: 1) verificar a sazonalidade da espécie, 2) obter informações referentes a muda e reprodução, e 3) verificar quais as principais ameaças. Os meses com os maiores números de registros foram março, abril e maio (51,12%), enquanto os meses de novembro e dezembro foram os menos representativos (3%). Foi encontrado um grande pico populacional no mês de abril nos estados do Rio Grande do Norte e Ceará, e em abril e maio em Pernambuco. Na Paraíba não houve uma variação sazonal marcante. Foram capturados 66 indivíduos, todos adultos, sendo 38 machos e 28 fêmeas. 30% das aves capturadas apresentaram muda nas penas de contorno, principalmente na cabeça. Um total de 23 indivíduos apresentou placa de incubação, sendo todas fêmeas. Seis ninhos foram encontrados, quatro deles continham dois ou três ovos. A principal ameaça a espécie no Nordeste é o comércio ilegal de aves silvestres. Este trabalho fornece importantes ferramentas para subsidiar planos de conservação para essa ave na região.


Assuntos
Animais , Masculino , Feminino , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Aves Canoras/fisiologia , Traços de História de Vida , Reprodução , Estações do Ano , Brasil , Comércio
11.
Braz J Biol ; 77(2): 240-243, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27579973

RESUMO

Sicalis luteola occurs from Mexico to South America. In the Northeastern Brazilian region its biology, population dynamics and threats are poorly known. The subspecies S. luteola luteiventris apparently migrates northward during austral winter. The specific aims of this work were: 1) to verify the seasonality of the species; 2) to analyze information on molting and breeding, and 3) to check the main threats to this bird in northeastern Brazil. The highest number of records were in March, April, and May (51.12%) and the lowest in November and December (3%).We found a greater population peak in April in the states of Rio Grande do Norte and Ceará, and in April and May in Pernambuco. In Paraíba there was not an apparent seasonal variation in frequency. We captured 66 individuals, all adults, being 38 males and 28 females. 30% of the captured birds showed contour feathers molt, mainly on the head. A total of 23 individuals had brood patch, all being females. Six nests were found and four contained two to three eggs. We found that the main threat is the illegal trade. Our findings may support conservation plans for this bird in the region.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Traços de História de Vida , Aves Canoras/fisiologia , Animais , Brasil , Comércio , Feminino , Masculino , Reprodução , Estações do Ano
12.
Braz. j. biol ; 76(4): 1004-1020, Oct.-Dec. 2016. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-828106

RESUMO

Abstract The Pernambuco Endemism Center in north-east Brazil has the most fragmented forest cover and the largest number of threatened birds of the whole Atlantic Forest. We analyzed the distribution of three groups of bird species: forest-dependent, endemic and/or threatened using the interpolation method of Inverse Distance Weighting. We also checked the concentration of these birds in protected and unprotected areas, suggesting new sites that need to be protected. The richness concentration of forest-dependent, endemic and/or threatened birds in 123 sites were analysed. There was a greater concentration of the three groups in north Alagoas, south and north Pernambuco, and north and west Paraíba. The distribution of the three groups was almost regular in different vegetation types, although a lower concentration was found in the pioneer formation. There was a greater concentration of birds from all three groups between Pernambuco and Alagoas, and this must be due to the presence of more forest fragments with better structure and vegetation heterogeneity. The protected and unprotected areas hosted important records of endemic and/or threatened birds. We suggested some important places for implementation of new protected areas due to the larger concentrations of the target birds and because they are located within the boundaries of the Important Bird Areas.


Resumo O Centro de Endemismo Pernambuco, situado no Nordeste do Brasil, é o setor mais fragmentado e com o maior número de aves ameaçadas de extinção de toda a Mata Atlântica. Foram analisadas as distribuições das aves florestais, endêmicas e/ou ameaçadas de extinção através do método da interpolação ‘Inverse Distance Weighting’. Também foi verificada a concentração dessas aves em áreas protegidas e não protegidas, sugerindo novas áreas que necessitam ser protegidas. Foi verificada a concentração da riqueza das espécies de aves florestais, endêmicas e ameaçadas em 123 locais. Houve uma maior concentração dos três grupos no norte de Alagoas, sul e norte de Pernambuco, e norte e oeste da Paraíba. A distribuição dos três grupos foi regular nos distintos tipos vegetacionais, apesar de uma menor concentração nas áreas de formação pioneira. Houve maior concentração das aves dos três grupos entre Pernambuco e Alagoas, devido, provavelmente a presença de uma maior quantidade de fragmentos florestais com melhor estrutura e heterogeneidade vegetal. Tanto as áreas protegidas como as não protegidas possuem importantes registros de aves endêmicas e ameaçadas. Sugerimos alguns locais importantes para a implementação de novas áreas protegidas, tendo como base as áreas com maiores concentrações dos três grupos de aves e dentro dos limites das Important Bird Areas.


