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1.
J Pediatr ; 2019 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31493909

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe the long-term neurodevelopmental and cognitive outcomes for children born preterm. STUDY DESIGN: In this retrospective cohort study, information on children born in Western Australia between 1983 and 2010 was obtained through linkage to population databases on births, deaths, and disabilities. For the purpose of this study, disability was defined as a diagnosis of intellectual disability, autism, or cerebral palsy. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to estimate the probability of disability-free survival up to age 25 years by gestational age. The effect of covariates and predicted survival was examined using parametric survival models. RESULTS: Of the 720 901 recorded live births, 12 083 children were diagnosed with disability, and 5662 died without any disability diagnosis. The estimated probability of disability-free survival to 25 years was 4.1% for those born at gestational age 22 weeks, 19.7% for those born at 23 weeks, 42.4% for those born at 24 weeks, 53.0% for those born at 25 weeks, 78.3% for those born at 28 weeks, and 97.2% for those born full term (39-41 weeks). There was substantial disparity in the predicted probability of disability-free survival for children born at all gestational ages by birth profile, with 5-year estimates of 4.9% and 10.4% among Aboriginal and Caucasian populations, respectively, born at 24-27 weeks and considered at high risk (based on low Apgar score, male sex, low sociodemographic status, and remote region of residence) and 91.2% and 93.3%, respectively, for those at low risk (ie, high Apgar score, female sex, high sociodemographic status, residence in a major city). CONCLUSIONS: Apgar score, birth weight, sex, socioeconomic status, and maternal ethnicity, in addition to gestational age, have pronounced impacts on disability-free survival.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31405087

RESUMO

Vitamin D deficiency (serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations <50 nmol/L) is a public health issue in Australia and internationally. Those with darker skin require a greater dose of ultraviolet B radiation from sunlight than those with paler skin to synthesise adequate amounts of vitamin D. Using data from the 2011-2013 Australian Health Survey, we investigated the prevalence and predictors of vitamin D deficiency in African immigrants aged ≥18 years living in Australia (n = 236). Serum 25(OH)D was measured using a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method that is certified to international reference measurement procedures. Poisson regression was used to investigate independent predictors of vitamin D deficiency. A total of 36% of adults were vitamin D deficient (35% of men, 37% of women). The prevalence ratio (PR) of vitamin D deficiency decreased by 2% per year of age (PR 0.98; 95% CI (0.97, 0.99); p = 0.004) and was 1.6 times higher in those with low/sedentary, compared to moderate/high, physical activity levels (PR 1.64; 95% CI (1.12, 2.39); p = 0.011). The greatest risk was for those assessed during winter/spring compared with summer/autumn (PR 1.89; 95% CI (1.33, 2.64); p < 0.001). Culturally appropriate messaging on safe sun exposure and dietary vitamin D is warranted in order to promote vitamin D sufficiency in African immigrants living in Australia.

3.
Eur J Clin Nutr ; 2019 Aug 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31395972

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The evidence for diet as a risk factor for multiple sclerosis (MS) is inconclusive. We examined the associations between fish consumption and risk of a first clinical diagnosis of central nervous system demyelination (FCD), a common precursor to MS. METHODS: The 2003-2006 Ausimmune Study was a case-control study examining environmental risk factors for FCD, with participants recruited from four regions of Australia and matched on age, sex, and study region. Dietary intake data were collected using a food frequency questionnaire. We used conditional logistic regression models to test associations between fish consumption (total, tinned, grilled, and fried) and risk of FCD (249 cases and 438 controls), adjusting for history of infectious mononucleosis, smoking, serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations, socio-economic status, omega-3 supplement use, dietary under-reporting, and total energy intake. RESULTS: Higher total fish consumption (per 30 g/day, equivalent to two serves/week) was associated with an 18% reduced risk of FCD (AOR 0.82; 95% CI 0.70, 0.97). While we found no statistically significant associations between grilled and fried fish consumption and risk of FCD, higher tinned fish consumption (per 30 g/day) was associated with a 41% reduced risk of FCD (AOR 0.59; 95% CI 0.39, 0.89). CONCLUSIONS: Tinned fish is predominantly oily, whereas grilled and fried fish are likely to be a combination of oily and white types. Oily fish is high in vitamin D and very long chain polyunsaturated omega-3 fatty acids, both of which may be beneficial in relation to MS.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31344807

