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1.
Genome Biol Evol ; 13(9)2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34480555

RESUMO

The Arabian Peninsula is strategic for investigations centered on the early structuring of modern humans in the wake of the out-of-Africa migration. Despite its poor climatic conditions for the recovery of ancient human DNA evidence, the availability of both genomic data from neighboring ancient specimens and informative statistical tools allow modeling the ancestry of local modern populations. We applied this approach to a data set of 741,000 variants screened in 291 Arabians and 78 Iranians, and obtained insightful evidence. The west-east axis was a strong forcer of population structure in the Peninsula, and, more importantly, there were clear continuums throughout time linking western Arabia with the Levant, and eastern Arabia with Iran and the Caucasus. Eastern Arabians also displayed the highest levels of the basal Eurasian lineage of all tested modern-day populations, a signal that was maintained even after correcting for a possible bias due to a recent sub-Saharan African input in their genomes. Not surprisingly, eastern Arabians were also the ones with highest similarity with Iberomaurusians, who were, so far, the best proxy for the basal Eurasians amongst the known ancient specimens. The basal Eurasian lineage is the signature of ancient non-Africans who diverged from the common European-eastern Asian pool before 50,000 years ago, prior to the later interbred with Neanderthals. Our results appear to indicate that the exposed basin of the Arabo-Persian Gulf was the possible home of basal Eurasians, a scenario to be further investigated by searching ancient Arabian human specimens.

2.
Viruses ; 13(8)2021 08 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34452405

RESUMO

Transcriptomics, proteomics and pathogen-host interactomics data are being explored for the in silico-informed selection of drugs, prior to their functional evaluation. The effectiveness of this kind of strategy has been put to the test in the current COVID-19 pandemic, and it has been paying off, leading to a few drugs being rapidly repurposed as treatment against SARS-CoV-2 infection. Several neglected tropical diseases, for which treatment remains unavailable, would benefit from informed in silico investigations of drugs, as performed in this work for Dengue fever disease. We analyzed transcriptomic data in the key tissues of liver, spleen and blood profiles and verified that despite transcriptomic differences due to tissue specialization, the common mechanisms of action, "Adrenergic receptor antagonist", "ATPase inhibitor", "NF-kB pathway inhibitor" and "Serotonin receptor antagonist", were identified as druggable (e.g., oxprenolol, digoxin, auranofin and palonosetron, respectively) to oppose the effects of severe Dengue infection in these tissues. These are good candidates for future functional evaluation and clinical trials.


Assuntos
Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Dengue/tratamento farmacológico , Transcriptoma , Adenosina Trifosfatases/antagonistas & inibidores , Antagonistas Adrenérgicos/farmacologia , Antagonistas Adrenérgicos/uso terapêutico , Antivirais/farmacologia , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Simulação por Computador , Dengue/sangue , Dengue/genética , Dengue/metabolismo , Descoberta de Drogas , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos , Reposicionamento de Medicamentos , Humanos , Fígado/metabolismo , Redes e Vias Metabólicas/efeitos dos fármacos , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Antagonistas da Serotonina/farmacologia , Antagonistas da Serotonina/uso terapêutico , Dengue Grave/sangue , Dengue Grave/tratamento farmacológico , Dengue Grave/genética , Dengue Grave/metabolismo , Baço/metabolismo
3.
Viruses ; 13(6)2021 06 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34200621

RESUMO

Field epidemiology and viral sequencing provide a comprehensive characterization of transmission chains and allow a better identification of superspreading events. However, very few examples have been presented to date during the COVID-19 pandemic. We studied the first COVID-19 cluster detected in Portugal (59 individuals involved amongst extended family and work environments), following the return of four related individuals from work trips to Italy. The first patient to introduce the virus would be misidentified following the traditional field inquiry alone, as shown by the viral sequencing in isolates from 23 individuals. The results also pointed out family, and not work environment, as the primary mode of transmission.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/transmissão , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , SARS-CoV-2/genética , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Família , Genoma Viral , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Filogenia , Portugal/epidemiologia , RNA Viral/genética , SARS-CoV-2/classificação , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Doença Relacionada a Viagens , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
4.
Gastrointest Endosc ; 94(1): 202-205, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34148576
5.
Pediatr Pulmonol ; 56(8): 2776-2779, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34102041