Assuntos
Animais , Aves , Florestas , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Biodiversidade , Brasil
13.
Genet Mol Res ; 15(3)2016 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27706741

RESUMO

Enzymes produced by basidiomycetes that are involved in the cellulose degradation process, and their respective codifying genes, must be identified to facilitate the development of novel biotechnological strategies and applications in the agro-industry. The objective of this study was to identify prospective cellulase-producing genes and characterize their cellulolytic activity, in order to elucidate the potential biotechnological applications (with respect to vegetal residues) of basidiomycetes. The basidiomycete strains Lentinula edodes U8-1, Lentinus crinitus U9-1, and Schizophyllum commune U6-7 were analyzed in this study. The cellulolytic activities of these fungi were evaluated based on the halo formation in carboxymethyl cellulose culture medium after dyeing with Congo red. The presence of cellulase-codifying genes (cel7A, cel6B, cel3A, and egl) in these fungal strains was also evaluated. L. edodes and S. commune presented the highest cellulolytic halo to mycelial growth radius ratio, followed by L. crinitus. Four genes were amplified in the L. edodes strain, whereas three and one genes were isolated from L. crinitus and S. commune, respectively. The cel6B gene (L. edodes) presented the conserved domain glyco_hydro_6 and characterized as cellobiohydrolase gene. The results of this study contribute to the existing knowledge on cellulases in basidiomycetes, and serve as a basis for future studies on the expression of these genes and the characterization of the catalytic activity of these enzymes. This allows for better utilization of these fungi in degrading vegetal fibers from agro-industrial residues and in other biotechnological applications.


Assuntos
Basidiomycota/enzimologia , Biodegradação Ambiental , Celulase/metabolismo , Celulose/metabolismo , Celulase/química , Celulase/genética , Celulose/química
15.
Braz J Biol ; 76(4): 1004-1020, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27355983

RESUMO

The Pernambuco Endemism Center in north-east Brazil has the most fragmented forest cover and the largest number of threatened birds of the whole Atlantic Forest. We analyzed the distribution of three groups of bird species: forest-dependent, endemic and/or threatened using the interpolation method of Inverse Distance Weighting. We also checked the concentration of these birds in protected and unprotected areas, suggesting new sites that need to be protected. The richness concentration of forest-dependent, endemic and/or threatened birds in 123 sites were analysed. There was a greater concentration of the three groups in north Alagoas, south and north Pernambuco, and north and west Paraíba. The distribution of the three groups was almost regular in different vegetation types, although a lower concentration was found in the pioneer formation. There was a greater concentration of birds from all three groups between Pernambuco and Alagoas, and this must be due to the presence of more forest fragments with better structure and vegetation heterogeneity. The protected and unprotected areas hosted important records of endemic and/or threatened birds. We suggested some important places for implementation of new protected areas due to the larger concentrations of the target birds and because they are located within the boundaries of the Important Bird Areas.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Aves , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Florestas , Animais , Brasil
17.
Epidemiol Infect ; 143(4): 791-8, 2015 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25703400

RESUMO

We describe microbiological, clinical and epidemiological aspects of a diphtheria outbreak that occurred in Maranhão, Brazil. The majority of the 27 confirmed cases occurred in partially (n = 16) or completely (n = 10) immunized children (n = 26). Clinical signs and characteristic symptoms of diphtheria such as cervical lymphadenopathy and pseudomembrane formation were absent in 48% and 7% of the cases, respectively. Complications such as paralysis of lower limbs were observed. Three cases resulted in death, two of them in completely immunized children. Microbiological analysis identified the isolates as Corynebacterium diphtheriae biovar intermedius with a predominant PFGE type. Most of them were toxigenic and some showed a decrease in penicillin G susceptibility. In conclusion, diphtheria remains endemic in Brazil. Health professionals need to be aware of the possibility of atypical cases of C. diphtheriae infection, including pharyngitis without pseudomembrane formation.


