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J Dairy Sci ; 104(3): 2996-3007, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33455756


Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of isopropyl ester of 2-hydroxy-4-(methylthio) butanoic acid (HMBi) on lactation performance of dairy cows. Experiment 1 evaluated the effect of HMBi in diets with 15.3% crude protein (CP) and with different proportions of rumen-degradable and undegradable protein. Variation in rumen-degradable and undegradable protein was achieved by replacing raw with heated soybeans. Experiment 2 was an on-farm trial to evaluate HMBi with a large number of observations and using a farm-formulated diet (17.2% CP). In experiment 1, 20 Holsteins at 100 ± 41 d in milk were allocated to 5 replicated 4 × 4 Latin squares with 21-d periods. Treatments were formed by a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of raw or heated soybeans with or without HMBi. Paper capsules with HMBi were orally administered twice daily to each cow. Dosage of HMBi was 7.6 g of digestible Met/cow per day. There was no interaction between soybean type and HMBi. Heat-treated soybeans increased the yields of milk, protein, fat, and lactose, and reduced urea N in milk and plasma (PUN) compared with raw soybeans. Rumen microbial yield, dry matter intake (DMI), and the total-tract apparent digestibility of nutrients did not differ between soybean types. There was no evidence for HMBi-driven effects on DMI, milk and components yield, or diet digestibility. Urinary purine derivative excretion and PUN concentration were reduced in HMBi-fed cows compared with cows fed diets without HMBi. In experiment 2, 294 Holstein cows were blocked by parity and milk yield, and randomly assigned to HMBi (8.9 g of digestible Met/cow per day) or control. The final data set had 234 cows (215 ± 105 days in milk; 96 primiparous and 138 multiparous; 114 on control and 120 on HMBi) housed in 4 freestall groups (1 group/treatment per parity). The freestall group was the experimental unit for DMI, diet and orts composition, and feed availability. The HMBi supplement was top dressed for 28 d on the first daily meal of each cow, immediately after feed delivery of the same batch of feed to all 4 freestall groups (3 times per day). Sample collection and feed analysis occurred during the last 5 d. Spot urine samples and blood samples from each cow were obtained for analysis of the urinary allantoin to creatinine ratio and PUN. Feed availability, the contents of CP and neutral detergent fiber in diets and orts, and DMI did not differ. Cows fed with HMBi had greater milk protein yield and concentration compared with control and had no change in milk fat and lactose. Rumen microbial yield was greater and PUN was lower in HMBi-fed cows compared with control. In experiment 1, HMBi decreased rumen microbial yield and did not affect lactation performance, but it increased ruminal microbial yield and the secretion of milk protein in experiment 2. These results suggest that lactation response to HMBi may be partially mediated by ruminal events. Heated soybeans increased the efficiency of N utilization and the yields of milk, protein, fat, and lactose, but did not interact with HMBi supplementation.

Metionina , Soja , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Bovinos , Dieta/veterinária , Proteínas na Dieta , Digestão , Feminino , Temperatura Alta , Lactação , Gravidez , Rúmen
J Dairy Sci ; 101(10): 9052-9057, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30100508


The objectives of this study were to determine (1) the effect of grinding size (1, 2, 4, and 6 mm) to determine effective ruminal disappearance (ERD); (2) the most adequate method to estimate the rapidly degradable fraction (A); (3) a time point to measure the indigestible fraction (C); and (4) the viability of using fewer time points to estimate starch fractional disappearance rate (kd) of mature corn grain. Fraction A was determined by rinsing in a bucket or washing machine, rumen immersion followed by bucket or washing machine, and water immersion for 30 min followed by bucket or washing machine. Ruminal in situ incubations were performed at 48, 72, 96, and 120 h to determine fraction C, and at 0 (washing machine), 3, 6, 12, 18, 24, and 48 h to determine the kinetics of starch disappearance. Models were used with either 2 or 3 pools and kd was determined by the linear slope of the log-transformed bag residues as a proportion of incubated samples over time. The ERD was calculated as A + B [kd/(kd + kp)], where kp is the ruminal fractional passage rate = 16.0% h-1. Data were analyzed using PROC MIXED of SAS (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC) with the fixed effects of run (for fraction A analysis only) method (either washing or model), grinding size, and method by grinding size interaction, with cow as a random effect. Correlation between estimates calculated using all time points or combinations of 2 and 3 time points were determined using PROC CORR. Fraction A was reduced as grinding size increased, but was not altered by washing method. Samples ground at 6 mm had greater fraction C than other grinding sizes at 48, 72, or 96 h, but not at 120 h. Model affected the slowly degradable fraction (B) values solely, but the difference was minor (0.5 percentage units). Greater fractions B and C but reduced kd and ERD were observed as grinding size increased. Based on correlation analysis the 2-pool model, incubation times of 0, 3, and 48 h were suitable to evaluate ruminal starch degradation kinetics in mature corn. Ruminal in situ incubation at 120 h highlighted the lack of a fraction C of starch (0.13% of starch). Washing method did not affect determination of fraction A of starch. Ruminal in situ incubations of 0, 3, and 48 h for starch degradation kinetics using a 2-pool model were adequate for mature ground corn, but 120 h of incubation is suggested to confirm the existence or absence of a fraction C. Grinding size affected starch degradation kinetics and fraction A determination.