RESUMO

Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) is genetically and clinically heterogeneous. CCNO mutations are associated with chronic destructive lung disease and were first described in 2014. Early reports suggest that CCNO is mutated more frequently than expected, however, these are considered rare. We report on three eleven-year-old children with PCD due to CCNO mutations. All children presented early-onset respiratory symptoms, no cardiac or situs anomalies and moderate to severe clinical courses. Patients 1 and 3 were admitted to a neonatal intensive care unit due to respiratory distress. Patients 1 and 2 had atelectasis and lobar collapse, for which lobectomy was performed for patient 1. Patient 3 also presented otitis media with effusion with conductive hearing loss, requiring tympanostomy tube insertion twice. Diagnosis of PCD for all three required repeated nasal brushings, delaying diagnostic confirmation. Microscopy analysis revealed severely decreased numbers of cilia, but normal ultrastructure and uncoordinated beat pattern in the residual cilia. Surprisingly, the prevalence of pathogenic CCNO variants in our centre is higher than expected (three out of sixteen patients). Pathogenic variants in PCD-causing genes lead to specific ultrastructural defects, and there is a suggestion for genotype-phenotype association. However, there are little longitudinal data evaluating the impact of specific defects on disease progression, but a recent study showed a worse lung disease and poorer nutritional status. Concluding, this report underlies the importance of patient-oriented diagnosis and management in highly experienced PCD centres.

6.
Nutrients ; 13(6)2021 May 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34073260

RESUMO

Cystic Fibrosis (CF) is a life-long genetic disease, causing increased energy needs and a healthy diet with a specific nutrient distribution. Nutritional status is an indicator of disease prognosis and survival. This study aimed at assessing the effectiveness of a self-management mobile app in supporting patients with CF to achieve the dietary goals set by the CF nutrition guidelines. A clinical trial was conducted in pancreatic insufficient children with CF, followed in six European CF centres, where the self-management app developed within the MyCyFAPP project was used for six months. To assess secondary outcomes, three-day food records were compiled in the app at baseline and after 3 and 6 months of use. Eighty-four subjects (mean 7.8 years old) were enrolled. Compared to baseline, macronutrient distribution better approximated the guidelines, with protein and lipid increasing by 1.0 and 2.1% of the total energy intake, respectively, by the end of the study. Consequently, carbohydrate intake of the total energy intake decreased significantly (-2.9%), along with simple carbohydrate intake (-2.4%). Regarding food groups, a decrease in ultra-processed foods was documented, with a concomitant increase in meat and dairy. The use of a self-management mobile app to self-monitor dietary intake could become a useful tool to achieve adherence to guideline recommendations, if validated during a longer period of time or against a control group.


Assuntos
Fibrose Cística , Ingestão de Alimentos , Nutrientes , Autogestão , Telemedicina/métodos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Dieta , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Aplicativos Móveis , Política Nutricional , Estado Nutricional
8.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 13(10): 13405-13420, 2021 05 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34038868

RESUMO

cDNA microarray data conducted by our group revealed overexpression of CXCL2 and CXCL8 in ovarian cancer (OC) microenvironment. Herein, we have proven that the chemokine receptor, CXCR2, is a pivotal molecule in re-sensitizing OC to cisplatin, and its inhibition decreases cell proliferation, viability, tumor size in cisplatin-resistant cells, as well as reversed the overexpression of mesenchymal epithelium transition markers. Altogether, our study indicates a central effect of CXCR2 in preventing tumor progression, due to acquisition of cisplatin chemoresistant phenotype by tumor cells, and patients' high lethality rate. We found that the overexpression of CXCR2 by OC cells is persistent and anomalously confined to the cellular nuclei, thus pointing to an urge in developing highly lipophilic molecules that promptly permeate cells, bind to and inhibit nuclear CXCR2 to fight OC, instead of relying on the high-cost genetic engineered cells.