RESUMO

Indigenous children have much higher rates of ear and lung disease than non-Indigenous children, which may be related to exposure to high levels of geogenic (earth-derived) particulate matter (PM). The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between dust levels and health in Indigenous children in Western Australia (W.A.). Data were from a population-based sample of 1077 Indigenous children living in 66 remote communities of W.A. (>2,000,000 km2), with information on health outcomes derived from carer reports and hospitalisation records. Associations between dust levels and health outcomes were assessed by multivariate logistic regression in a multi-level framework. We assessed the effect of exposure to community sampled PM on epithelial cell (NuLi-1) responses to non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) in vitro. High dust levels were associated with increased odds of hospitalisation for upper (OR 1.77 95% CI [1.02-3.06]) and lower (OR 1.99 95% CI [1.08-3.68]) respiratory tract infections and ear disease (OR 3.06 95% CI [1.20-7.80]). Exposure to PM enhanced NTHi adhesion and invasion of epithelial cells and impaired IL-8 production. Exposure to geogenic PM may be contributing to the poor respiratory health of disadvantaged communities in arid environments where geogenic PM levels are high.

6.
BMJ Open ; 9(6): e030277, 2019 Jun 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31227542

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Pregnant women and infants are at risk of severe influenza and pertussis infection. Inactivated influenza vaccine (IIV) and diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis vaccine (dTpa) are recommended during pregnancy to protect both mothers and infants. In Australia, uptake is not routinely monitored but coverage appears sub-optimal. Evidence on the safety of combined antenatal IIV and dTpa is fragmented or deficient, and there remain knowledge gaps of population-level vaccine effectiveness. We aim to establish a large, population-based, multi-jurisdictional cohort of mother-infant pairs to measure the uptake, safety and effectiveness of antenatal IIV and dTpa vaccines in three Australian jurisdictions. This is a first step toward assessing the impact of antenatal vaccination programmes in Australia, which can then inform government policy with respect to future strategies in national vaccination programmes. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: 'Links2HealthierBubs' is an observational, population-based, retrospective cohort study established through probabilistic record linkage of administrative health data. The cohort includes births between 2012 and 2017 (~607 605 mother-infant pairs) in jurisdictions with population-level antenatal vaccination and health outcome data (Western Australia, Queensland and the Northern Territory). Perinatal data will be the reference frame to identify the cohort. Jurisdictional vaccination registers will identify antenatal vaccination status and the gestational timing of vaccination. Information on maternal, fetal and child health outcomes will be obtained from hospitalisation and emergency department records, notifiable diseases databases, developmental anomalies databases, birth and mortality registers. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethical approval was obtained from the Western Australian Department of Health, Curtin University, the Menzies School of Health Research, the Royal Brisbane and Women's Hospital, and the West Australian Aboriginal Health Ethics Committees. Research findings will be disseminated in peer-reviewed journals, at scientific meetings, and may be incorporated into communication materials for public health agencies and the public.