Bovinos , Digestão , Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Rúmen/metabolismo , Amido/metabolismo , Ração Animal , Animais , Feminino , Tamanho da Partícula , Zea mays
J Anim Sci ; 95(10): 4613-4622, 2017 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29108036


Despite its low NDF digestibility, sugarcane is an option for feeding dairy cattle in tropical regions. We evaluated the effect of sugarcane silages inoculated with CCMA 0170 (LH; an epiphytic bacteria isolated from sugarcane) or with NCIMB 40788 (LB; a commercial strain isolated from temperate grasses) on dairy cow performance and feeding behavior. The microbial inoculums were previously grown in the laboratory to obtain 5 log cfu/g of fresh forage. Nine tons of each inoculated silage and a noninoculated control silage (CON) were harvested from the same field and stored for at least 35 d in experimental 20 × 2.1 × 0.4 m bunker silos. Fifteen Holstein cows in late lactation (336 ± 175 days in milk at the start of the experiment) received the treatments in five 3 × 3 Latin squares with 21-d periods. The diets contained 20% of DM of sugarcane silage and 41% of DM of corn silage. Milk yield was increased from 18.0 kg/d for CON to18.8 kg/d for LH, but LB did not elicit a detectable increase in milk yield (18.1 kg/d). The daily yields of fat, protein, lactose, and total solids were increased by LH. Daily DMI and total tract apparent digestibility of nutrients did not differ among treatments. Both inoculated silages reduced acetate and increased butyrate proportions in ruminal VFA, but only LH silage reduced the acetate to propionate ratio (3.0 vs 3.3). First meal duration was shorter for CON compared to LH and LB. The proportion of daily intake between 0700 and 1300 h tended to be increased, and the proportion between 1900 and 0700 h was reduced by LH. The inoculation of sugarcane silage with affected rumen fermentation profile and feeding behavior of late lactation dairy cows, increasing the yield of milk solids.

Bovinos/fisiologia , Lactobacillus , Leite/metabolismo , Saccharum , Silagem/microbiologia , Animais , Bovinos/microbiologia , Dieta/veterinária , Ingestão de Alimentos , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Fermentação , Lactação , Rúmen/metabolismo , Rúmen/microbiologia , Zea mays
J Appl Microbiol ; 122(3): 589-600, 2017 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27930838


AIMS: The aim of this study was to evaluate the chemical and microbiological characteristics and to identify the lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and yeasts involved in rehydrated corn kernel silage. METHODS AND RESULTS: Four replicates for each fermentation time: 5, 15, 30, 60, 90, 150, 210 and 280 days were prepared. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry and PCR-based identification were utilized to identify LAB and yeasts. Eighteen bacteria and four yeast species were identified. The bacteria population reached maximum growth after 15 days and moulds were detected up to this time. The highest dry matter (DM) loss was 7·6% after 280 days. The low concentration of water-soluble carbohydrates (20 g kg-1 of DM) was not limiting for fermentation, although the reduction in pH and acid production occurred slowly. Storage of the rehydrated corn kernel silage increased digestibility up to day 280. CONCLUSIONS: This silage was dominated by LAB but showed a slow decrease in pH values. This technique of corn storage on farms increased the DM digestibility. SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: This study was the first to evaluate the rehydrated corn kernel silage fermentation dynamics and our findings are relevant to optimization of this silage fermentation.