Assuntos
Cisplatino/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Ovarianas/tratamento farmacológico , Receptores de Interleucina-8B/antagonistas & inibidores , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Núcleo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Núcleo Celular/metabolismo , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Quimiocina CXCL2/metabolismo , Embrião de Galinha , Cisplatino/farmacologia , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Humanos , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/efeitos dos fármacos , Invasividade Neoplásica , Proteínas de Neoplasias/metabolismo , Neovascularização Patológica/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Ovarianas/irrigação sanguínea , Neoplasias Ovarianas/patologia , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Receptores de Interleucina-8B/metabolismo , Análise de Sobrevida , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/metabolismo
9.
J Cyst Fibros ; 20(4): 566-577, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34016559

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Viral infections can cause significant morbidity in cystic fibrosis (CF). The current Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic could therefore have a serious impact on the health of people with CF (pwCF). METHODS: We used the 38-country European Cystic Fibrosis Society Patient Registry (ECFSPR) to collect case data about pwCF and SARS-CoV-2 infection. RESULTS: Up to 30 June 2020, 16 countries reported 130 SARS-CoV-2 cases in people with CF, yielding an incidence of 2.70/1000 pwCF. Incidence was higher in lung-transplanted patients (n=23) versus non-transplanted patients (n=107) (8.43 versus 2.36 cases/1000). Incidence was higher in pwCF versus the age-matched general population in the age groups <15, 15-24, and 25-49 years (p<0.001), with similar trends for pwCF with and without lung transplant. Compared to the general population, pwCF (regardless of transplantation status) had significantly higher rates of admission to hospital for all age groups with available data, and higher rates of intensive care, although not statistically significant. Most pwCF recovered (96.2%), however 5 died, of whom 3 were lung transplant recipients. The case fatality rate for pwCF (3.85%, 95% CI: 1.26-8.75) was non-significantly lower than that of the general population (7.46%; p=0.133). CONCLUSIONS: SARS-CoV-2 infection can result in severe illness and death for pwCF, even for younger patients and especially for lung transplant recipients. PwCF should continue to shield from infection and should be prioritized for vaccination.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Fibrose Cística/complicações , Adolescente , Adulto , COVID-19/diagnóstico , COVID-19/terapia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Cuidados Críticos , Fibrose Cística/mortalidade , Fibrose Cística/terapia , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Hospitalização , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Transplante de Pulmão , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sistema de Registros , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
10.
Gastrointest Endosc ; 94(2): 235-247, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33852901

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Pancreatic cystic fluid (PCF) analysis is useful to distinguish between different cyst types and to guide management. The aim of our study was to compare the diagnostic accuracy of glucose level with carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) in PCF for mucinous cyst diagnosis. METHODS: We identified studies with PCF obtained by EUS before surgery, with cysts classified as mucinous and nonmucinous according to surgical specimens. A random-effects model was used for quantitative meta-analysis. Pooled sensitivities, specificities, and summary receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis were conducted. RESULTS: For CEA, we included 31 studies with 5268 patients, of which 2083 were referred for surgery. For glucose, we included 4 studies with 345 patients, of which 275 were referred for surgery. Glucose performed better than CEA for mucinous cysts diagnosis (premalignant and malignant) with sensitivities of .90 (95% confidence interval [CI], .85-.94) and .67 (95% CI, .65-.70), specificities of .82 (95% CI, .72-.89) and .80 (95% CI, 0.76-0.83), and areas under the ROC curve of .96 and .79, respectively. Glucose had a higher sensitivity (90%), with uncommon false-negative results, making it an excellent biomarker to exclude a mucinous cyst. Sensitivity analysis demonstrated that the findings of the current meta-analysis are robust. CONCLUSION: Glucose level in PCF is more accurate than CEA for preoperative diagnosis of mucinous cysts. It may become a useful first-line test, particularly in small cysts with a limited volume of PCF. Larger studies are awaited to confirm glucose as the single test for mucinous cyst diagnosis.


Assuntos
Cisto Pancreático , Neoplasias Pancreáticas , Antígeno Carcinoembrionário/análise , Líquido Cístico/química , Glucose , Humanos , Cisto Pancreático/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/diagnóstico , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
13.
Biol Reprod ; 104(5): 962-975, 2021 05 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33524106