7.
J Nutr ; 149(8): 1385-1392, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31131415

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The evidence associating diet and risk of multiple sclerosis (MS) is inconclusive. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate associations between a Mediterranean diet and risk of a first clinical diagnosis of central nervous system demyelination (FCD), a common precursor to MS. METHODS: We used data from the 2003-2006 Ausimmune Study, an Australian multicenter, case-control study examining environmental risk factors for FCD, with participants matched on age, sex, and study region (282 cases, 558 controls; 18-59 y old; 78% female). The alternate Mediterranean diet score (aMED) was calculated based on data from a food-frequency questionnaire. We created a modified version of the aMED (aMED-Red) where ∼1 daily serving (65 g) of unprocessed red meat received 1 point. All other components remained the same as aMED. Conditional logistic regression (254 cases, 451 controls) was used to test associations between aMED and aMED-Red scores and categories and risk of FCD, adjusting for history of infectious mononucleosis, serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations, smoking, education, total energy intake, and dietary underreporting. RESULTS: There was no statistically significant association between aMED and risk of FCD [per 1-SD increase in aMED score: adjusted odds ratio (aOR): 0.89; 95% CI: 0.75, 1.06; P = 0.181]. There was evidence of a nonlinear relation between aMED-Red and risk of FCD when a quadratic term was used (P = 0.016). Compared with the lowest category of aMED-Red, higher categories were significantly associated with reduced risk of FCD, corresponding to a 37% (aOR: 0.63; 95% CI: 0.41, 0.98; P = 0.039), 52% (aOR: 0.48; 95% CI: 0.28, 0.83; P = 0.009), and 42% (aOR: 0.58; 95% CI: 0.35, 0.96; P = 0.034) reduced risk of FCD in categories 2, 3, and 4, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: A Mediterranean diet, including unprocessed red meat, was associated with reduced risk of FCD in this Australian adult population. The addition of unprocessed red meat to a Mediterranean diet may be beneficial for those at high risk of MS.

8.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 514, 2019 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31060533

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recently, exploratory spatial data analysis is for problem solving, hypothesis generation and knowledge construction. Unless geographically weighted regression, sophisticated spatial regression models best control spatial heterogeneity in outcomes and the associated risk factors but cannot visually display and identify areas of the significant associations. The under-utilised excess risk maps (ERMs) and conditioned choropleth maps (CCMs) are useful to address this issue and simplify epidemiological information to public health stakeholders without much statistical backgrounds. Using malaria and sociodemographic determinants in Ghana as case study, this paper applied ERM and CCM techniques for identification of areas at elevated risk of disease-risk factor co-location. METHOD: We computed and smoothed mean district-specific malaria incidences for the period 2010 to 2014 as a function of sociodemographic determinants. The spatial distribution of malaria was investigated through global and local spatial autocorrelations, and the association with sociodemographic risk factors evaluated with bivariate correlations. ERMs and CCMs were produced for the statistically significant risk factors. RESULTS: The incidence of malaria increased over time with cluster locations detected, predominantly at the northern parts but later few spread to the middle parts of the country. Our results suggested that with respect to sociodemographic determinants, district variations in malaria rates might be explained by inequalities in seven sociodemographics, including an unexpected significant negative association with non-religious affiliation. The sociodemographics had positive spatial autocorrelations, exhibited statistically significant interactions and the strongest was observed in urbanisation-basic education correlation (p< 0.01, r = +0.969). The ERMs and CCMs specifically identified locations with lower or higher than expected rates with respect to particular risk factor(s) where improving risk factor(s) such as employment-to-population ratio in rural areas, basic education could have cascade effects to reduce the expected malaria incidence in endemic areas. CONCLUSION: Ghana remains malaria hyperendemic region with district-level spatial heterogeneity. Significant association between malaria and sociodemographics was detected and the ERMs and CCMs geo-visually pinpointed locations of these significant associations. To complement sophisticated spatial regression models, the easily interpretable ERMs and CCMs could be used to specify where disease-risk factor associations are significant, simplifying complex spatial epidemiological information for efficient public health administration.


Assuntos
Mapeamento Geográfico , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Malária/epidemiologia , Gana/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Análise Espacial , Regressão Espacial
10.
Lancet ; 393(10180): 1527-1535, 2019 Apr 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30827781