Bactérias/classificação , Fermentação , Silagem/microbiologia , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Bactérias/metabolismo , Ácido Láctico/metabolismo , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização e Dessorção a Laser Assistida por Matriz , Leveduras/metabolismo , Zea mays/microbiologia
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec ; 68(4): 1053-1061, jul.-ago. 2016. tab, graf
Artigo em Português | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: lil-792460


Identificaram-se quais indicadores de desempenho determinam a variação na lucratividade de 159 fazendas da região Triângulo Mineiro-Alto Paranaíba de Minas Gerais. A lucratividade foi mensurada pela renda líquida anual (RL), RL sobre o valor dos bens e RL sobre a renda bruta. Cento e dezenove fazendas com lucratividade positiva produziram mais leite por mão de obra e por vaca, tinham maior proporção de vacas em lactação e maior proporção de custo com concentrados, custo com mão de obra com menor proporção do custo de produção e menor relação entre o custo com mão de obra e o custo com concentrados do que as 40 fazendas com lucratividade negativa (P<0,01). A análise de componentes principais mostrou que os principais determinantes da variação na lucratividade entre fazendas foram: relação entre o custo com mão de obra e o com concentrados, custo de mão de obra por litro de leite, produção de leite por mão de obra, produção de leite por vaca e proporção de vacas lactantes no rebanho. Maior lucratividade foi associada ao uso mais eficiente da mão de obra, ao maior investimento em concentrados e ao ganho na produção por vaca.(AU)

We identified which performance indicators determined the variation in profitability of 159 farms of the Triângulo Mineiro-Alto Paranaíba region of Minas Gerais. Profitability was measured by annual net income (RL), RL over assets value, and RL over gross income. The 119 farms with positive profitability produced more milk per labor and per cow, had a greater proportion of lactating cows in the herd, had concentrates cost as a greater proportion and labor cost as a smaller proportion of the production cost, and had smaller ratio of labor cost to concentrates cost than the 40 farms with negative profitability (P<0.01). Principal component analysis showed that the key determinants of profitability variation among farms were: The ratio of labor cost to concentrates cost, labor cost per liter of milk, milk yield per labor, milk yield per cow, and the proportion of lactating cows in the herd. Increased profitability was associated with more efficient labor usage, the result of larger investment in concentrates and greater yield per cow.(AU)

Animais , Feminino , Bovinos , Criação de Animais Domésticos , Leite , Bovinos
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec ; 68(4): 1033-1042, jul.-ago. 2016. tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: lil-792474


Foram avaliados indicadores de desempenho de 159 fazendas de leite da região Triângulo Mineiro-Alto Paranaíba no estado de Minas Gerais, em 2007 e 2008. Os dados foram obtidos mensalmente por 18 consultores privados. A produção de leite foi de 770(697 L/d, oriunda de 81(54 vacas em lactação, exploradas em 109(75 ha. A produção anual de leite por hectare foi de 3333(2.720 L, oriunda de 0,70(0,44 vacas em lactação/ha, por vaca adulta foi de 3383(1.269 L, e 26(8% do rebanho adulto era não lactante. A produção de leite por mão-de-obra contratada foi 103342(44616 L. Concentrados constituíram 30% e mão-de-obra 10% do custo de produção. A renda líquida foi em média positiva, mas o resíduo foi negativo em 15 e 25% das fazendas, quando a estimativa de custo computou ou não os juros sobre o valor dos bens, respectivamente. Os indicadores de lucratividade foram: renda líquida anual R$32841,00; renda líquida anual sobre o valor dos bens 4,7%; e renda líquida sobre a renda bruta 8,7%. Mesmo com desempenho acima das médias brasileira e mineira, os indicadores de desempenho foram modestos, sugerindo existir oportunidade para ganho em eficiências produtiva e financeira.(AU)

Performance indicators of 159 dairy farms in the Triângulo Mineiro-Alto Paranaíba region of the Minas Gerais state, in 2007 and 2008, were evaluated. Data was obtained monthly by 18 private consultants. Milk yield was 770(697 L/d, from 81(54 lactating cows, and 109(75 ha were explored. Yearly milk yield per hectare was 3,333(2,720 L, from 0.70(0.44 lactating cows/ha, per adult cow was 3,383(1,269 L, and 26(8% of the adult herd was non-lactating. Milk yield per hired labor was 103,342(44,616 L. Concentrates cost was 30% and labor 10% of the production cost. The mean net income was positive, but 15 and 25% of the farms had negative residue, when cost was estimated computing or not the interest on assets value, respectively. Profitability indicators were: annual net income R$32,841.00; annual net income over assets value 4.7%; and net income over gross income 8.7%. Even though performance was above Brazilian and Minas Gerais means, performance indicators were modest, suggesting that there is opportunity for gain in productive and financial efficiencies.(AU)