Assuntos
Difteria/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças , Adolescente , Adulto , Brasil/epidemiologia , Criança , Corynebacterium diphtheriae/efeitos dos fármacos , Difteria/tratamento farmacológico , Difteria/microbiologia , Difteria/patologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Eletroforese em Gel de Campo Pulsado , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Adulto Jovem
18.
Braz. j. morphol. sci ; 30(2): 94-97, 2013. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-699336

RESUMO

Craniofacial bone variations, considered to be radiological landmarks, have been studied since the beginningof the century using dried skulls and cadavers. These pitfalls are important bone landmarks used in theplanning and execution of anesthetic and surgical procedures. The present study analyzed craniofacial bonevariations in dried skulls in terms of gender and laterality. Supraorbital foramen (SOF), mastoid foramen(MF), parietal foramen (PF), accessory oval foramen (aOF), anterior ethmoidal foramen (AEF), intermediateethmoidal foramen (iEF), posterior ethmoidal foramen (PEF), precondylar tubercle (PCT), metopism andsutural bones were assessed in male (n=20) and female (n=11) dried skulls by direct observation and using aMitutoyo caliper. No statistically significant differences were observed between genders as to SOF distancesto the medial nasal prominence and to superior orbital ridge, in both sides of skulls. The same was observedfor distances between FP and sagittal line and between FP and lambdoid suture. No multiple foramina weredetected. aOF was observed in 80.96% of skulls. Right aEF, iEF and PEF prevailed in female skulls. PCT wereseen in 35.5% of female skulls and in 64.5% of male skulls. MF occurrence was higher in right male skulls,and multiple foramina were present in 60% of male skulls (both sides), and in 36.4% of female skulls (bothsides). Only one skull presented sutural bone. No metopism was observed. The identification and recordingof craniofacial variations is important in the preparation of anesthetic blocks in surgical procedures and in theevaluation of regional neurovascular anatomy, to avoid misinterpretations in planning. This study confirms theexistence of significant morphological variations in terms of gender and side in a given population.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Brasil , Crânio/anatomia & histologia , Ossos Faciais/anatomia & histologia , Grupos Populacionais , Neurocirurgia/métodos
19.
Int. j. morphol ; 30(2): 399-404, jun. 2012. ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-651803

RESUMO

The transcondylar approach (TA) has been used in surgeries to access lesions in areas close to the foramen magnum (FM) and is performed directly through the occipital condyle (OC) or through the atlanto-occipital joint and adjacent portions of the same. The objective of this study is to examine anatomical variations related to the TA by morphometric parameters of the FM, OC and of the hypoglossal canal (HC) in dry skulls and in computed tomography (CT). In 111 skulls, characteristics of the HC, and measures related to the FM, the HC and to the OC were examined. In CT, the measurements obtained bilaterally in 10 patients who underwent examination of the skull base in 1 mm-thick axial helical cuts were the distances from the outer half of the clivus to the opening of the HC; from the lower portion of the OC to the middle of HC; from the inner half of the clivus to the intracranial opening of the HC and to the midpoint of the HC; from the HC extracranial opening to the lower portion of the OC and to the outer half of the clivus. The results of CT measurements are consistent to previous studies of morphometric variations related to the TA, with no significant difference between the measurements obtained in the right and in the left sides, or related to gender. The data obtained by three-dimensional CT images are important in assessing the morphometric variations of pre-surgical patientsof TA.