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: WHO recommends that women wait at least 2 years after a livebirth and at least 6 months after a miscarriage or induced abortion before conceiving again, to reduce the risk of adverse birth outcomes in the subsequent pregnancy. No recommendation exists for the optimal interval after a stillbirth. We investigated the association between interpregnancy interval after stillbirth and birth outcomes in the subsequent pregnancy. METHODS: In this international cohort study, we used data from birth records from Finland (1987-2016), Norway (1980-2015), and Western Australia (1980-2015). Consecutive singleton pregnancies in women whose most recent pregnancy had ended in stillbirth of at least 22 weeks' gestation were included in the analysis. Interpregnancy interval was defined as the time between the end of pregnancy (delivery date) and the start of the next pregnancy (delivery date of next pregnancy minus gestational age at birth). We calculated odds ratios (ORs) for stillbirth, preterm birth, and small-for-gestational-age birth by interpregnancy interval by country, adjusted for maternal age, parity, decade of delivery, and gestational length of the previous pregnancy. A fixed-effects meta-analysis was used to estimate pooled ORs. FINDINGS: We identified 14 452 births in women who had a stillbirth in the previous pregnancy; median interpregnancy interval after stillbirth was 9 months (IQR 4-19). 9109 (63%) women conceived within 12 months of the stillbirth. Of the 14 452 births, 228 (2%) were stillbirths, 2532 (18%) were preterm births, and 1284 (9%) were small-for-gestational-age births. Compared with an interpregnancy interval of 24-59 months, intervals shorter than 12 months were not associated with increased odds of subsequent stillbirth (pooled adjusted OR 1·09 [95% CI 0·63-1·91] for <6 months; 0·90 [0·47-1·71] for 6-11 months), preterm birth (0·91 [0·75-1·11] for <6 months; 0·91 [0·74-1·11] for 6-11 months), or small-for-gestational-age birth (0·66 [0·51-0·85] for <6 months; 0·64 [0·48-0·84] for 6-11 months). Further, we noted no difference in the association between interpregnancy interval and birth outcomes by gestational length of the previous stillbirth. INTERPRETATION: Conception within 12 months of a stillbirth was common and was not associated with increased risk of adverse outcomes in the subsequent pregnancy. These findings could be used when counselling women who are planning future pregnancies after a stillbirth and for informing future recommendations for pregnancy spacing in a high-income setting. FUNDING: National Health and Medical Research Council (Australia), and Research Council of Norway.


Assuntos
Intervalo entre Nascimentos , Internacionalidade , Complicações na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Natimorto , Austrália , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Finlândia , Humanos , Noruega , Gravidez
11.
Emerg Med Australas ; 2019 Mar 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30827060

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe the characteristics and outcomes of older adult (≥65 years) major trauma patients in comparison with younger adults (16-64 years). To determine whether older age is associated with a reduced likelihood of transport (directly or indirectly) to a major trauma centre and whether this is associated with in-hospital mortality. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study of major trauma patients transported to hospital by St John Ambulance paramedics in Perth, Western Australia, between 1 January 2013 and 31 December 2016. Multivariate logistic regression was used to test the relationship between age and major trauma centre transport. Multivariate logistic regression analysis using inverse probability of treatment weighting was used to determine if major trauma centre transport was associated with in-hospital mortality in older adults. RESULTS: One thousand six hundred and twenty-five patients were included; of these 576 (35%) were ≥65 years. In comparison with younger adults, older adults had more falls as their mechanism of injury (n = 358 [62%] versus n = 102 [10%], P ≤ 0.001) and more major head injuries (n = 472 [82%] versus n = 609 [58%], P ≤ 0.001). Older adults had lower odds (adjusted odds ratio 0.52, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.35-0.78) of major trauma centre transport and this was associated with 1.7 times the likelihood of in-hospital mortality (95% CI 1.04-2.7). CONCLUSIONS: Older adults who were not transported to the trauma centre had an increased odds of in-hospital mortality. However, older age was associated with a significantly reduced likelihood of trauma centre transport. With the aging population, the development of specific prehospital triage criteria to enable the complexities of this higher-risk population to be identified is important.