Animais , Feminino , Bovinos , Criação de Animais Domésticos , Leite , Bovinos
J Dairy Sci ; 99(4): 2719-2729, 2016 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26851843


Kernel processing increases starch digestibility in whole-plant corn silage (WPCS). Corn silage processing score (CSPS), the percentage of starch passing through a 4.75-mm sieve, is widely used to assess degree of kernel breakage in WPCS. However, the geometric mean particle size (GMPS) of the kernel-fraction that passes through the 4.75-mm sieve has not been well described. Therefore, the objectives of this study were (1) to evaluate particle size distribution and digestibility of kernels cut in varied particle sizes; (2) to propose a method to measure GMPS in WPCS kernels; and (3) to evaluate the relationship between CSPS and GMPS of the kernel fraction in WPCS. Composite samples of unfermented, dried kernels from 110 corn hybrids commonly used for silage production were kept whole (WH) or manually cut in 2, 4, 8, 16, 32 or 64 pieces (2P, 4P, 8P, 16P, 32P, and 64P, respectively). Dry sieving to determine GMPS, surface area, and particle size distribution using 9 sieves with nominal square apertures of 9.50, 6.70, 4.75, 3.35, 2.36, 1.70, 1.18, and 0.59 mm and pan, as well as ruminal in situ dry matter (DM) digestibilities were performed for each kernel particle number treatment. Incubation times were 0, 3, 6, 12, and 24 h. The ruminal in situ DM disappearance of unfermented kernels increased with the reduction in particle size of corn kernels. Kernels kept whole had the lowest ruminal DM disappearance for all time points with maximum DM disappearance of 6.9% at 24 h and the greatest disappearance was observed for 64P, followed by 32P and 16P. Samples of WPCS (n=80) from 3 studies representing varied theoretical length of cut settings and processor types and settings were also evaluated. Each WPCS sample was divided in 2 and then dried at 60 °C for 48 h. The CSPS was determined in duplicate on 1 of the split samples, whereas on the other split sample the kernel and stover fractions were separated using a hydrodynamic separation procedure. After separation, the kernel fraction was redried at 60°C for 48 h in a forced-air oven and dry sieved to determine GMPS and surface area. Linear relationships between CSPS from WPCS (n=80) and kernel fraction GMPS, surface area, and proportion passing through the 4.75-mm screen were poor. Strong quadratic relationships between proportion of kernel fraction passing through the 4.75-mm screen and kernel fraction GMPS and surface area were observed. These findings suggest that hydrodynamic separation and dry sieving of the kernel fraction may provide a better assessment of kernel breakage in WPCS than CSPS.

Ração Animal/análise , Silagem/análise , Zea mays/química , Animais , Manipulação de Alimentos/normas , Tamanho da Partícula , Amido/metabolismo
J Appl Microbiol ; 120(5): 1181-92, 2016 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26787003


AIMS: This study was aimed to identify yeasts and moulds as well as to detect mycotoxin in corn silages in southern Minas Gerais, Brazil. METHODS AND RESULTS: Corn silages from 36 farms were sampled to analyse dry matter, crude protein, ether extract, ash, neutral detergent fibre, nonfibre carbohydrates and mycotoxins contents, yeasts and moulds population, pH and temperature values. The mycotoxins found in high frequency were aflatoxin in 77·7% of analysed samples, ochratoxin (33·3%) and zearalenone (22·2%). There was no significant correlation between the mycotoxin concentration and the presence of moulds. The pH was negatively correlated with ochratoxin concentration. Aspergillus fumigatus was identified in all silages that presented growth of moulds. Ten different yeast species were identified using the culture-dependent method: Candida diversa, Candida ethanolica, Candida rugosa, Issatchenkia orientalis, Kluyveromyces marxianus, Pichia manshurica, Pichia membranifaciens, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Trichosporon asahii and Trichosporon japonicum. Another six different yeast species were identified using the culture-independent method. CONCLUSIONS: A high mycotoxin contamination rate (91·6% of the analysed silages) was observed. The results indicated that conventional culturing and PCR-DGGE should be combined to optimally describe the microbiota associated with corn silage. SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: This study provides information about the corn silage fermentation dynamics and our findings are relevant to optimization of this silage fermentation.