RESUMO

Endocrine-disrupting chemicals have become an issue of scientific and public discussion. Vinclozolin (VNZ) is a fungicide that competitively antagonizes the binding of natural androgens to their receptor, disturbing the function of tissues that are sensitive to these hormones, as is the case of the male reproductive organs. A systematic review with meta-analyses of rodent studies was conducted to answer the following question: Does exposure to VNZ affect sperm parameters and testicular/epididymal weight? The methodology was prespecified according to the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews and PRISMA recommendations. Sixteen articles met the inclusion criteria, comprising a total of 1189 animals. The risk of publication bias was assessed using the Trim and Fill adjustment, funnel plot, and Egger regression test. Heterogeneity and inconsistency across the findings were tested using the Q-statistic and I2 of Higgins, respectively. Sensitivity was also analyzed. Statistical analysis was performed on Comprehensive Meta-Analysis software (Version 2.0), using random models and weighted mean differences along with a 95% confidence interval. Sperm motility, counts, daily sperm production (evidence of publication bias), and epididymis weight were decreased in VNZ-treated animals. Exposure length and dose, as well as the time point of exposure, influenced the obtained results. Despite the moderate/high heterogeneity observed, the sensitivity analysis overall demonstrated the robustness of the findings. The quality scores of the included studies were superior to 4 in a total of 9, then classified as good. The obtained data corroborate the capability of VNZ exposure to disrupt spermatogenic output and compromise male fertility.

14.
Nat Rev Genet ; 22(5): 284-306, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33432191

RESUMO

The deep evolutionary history of African populations, since the emergence of modern humans more than 300,000 years ago, has resulted in high genetic diversity and considerable population structure. Selected genetic variants have increased in frequency due to environmental adaptation, but recent exposures to novel pathogens and changes in lifestyle render some of them with properties leading to present health liabilities. The unique discoverability potential from African genomic studies promises invaluable contributions to understanding the genomic and molecular basis of health and disease. Globally, African populations are understudied, and precision medicine approaches are largely based on data from European and Asian-ancestry populations, which limits the transferability of findings to the continent of Africa. Africa needs innovative precision medicine solutions based on African data that use knowledge and implementation strategies aligned to its climatic, cultural, economic and genomic diversity.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano/genética , Evolução Molecular , Medicina de Precisão , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Variação Genética , Genética Populacional , Humanos
16.
Hum Mol Genet ; 30(R1): R138-R145, 2021 Apr 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33461217

RESUMO

Sub-Saharan Africa is the most promising region of the world to conduct high-throughput studies to unveil adaptations to infectious diseases due to several reasons, namely, the longest evolving time-depth in the Homo sapiens phylogenetic tree (at least two-third older than any other worldwide region); the continuous burden of infectious diseases (still number one in health/life threat); and the coexistence of populations practising diverse subsistence modes (nomadic or seminomadic hunter-gatherers and agropastoralists, and sedentary agriculturalists, small urban and megacity groups). In this review, we will present the most up-to-date results that shed light on three main hypotheses related with this adaptation. One is the hypothesis of coevolution between host and pathogen, given enough time for the establishment of this highly dynamic relationship. The second hypothesis enunciates that the agricultural transition was responsible for the increase of the infectious disease burden, due to the huge expansion of the sedentary human population and the cohabitation with domesticates as main reservoirs of pathogens. The third hypothesis states that the boosting of our immune system against pathogens by past selection may have resulted in maladaptation of the developed hygienic societies, leading to an increase of allergic, inflammatory and autoimmune disorders. Further work will enlighten the biological mechanisms behind these main adaptations, which can be insightful for translation into diagnosis, prognosis and treatment interventions.

17.
Nucl Med Commun ; 42(4): 459-467, 2021 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33395194

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The purpose of this guideline is to assist specialists in Nuclear Medicine and Radionuclide Radiology in recommending, performing, interpreting and reporting the results of lacrimal scintigraphy (also known as Dacroscintigraphy). This guideline will assist individual departments to formulate their own local protocols. This does not aim to be prescriptive regarding technical aspects of individual camera acquisitions, which need to be developed in conjunction with the local experts in medical physics. There are numerous radiological techniques to assess the physiology of the lacrimal system. This guideline will describe the application of a drop of radiotracer into each eye and consecutive imaging to demonstrate the level of impaired drainage, with the possibility of quantifying such impairment. This guideline is a recent and updated version of a previously published guideline on the British Nuclear Medicine Society website in 2018 [1].