12.
BMJ Open ; 9(1): e027941, 2019 Jan 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30700492

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Short interpregnancy interval (IPI) has been linked to adverse pregnancy outcomes. WHO recommends waiting at least 2 years after a live birth and 6 months after miscarriage or induced termination before conception of another pregnancy. The evidence underpinning these recommendations largely relies on data from low/middle-income countries. Furthermore, recent epidemiological investigations have suggested that these studies may overestimate the effects of IPI due to residual confounding. Future investigations of IPI effects in high-income countries drawing from large, population-based data sources are needed to inform IPI recommendations. We aim to assess the impact of IPIs on maternal and child health outcomes in high-income countries. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This international longitudinal retrospective cohort study will include more than 18 million pregnancies, making it the largest study to investigate IPI in high-income countries. Population-based data from Australia, Finland, Norway and USA will be used. Birth records in each country will be used to identify consecutive pregnancies. Exact dates of birth and clinical best estimates of gestational length will be used to estimate IPI. Administrative birth and health data sources with >99% coverage in each country will be used to identify maternal sociodemographics, pregnancy complications, details of labour and delivery, birth and child health information. We will use matched and unmatched regression models to investigate the impact of IPI on maternal and infant outcomes, and conduct meta-analysis to pool results across countries. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethics boards at participating sites approved this research (approval was not required in Finland). Findings will be published in peer-reviewed journals and presented at international conferences, and will inform recommendations for optimal IPI in high-income countries. Findings will provide important information for women and families planning future pregnancies and for clinicians providing prenatal care and giving guidance on family planning.

13.
Prehosp Emerg Care ; : 1-24, 2018 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30462550

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the association between prehospital time and outcomes in adult major trauma patients, transported by ambulance paramedics. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study of major trauma patients (Injury Severity Score >15) attended by St John Ambulance paramedics in Perth, Western Australia, who were transported to hospital between 1st January 2013 and 31st December 2016. Inverse probability of treatment weighting (IPTW) using the propensity score was performed to limit selection bias and confounding. The primary outcome was 30-day mortality and the secondary outcome was the length of hospital stay (LOS) for 30-day survivors. Multivariate logistic and log-linear regression analyses with IPTW were used to determine if prehospital time of more than the one hour (from receipt of the emergency call to arrival at hospital) or any individual prehospital time interval (response, on-scene, transport or total time) was associated with 30-day mortality or LOS. RESULTS: A total of 1,625 major trauma patients were included and 1,553 included in the IPTW sample. No significant association between prehospital time of one hour and 30-day mortality was found (adjusted odds ratio 1.10, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.71-1.69). No association between any individual prehospital time interval and 30-day mortality was identified. In the 30-day survivors, one-minute increase of on-scene time was associated with 1.16 times (95% CI 1.03-1.31) longer LOS. CONCLUSION: Longer prehospital times were not associated with an increased likelihood of 30-day mortality in major trauma patients transported to hospital by ambulance paramedics. We found no evidence to support the hypothesis that prehospital time longer than one hour resulted in an increased risk of 30-day mortality. However, longer on-scene time was associated with longer hospital LOS (for 30-day survivors). Our recommendation is that prehospital care is delivered in a timely fashion and delivery of the patient to hospital is reasonably prompt.

14.
Environ Sci Technol ; 2018 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30277062

RESUMO

Australia has relatively diverse sources and low concentrations of ambient fine particulate matter (<2.5 µm, PM2.5). Few comparable regions are available to evaluate the utility of continental-scale land-use regression (LUR) models including global geophysical estimates of PM2.5, derived by relating satellite-observed aerosol optical depth to ground-level PM2.5 ('SAT-PM2.5'). We aimed to determine the validity of such satellite-based LUR models for PM2.5 in Australia. We used global SAT-PM2.5 estimates (~10 km grid) and local land-use predictors to develop four LUR models for year-2015 (two satellite-based, two non-satellite-based). We evaluated model performance at 51 independent monitoring sites not used for model development. An LUR model that included the SAT-PM2.5 predictor variable (and six others) explained the most spatial variability in PM2.5 (adjusted R2 = 0.63, RMSE (µg/m3 [%]): 0.96 [14%]). Performance decreased modestly when evaluated (evaluation R2 = 0.52, RMSE: 1.15 [16%]). The evaluation R2 of the SAT-PM2.5 estimate alone was 0.26 (RMSE: 3.97 [56%]). SAT-PM2.5 estimates improved LUR model performance, while local land-use predictors increased the utility of global SAT-PM2.5 estimates, including enhanced characterization of within-city gradients. Our findings support the validity of continental-scale satellite-based LUR modeling for PM2.5 exposure assessment in Australia.