Fungos/isolamento & purificação , Micotoxinas/análise , Silagem/análise , Silagem/microbiologia , Leveduras/isolamento & purificação , Zea mays/microbiologia , Brasil , Fermentação , Fungos/classificação , Fungos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fungos/metabolismo , Micotoxinas/metabolismo , Clima Tropical , Leveduras/genética , Leveduras/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Leveduras/metabolismo , Zea mays/química
J Dairy Sci ; 98(12): 8962-72, 2015 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26476949


Foliar fungicide application to corn plants is used in corn aimed for corn silage in the dairy industry, but questions regarding frequency of application and its effect on corn silage quality and feed conversion when fed to dairy cows remain prevalent. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of various foliar fungicide applications to corn on dry matter intake (DMI), milk production, and milk composition when fed to dairy cows. Sixty-four Holstein cows with parity 2.5±1.5, 653±80kg of body weight, and 161±51d in milk were blocked and randomly assigned to 1 of 4 corn silage treatments (total mixed ration with 35% of the dry matter as corn silage). Treatments were as follows: control (CON), corn silage with no applications of foliar fungicide; treatment 1 (1X), corn silage from corn that received 1 application of pyraclostrobin (PYR) foliar fungicide (Headline; BASF Corp.) at corn vegetative stage 5; treatment 2 (2X), corn silage from corn that received the same application as 1X plus another application of a mixture of PYR and metconazole (Headline AMP; BASF Corp.) at corn reproductive stage 1 ("silking"); and treatment 3 (3X), corn silage from corn that received the same applications as 2X as well as a third application of PYR and metconazole at reproductive stage 3 ("milky kernel"). Corn was harvested at about 32% dry matter and 3/4 milk line stage of kernel development and ensiled for 200d. Treatments were fed to cows for 5wk, with the last week being used for statistical inferences. Week -1 was used as a covariate in the statistical analysis. Dry matter intake tended to be lower for cows fed corn silage treated with fungicide than CON (23.8, 23.0, 19.5, and 21.3kg for CON, 1X, 2X, and 3X, respectively). A linear treatment effect for DMI was observed, with DMI decreasing as foliar fungicide applications increased. Treatments CON, 1X, 2X, and 3X did not differ for milk yield (34.5, 34.5, 34.2, and 34.4kg/d, respectively); however, a trend for increased feed conversion represented by fat-corrected milk/DMI (1.65 vs. 1.47) and energy-corrected milk/DMI (1.60 vs. 1.43) was noted for cows fed corn silage with fungicide compared with CON. In conclusion, cows receiving corn silage treated with foliar fungicide had better conversion of feed dry matter to milk than those receiving CON silage.

Fungicidas Industriais/química , Leite/metabolismo , Silagem/análise , Zea mays/química , Animais , Peso Corporal , Carbamatos/análise , Bovinos , Dieta/veterinária , Feminino , Lactação , Leite/química , Micotoxinas/análise , Pirazóis/análise , Silagem/microbiologia , Estrobilurinas , Zea mays/microbiologia
J Dairy Sci ; 98(9): 6304-14, 2015 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26188566


The prepartum supplementation of dairy cows with ß-carotene was evaluated. Cows were blocked by parity and expected calving date and assigned to a treatment: ß-carotene (1.2 g/cow per d) or control (no supplementation). The same total mixed ration batch was offered to all cows, and ß-carotene was top dressed to individual cows once per day. The data set contained 283 Holsteins that received a treatment for >14 d (29.1±6.9 d). Frequency distributions were analyzed with the GENMOD procedure of SAS using logistic regression for binomial data. Continuous variables were analyzed with the MIXED procedure of SAS. Within parity, nonparametric estimates of the survivor function for reproductive variables were computed using the product-limit method of the Kaplan-Meier method with the LIFETEST procedure of SAS. Plasma ß-carotene concentration before supplementation was similar between supplemented and nonsupplemented cows (2.99µg/mL) and peaked at 3.26±0.175µg/mL on d -15±2.4 precalving for supplemented cows (2.62±0.168µg/mL for control). Colostrum density, milk yield, and milk composition were similar between treatments. ß-Carotene tended to increase milk protein content from 2.90 to 2.96% and to decrease the proportion of primiparous cows with a milk fat to protein ratio >1.5 from 22.6 to 6.4%. The proportion of primiparous and multiparous cows with difficult calving, metritis, progesterone >1 ng/mL at 21 d and at 42 d in lactation, % conception at first service, and % pregnancy at 90 and 150 d in lactation were similar between treatments. A trend for decreased incidence of somatic cell count >200,000 cells/mL was present in multiparous cows supplemented with ß-carotene (38.9% vs. 28.1%). ß-Carotene was associated with a reduction in the proportion of multiparous cows with retained placenta 12 h postpartum from 29.9 to 21.7%; time of placenta release was 392 min (340 to 440) for ß-carotene and 490 min (395 to 540) for control (median and 95% confidence interval). For primiparous cows, placenta release was not affected by ß-carotene (incidence was 15.4%). The intervals from calving to first estrus, to first service, and to conception were not affected by ß-carotene supplementation in either parity. However, independent of treatment, cows with improved reproductive efficiency had increased postpartum ß-carotene concentration in plasma. The prepartum supplementation of ß-carotene increased plasma concentration around calving. No response in milk yield or reproductive performance was detected. Beta-carotene supplementation was associated with a lower incidence of retained placenta in multiparous cows.