El acceso transcondilar (AT)ha sido utilizado comoun procedimiento quirúrgico para lesiones cercanas al foramen magnum(FM)y se realizadirectamente a través delcóndilooccipital (CO)o por medio delas porciones atlanto-occipitalconjuntay adyacentesde lamisma.El objetivo del presenteestudio fue examinarlas variaciones anatómicas relacionadas con el AT mediantelos parámetros morfométricos del FM, CO y el canal delhipogloso (CH) en cráneossecos y tomografía computadorizada (CT). En 111 cráneos fueron examinadas las característicasdel CH y tomadas medidas relacionadas con el FM, CO y CH. En la CT, las mediciones se obtuvieron de forma bilateral en10 pacientes que se sometieron a exámen de la base del cráneo en corte axial helicoidal de 1mm de espesor. Las medidas tomadas fueron las distancias: de la mitad exterior del clivus a la apertura del CH; de la parte inferior de las emisiones de CO a la mitad del CH; de la mitad interna del clivus a la apertura intracraneal del CH y hasta el punto medio del CH; de la apertura extracraneal del CH a la parte inferior de las emisiones de CO y hasta la mitad exterior del clivus. Los resultados de las mediciones de CT son consistentes con estudios prévios de los cambios morfométricos en relación con AT, sin diferencia significativa entre las mediciones obtenidas en el lado derecho e izquierdo y ni en relación con el sexo. Los datos obtenidos a través de imágenes en tres dimensiones de CT son importantes para evaluarlas variaciones morfométricas de pre-quirúrgicos en el AT.


Assuntos
Feminino , Côndilo Mandibular/anatomia & histologia , Forame Magno/anatomia & histologia , Cefalometria , Côndilo Mandibular , Forame Magno , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
20.
Int. j. morphol ; 29(2): 420-423, June 2011. ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: lil-597468

RESUMO

The greater palatine foramen (GPF) conducts the greater palatine nerve, responsible for the innervation of the posterior hard palate. The morphometric knowledge of the GPF is essential in the anesthetic interventions required in maxillofacial surgical procedures. The aim of this study was to evaluate the location and shape of the GPF in dry skulls of adults from Southern Brazil. Male (n = 65) and female (n = 29) skulls were studied, and the distance measurements from the middle of the GPF to the mid-sagittal plane (MSP) and to the posterior border of the hard palate (PBHP) were analyzed using a digital caliper and a ruler. The mean GPF-MSP distance in the right and in left sides of male skulls were 15.6 mm and 15.4 mm, respectively, and in female skulls, 15.63 mm in the right side and 15.47 mm in the left. The mean GPF-PBHP distance on the right side was 3.5 mm in male skulls, and 3.1 mm in female skulls, and on the left side, 3.6 mm and 3.2 mm in male and female skulls, respectively. Student's t-test showed no significant difference in the GPF-MSP and GPF-PBHP mean distances when compared to gender and to the left and right sides. The predominant GPF shape was ovoid, followed by lancet or slit, and round. This study provides comparisons of ethnic data, which may help clinically in oral and maxillofacial anesthesia.


El foramen palatino mayor (FPM) da paso al nervio palatino mayor, responsable por la inervación de la región posterior del paladar. El conocimiento morfométrico del FPM es importante en las intervenciones anestésicas requeridas durante los procedimientos quirúrgicos maxilofaciales. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar la ubicación y la forma del FPM en cráneos de individuos adultos del Sur de Brasil. Se estudiaron 65 cráneos de hombres y 29 de mujeres, midiéndose la distancia desde el centro del FPM al plano mediano (PM) y al margen posterior del paladar duro (MPPD), utilizándose un cáliper digital y una regla milimétrica. La distancia promedio de FPM-PM en los lados derecho e izquierdo de los cráneos de hombres fue de 15,6 mm y 15,4 mm, respectivamente, y en los cráneos de mujeres, fue de 15,63 mm en el lado derecho y 15,47 mm en el izquierdo. La distancia media de FPM-MPPD en el lado derecho fue de 3,5 mm en cráneos de hombres y 3,1 mm en cráneos de mujeres y en el lado izquierdo de 3,6 mm y 3,2 mm en cráneos de hombres y mujeres, respectivamente. La prueba t de Student no mostró diferencias significativas en los promedios de las dos distancias (FPM-PM y FPM-MPPD), comparando sexos y lados. La forma ovoide del FPM fue predominante, seguida de las formas de hendidura y redonda. Este estudio proporciona comparaciones de datos étnicos, que pueden ayudar a la clínica en anestesia oral y maxilofacial.

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