15.
Am J Epidemiol ; 2018 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30188970

RESUMO

The association between a single interpregnancy interval (IPI) on birth outcomes has not yet been explored using matched methods. We modelled the odds of preterm birth, small-for-gestational age and low birthweight in a second, liveborn infant in a cohort of 192,041 sibling pairs born in Western Australia between 1980 and 2010. The association between IPI and birth outcomes was estimated from the interaction between birth order and IPI (with 18-23 months as the reference category), using conditional logistic regression. Matched analysis showed the odds of preterm birth were higher for siblings born following an IPI <6 month (adjusted Interaction Odds Ratio [IOR]: 1.22; 95% CI: 1.06, 1.38) compared with 18-23 month IPI. There were no significant differences for IPI <6 months for other outcomes (small-for-gestational age or low birthweight). This is the first study to use matched analyses to investigate the association between a single IPI on birth outcomes. IPI <6 months were associated with increased odds of preterm birth in secondborn infants, although the association is likely smaller than previously estimated by unmatched studies.

17.
J Arthroplasty ; 33(12): 3783-3788, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30224099

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Periprosthetic joint infections (PJIs) are fraught with multiple complications including poor patient-reported outcomes, disability, reinfection, disarticulation, and even death. We sought to perform a systematic review asking the question: (1) What is the mortality rate of a PJI of the knee undergoing 2-stage revision for infection? (2) Has this rate improved over time? (3) How does this compare to a normal cohort of individuals? METHODS: We performed a database search in MEDLINE/EMBASE, PubMed, and all relevant reference studies using the following keywords: "periprosthetic joint infection," "mortality rates," "total knee arthroplasty," and "outcomes after two stage revision." Two hundred forty-two relevant studies and citations were identified, and 14 studies were extracted and included in the review. RESULTS: A total of 20,719 patients underwent 2-stage revision for total knee PJI. Average age was 66 years. Mean mortality percentage reported was 14.4% (1.7%-34.0%) with average follow-up 3.8 years (0.25-9 years). One-year mortality rate was 4.33% (3.14%-5.51%) after total knee PJI with an increase of 3.13% per year mortality thereafter (r = 0.76 [0.49, 0.90], P < .001). Five-year mortality was 21.64%. When comparing the national age-adjusted mortality (Actuarial Life Table) and the reported 1-year mortality risk in this meta-analysis, the risk of death after total knee PJI is significantly increased, with an odds ratio of 3.05 (95% confidence interval, 2.69-3.44; P < .001). CONCLUSION: The mortality rate after 2-stage total knee revision for infection is very high. When counseling a patient regarding complications of this disease, death should be discussed.