Suplementos Nutricionais , beta Caroteno/administração & dosagem , beta Caroteno/sangue , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Bovinos , Contagem de Células , Dieta/veterinária , Feminino , Lactação , Leite/metabolismo , Proteínas do Leite/análise , Placenta Retida/veterinária , Gravidez , Progesterona/sangue , Reprodução
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec ; 67(2): 511-518, Mar-Apr/2015. tab, graf
Artigo em Português | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: lil-747064


Avaliou-se o efeito do ambiente ruminal sobre a degradação da FDN de 12 cultivares de cana. As dietas continham: 87,1% de cana (Cana) ou 42,0% de cana e 58,0% de concentrado com milho (Milho) ou polpa cítrica (Polpa). Seis vacas com cânula ruminal formaram quadrados latinos 3x3. Por 11 dias de cada período experimental, o consumo de matéria seca foi fixado em 1,2% do peso vivo. No dia 12, baixo pH ruminal foi induzido no Milho e na Polpa por infusão intrarruminal de milho ou polpa cítrica. Simultaneamente, ureia foi adicionada ao rúmen em todos os tratamentos. Sacos de náilon contendo os cultivares foram incubados por 24h nos dias 11 e 12. O pH ruminal no dia 11 foi 7,01 e NH3 foi 3,4, 4,4 e 6,2mg/dL para Cana, Milho e Polpa, respectivamente. O pH no dia 12 foi 6,98 para Cana, 6,49 para Milho e 6,04 para Polpa, e NH3 foi 13,0mg/dL. Para Cana, a degradabilidade ruminal da FDN foi 21% no dia 11 e 28% no dia 12; para Milho e Polpa esta foi ao redor de 21% em ambos os dias. O ordenamento dos cultivares por degradabilidade ruminal da FDN foi similar nos ambientes ruminais distintos.(AU)

The effect of the rumen environment on NDF degradability of 12 sugarcane cultivars was evaluated. Diets contained: 87.1% of sugarcane (Cane) or 42.0% of sugarcane and 58.0% of concentrates with corn (Corn) or citrus pulp (Citrus). Six rumen cannulated cows formed 3x3 Latin Squares. For 11 days of each experimental period, the intake of dry matter was fixed at 1.2% of body weight. On day 12, low ruminal pH was induced on Corn and Citrus by pulse dosing corn or citrus pulp into the rumen. Simultaneously, urea was added to the rumen in all treatments. Nylon bags containing the cultivars were incubated for 24 h on the 11th and 12th days. Rumen pH on day 11 was 7.01 and NH3 was 3.4, 4.4 and 6.2 mg/dl for Cane, Corn and Citrus, respectively. Ruminal pH on day 12 was 6.98 for Cane, 6.49 for Corn and 6.04 for Citrus and NH3 was 13.0 mg/dl. For Cane, ruminal NDF degradability was 21% on day 11 and 28% on day 12, for Corn and Citrus it was around 21% in both days. The ranking of cultivars based on ruminal NDF degradability was similar in distinct rumen environments.(AU)

Animais , Feminino , Bovinos , Rúmen/química , Saccharum/química , Ruminação Digestiva , Ração Animal/análise
J Dairy Sci ; 98(6): 4062-73, 2015 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25795491