18.
Gastrointest Endosc ; 2021 Jan 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33508302

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Pancreatic cystic fluid (PCF) analysis is useful to distinguish between different cyst types and guide management. The aim of our study was to compare the diagnostic accuracy of glucose level with carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) in PCF for mucinous cyst diagnosis. METHODS: We identified studies with PCF obtained by EUS before surgery, with cysts classified as mucinous and nonmucinous according to surgical specimens. A random effects model was used for quantitative meta-analysis. Pooled sensitivities, specificities, and summary receiver operating characteristic (SROC) curve analysis were conducted. RESULTS: For CEA, we included 31 studies with 5268 patients, of which 2083 were referred for surgery and for glucose we included 5 studies with 460 patients, of which 275 were referred for surgery. Glucose performed better than CEA for mucinous cysts diagnosis (premalignant and malignant) with sensitivities of 0.91 (95% CI, 0.86-0.94) and 0.67 (95% CI, 0.65-0.70), specificities of 0.75 (95% CI, 0.68-0.82) and 0.80 (95% CI, 0.76-0.83), and areas under the ROC curve (AUC) of 0.95 and 0.79, respectively. Glucose had a higher sensitivity (91%), with uncommon false negative results, making it an excellent biomarker to exclude a mucinous cyst. Sensitivity analysis demonstrated that the findings of the current meta-analysis are robust. CONCLUSION: Glucose level in PCF is more accurate than CEA for preoperative diagnosis of mucinous cysts. It may become a useful first line test, particularly in small cysts with limited volume of PCF. Larger studies are awaited to confirm glucose as the single test for mucinous cyst diagnosis.

19.
Diagn Cytopathol ; 49(1): 109-118, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32960508

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Endoscopic ultrasound with fine-needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) is recommended for diagnosis of pancreatic cystic lesions (PCLs). Its role in surveillance is unclear. Our goal was to determine if a second EUS-FNA changes diagnosis or management of PCLs. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of an EUS database, searching for EUS-FNAs in PCLs from 2007 to 2017 was performed. Demographics, cyst characteristics, and FNA results were compared in patients under surveillance, performing a single or two consecutive EUS-FNAs. RESULTS: Of 203 PCLs referred for EUS-FNA, surveillance was decided in 128 (63%). Data of 105 (82%) patients with a single EUS-FNA were compared with 23 (18%) with two EUS-FNAs during surveillance. Patients were younger in this latter group (P = .055), whereas CEA levels were marginally higher (P = .078) and a mass/nodule were more frequent (P = .006). The mean time between EUS-FNAs was 38 months (4.7-118.8) for 18 patients maintaining surveillance vs 18 months (2.9-56.9) in the four referred for surgery (P = NS) after two EUS-FNAs (two NETs, one IPMN-HGD, and one MCN-LG). A high correlation in CEA level between consecutive EUS-FNAs (r2 = 0.945, P < .01) was present, with a change of category observed (cut-off level = 192 ng/mL) in two patients only. Of four patients with a second EUS-FNA with conclusive cytology, two had NETs confirmed on resection. CONCLUSIONS: Repeating EUS-FNA in surveillance of PCLs with clinical suspicion of malignancy increased neoplasm diagnoses, changing decision toward surgery in almost 20% of patients while excluding IPMNs with mucin nodules from unnecessary resections. A second EUS-FNA for cytology appears justified in some PCLs, particularly for diagnosing NETs.

20.
Cancer Lett ; 501: 210-223, 2021 Mar 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33212158

RESUMO

Tumour-associated macrophages have been implicated in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) therapy response and Extracellular vesicles (EVs) shed by macrophages might have a role in this process. Here, we demonstrated that large EVs released by anti-inflammatory human macrophages decreased PDAC cellular sensitivity to gemcitabine. Using proteomic analysis, chitinase 3-like-1 (CHI3L1) and fibronectin (FN1) were identified as two of the most abundant proteins in the cargo of macrophages-derived EVs. Overexpression of CHI3L1 and FN1, using recombinant human proteins, induced PDAC cellular resistance to gemcitabine through ERK (extracellular-signal-regulated kinase) activation. Inhibition of CHI3L1 and FN1 by pentoxifylline and pirfenidone, respectively, partially reverted gemcitabine resistance. In PDAC patient samples, CHI3L1 and FN1 were expressed in the stroma, associated with the high presence of macrophages. The Cancer Genome Atlas analysis revealed an association between CHI3L1 and FN1 gene expression, overall survival of PDAC patients, gemcitabine response, and macrophage infiltration. Altogether, our data identifies CHI3L1 and FN1 as potential targets for pharmacological inhibition in PDAC. Further pre-clinical in vivo work is warranted to study the possibility of repurposing pentoxifylline and pirfenidone as adjuvant therapies for PDAC treatment.

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