18.
Lancet Child Adolesc Health ; 2(10): 736-743, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30236382

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The male genital anomalies hypospadias and undescended testes have been linked to adult male reproductive disorders, testicular cancer, and decreased fertility. Few population-based studies have evaluated their effects on adult fertility outcomes and, in the case of undescended testes, the importance of early corrective surgery (orchidopexy). METHODS: We did a population-based cohort study of all liveborn boys in Western Australia in 1970-99, and followed them up until 2016 via data linkage to registries for hospital admissions, congenital anomalies, cancer, and assisted reproductive technologies (ART). Study factors were hypospadias or undescended testes, and study outcomes were testicular cancer, paternity, and use of ART for male infertility. Cox regression was used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) for the associations between genital anomalies and testicular cancer or paternity, and log-binomial regression was used to calculate relative risks (RRs) for the associations between genital anomalies and use of ART. FINDINGS: The cohort comprised 350 835 boys, of whom 2484 (0·7%) had been diagnosed with hypospadias and 7499 (2·1%) with undescended testes. There were 505 (0·1%) cases of testicular cancer, 109 471 (31·2%) men had fathered children, and 2682 (0·8%) had undergone fertility treatment with ART. Undescended testes was associated with a more than two times increase in risk of testicular cancer (HR 2·43, 95% CI 1·65-3·58) and hypospadias with an almost 40% increase (1·37, 0·51-3·67), although this increase was not significant. Both hypospadias and undescended testes were associated with a 21% reduction in paternity (adjusted HR 0·79 [95% CI 0·71-0·89] for hypospadias and 0·79 [0·74-0·85] for undescended testes). Undescended testes was associated with a two times increase in use of ART (adjusted RR 2·26, 95% CI 1·58-3·25). For every 6 months' delay in orchidopexy, there was a 6% increase in risk of testicular cancer (HR 1·06, 95% CI 1·03-1·08), a 5% increase in risk of future use of ART (1·05, 1·03-1·08), and a 1% reduction in paternity (RR 0·99, 95% CI 0·98-0·99). INTERPRETATION: Undescended testes is associated with an increased risk of testicular cancer and male infertility, and decreased paternity. We provide new evidence to support current guidelines for orchidopexy before age 18 months to decrease the risk of future testicular cancer and infertility. FUNDING: National Health and Medical Research Council and Sydney Medical School Foundation.

19.
BMJ Open ; 8(8): e025008, 2018 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30082369

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Interpregnancy interval (IPI) is the length of time between a birth and conception of the next pregnancy. Evidence suggests that both short and long IPIs are at increased risk of adverse pregnancy and perinatal outcomes. Relatively less attention has been directed towards investigating the effect of IPI on pregnancy complications, and the studies that have been conducted have shown mixed results.This systematic review will aim to provide an update to the most recent available evidence on the effect of IPI on pregnancy complications. METHOD AND ANALYSIS: We will search electronic databases such as Ovid/MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, Scopus, Web of Science and PubMed to identify peer-reviewed articles on the effects of IPI on pregnancy complications. We will include articles published from start of indexing until 12 February 2018 without any restriction to geographic setting. We will limit the search to literature published in English language and human subjects. Two independent reviewers will screen titles and abstracts and select full-text articles that meet the eligibility criteria. The Newcastle-Ottawa tool will be used to assess quality of observational studies. Where data permit, meta-analyses will be performed for individual pregnancy complications. A subgroup analyses by country categories (high-income vs low and middle-income countries) based on World Bank income group will be performed. Where meta-analysis is not possible, we will provide a description of data without further attempt to quantitatively pool results. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Formal ethical approval is not required as primary data will not be collected. The results will be published in peer-reviewed journals and presented at national and international conferences. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42018088578.

20.
Mult Scler ; : 1352458518793524, 2018 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30084751

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The evidence associating diet and risk of multiple sclerosis is inconclusive. OBJECTIVE: We investigated associations between dietary patterns and risk of a first clinical diagnosis of central nervous system demyelination, a common precursor to multiple sclerosis. METHODS: We used data from the 2003-2006 Ausimmune Study, a case-control study examining environmental risk factors for a first clinical diagnosis of central nervous system demyelination, with participants matched on age, sex and study region. Using data from a food frequency questionnaire, dietary patterns were identified using principal component analysis. Conditional logistic regression models ( n = 698, 252 cases, 446 controls) were adjusted for history of infectious mononucleosis, serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations, smoking, race, education, body mass index and dietary misreporting. RESULTS: We identified two major dietary patterns - healthy (high in poultry, fish, eggs, vegetables, legumes) and Western (high in meat, full-fat dairy; low in wholegrains, nuts, fresh fruit, low-fat dairy), explaining 9.3% and 7.5% of variability in diet, respectively. A one-standard deviation increase in the healthy pattern score was associated with a 25% reduced risk of a first clinical diagnosis of central nervous system demyelination (adjusted odds ratio 0.75; 95% confidence interval 0.60, 0.94; p = 0.011). There was no statistically significant association between the Western dietary pattern and risk of a first clinical diagnosis of central nervous system demyelination. CONCLUSION: Following healthy eating guidelines may be beneficial for those at high risk of multiple sclerosis.

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