Dairy cows experiencing heat stress have reduced intake and increased reliance on glucose, making feeding strategies capable of improving diet digestibility plausible for improving postrumen nutrient flow and performance. The effect of yeast on digestion and performance of lactating cows during the warm summer months of southeastern Brazil was evaluated. Cows were individually fed in tie stalls and temperature-humidity index was above 68 during 75.6% of the experiment. Twenty-eight Holstein cows (207±87 d in milk) received a standard diet for 14 d and then a treatment for 70 d, in a covariate-adjusted, randomized block design with repeated measures over time. Treatments were yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) or control. Yeast was top dressed to the diet in the morning, equivalent to 25×10(10) cfu of live cells and 5×10(10) cfu of dead cells. The diet contained corn silage (37.7%), Tifton silage (7.1%), raw soybeans (4.1%), soybean meal (16.5%), finely ground corn (20.7%), and citrus pulp (11.9%). Yeast increased milk (26.7 vs. 25.4 kg/d) and solids yield (3.06 vs. 2.92 kg/d), especially lactose. Response in milk yield was consistent over time and started at d 5. The daily intake of digestible OM, total-tract digestibility of nutrients, urinary allantoin excretion, chewing pattern throughout the day, and dry matter intake did not respond to yeast. A trend was observed for increased plasma glucose with yeast (62.9 vs. 57.3mg/dL), lowered respiratory frequency (48 vs. 56 breaths/min), and increased plasma niacin content (1.31 vs. 1.22 µg/mL), though cows had similar rectal temperature. Ruminal lactate and butyrate as proportions of ruminal organic acids were reduced by yeast, but no effects on other organic acids, ruminal pH, or protozoa content were detected. Plasma urea N over 24h was increased by yeast. On d 72 to 74, citrus pulp was abruptly replaced with finely ground corn to induce acidosis. The increased load of starch increased dry matter intake between 0700 and 1300 h, jugular blood partial pressure of CO2, HCO3-, and base excess, and decreased blood pH for both treatments. The yeast treatment had a higher blood pH compared with the control, 7.34, and 7.31, respectively. Yeast supplementation improved lactation performance of dairy cows under heat stress. Improvement in lactation performance apparently involved the regulation of body homeothermia, rather than improved digestibility.

Bovinos/fisiologia , Suplementos Nutricionais , Leite/metabolismo , Fermento Seco/farmacologia , Acidose/induzido quimicamente , Acidose/veterinária , Animais , Brasil , Dieta/veterinária , Digestão/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Lactação/fisiologia , Lactose/metabolismo , Mastigação , Rúmen/metabolismo , Silagem/análise , Soja , Amido/metabolismo , Zea mays
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec ; 66(3): 870-878, 06/2014. tab, graf
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: lil-718086


Objetivou-se avaliar a variabilidade do valor nutritivo entre cultivares de cana-de-açúcar, estimar a correlação entre digestibilidade e produtividade da planta e definir características químicas e agronômicas mais correlacionadas ao valor nutritivo. Vinte cultivares de cana-de-açúcar foram cultivados em delineamento em blocos ao acaso, com quatro repetições, em Campos, RJ, Brasil. As plantas foram colhidas com Brix superior a 18 por cento, a partir de 370 dias do corte da segunda soca. Características agronômicas e químicas e as degradabilidades ruminais in situ da FDN e da MS foram avaliadas. A produtividade foi 21,2±5,7t de MS/ha, e a degradabilidade ruminal da MS (DEG MS) foi 57,1±2,6 por cento do incubado (média±DP). A degradabilidade ruminal da FDN foi 19,8±2,42 por cento do incubado. Nenhuma variável avaliada foi correlacionada à degradabilidade da FDN (P>0,10). Obter cultivares que conciliam alta produtividade com alta DEG MS é viável, pois a correlação tanto fenotípica quanto genética entre esses caracteres foi pequena. A h2 para a DEG MS foi superior a 85 por cento. Variáveis indiretamente correlacionadas à DEG MS tiveram menor h2 que o desta variável. Canas com baixo conteúdo de fibra, com colmos curtos e com alta relação entre colmos e folhas, foram mais digestíveis...

The objective was to evaluate the variability of nutritive value among sugarcane cultivars, to estimate the correlation between plant digestibility and productivity, and to define agronomical and chemical traits most correlated with nutritive value. Twenty sugarcane cultivars were cultivated in a completely randomized block design with four replicates in Campos, RJ, Brazil. Plants were harvested when the Brix was superior to 18 percent, starting at 370 days after the second ratoon cut. Agronomical and chemical traits and the ruminal NDF and DM in situ degradability were evaluated. Productivity was 21.2±5.7t of DM/ha and ruminal DM degradability (DM DEG) was 57.1±2.6 percent of incubated (mean±SD). Ruminal NDF degradability was 19.8±2.42 percent of incubated, and none of the variables evaluated were correlated to the NDF degradability (P>0.10). Obtaining cultivars that conciliate high productivity to high digestibility is feasible, since the phenotypic and the genetic correlation between these traits were low. The estimated h2 for the DM DEG was superior to 85 percent. Variables indirectly correlated to the digestibility had smaller h2 than the one for this variable. Sugarcane with low fiber content, short stalk length and high stalk to leaves ratio were more digestible...

Animais , Bovinos , Ração Animal , Bovinos/fisiologia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal/fisiologia , Saccharum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Saccharum/química , Fibras na Dieta , Nutrientes
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec ; 66(1): 203-210, fev. 2014. tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: lil-704025


Avaliou-se o desempenho de vacas leiteiras que consumiram polpa cítrica e dois teores dietéticos de silagem de grão úmido de milho. Os tratamentos foram: milho de textura dura ou milho de textura macia ensilado na linha negra, em fatorial com 9% ou 18% de milho na dieta. O teor de polpa cítrica na dieta foi de 16,2% ou 25,6%, com alto e baixo milho, respectivamente. Doze vacas receberam os tratamentos em quadrados latinos 4x4. A produção diária de leite foi 27,9kg no milho duro e 28,8 no macio (P=0,19). Alto milho diminuiu o teor de gordura do leite de 3,38 para 3,26% (P=0,04) e aumentou o teor de proteína de 2,99 para 3,03% (P=0,05) e a eficiência alimentar de 1,50 para 1,57kg de leite/kg de consumo (P=0,03). Aumento no teor de milho induziu maior queda no pH ruminal na dieta com milho macio do que na dieta com milho duro (P=0,05 para a interação textura versus teor de milho). O milho macio aumentou o consumo diário de matéria orgânica digestível de 11,7 para 12,3kg (P=0,05). Os parâmetros digestivos sugerem que a ensilagem não eliminou totalmente o efeito da textura do endosperma sobre a digestibilidade do milho.

Lactating cow performance on diets containing citrus pulp and two levels of high moisture corn silage was evaluated. Treatments were: hard texture corn or soft texture corn ensiled at the black layer, with a 9% or 18% factorial corn in the diet. Dietary citrus pulp content was 16.2% or 25.6%, for high and low corn, respectively. Twelve cows received the treatments in 4x4 Latin Squares. Daily milk yield was 27.9kg for hard corn and 28.8 for soft (P=0.19). High corn decreased milk fat content from 3.38 to 3.26% (P=0.04), and increased protein content from 2.99 to 3.03% (P=0.05) and feed efficiency from 1.50 to 1.57kg of milk/kg of intake (P=0.03). The increase of corn content generated a greater decrease in ruminal pH in the soft corn diet than in the hard corn diet (P=0.05 for the interaction of texture versus corn content). Soft corn increased the daily intake of digestible organic matter from 11.7 to 12.3kg (P=0.05). Digestive parameters suggest that ensilaging did not totally eliminate the endosperm texture effect on corn digestibility.

Animais , Bovinos , Fenômenos Fisiológicos do Sistema Digestório , Dieta , Grão Comestível , Endosperma , Silagem , Zea mays , Bovinos/classificação
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec ; 66(1): 219-228, fev. 2014. ilus, tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: lil-704027


Dois experimentos avaliaram a resposta em ganho de peso de novilhas e a produção de leite de vacas à remoção de folhas apicais e laterais da cana-de-açúcar. Em ambos, os animais foram alimentados individualmente em confinamento total. No Experimento 1, 32 novilhas Girolando (295±45kg de peso vivo) foram blocadas em pares e alocadas a um tratamento por 42 dias, após um período de padronização de 14 dias. Os tratamentos foram: cana integral ou despalhada. O peso vivo e o consumo foram mensurados ao longo do tempo. Os teores de ingredientes e nutrientes na matéria seca (MS) das dietas foram 77,1% de cana, 19,2% de farelo de soja, 1% de ureia, 14,1% de proteína bruta (PB) e 38,8% de fibra em detergente neutro (FDN) na cana despalhada, e 78,6%, 17,9%, 0,9%, 13,7% e 45,3% na cana integral, respectivamente. O ganho diário de peso foi 1,395kg na cana despalhada e 1,125kg na integral (P=0,05). Não houve efeito de tratamento sobre o consumo de MS (P=0,78). A despalha aumentou a taxa de ingestão de alimento (P=0,04) e o consumo diário de matéria orgânica não FDN digestível (P=0,03). No Experimento 2, 14 vacas Holandesas (256±124 dias em lactação) foram blocadas em pares e alocadas a uma sequência dos dois tratamentos em delineamento de reversão simples, com períodos de 21 dias e mensuração da resposta na terceira semana. A dieta com cana despalhada teve 18,4% de cana na MS, 37,6% de silagem de milho, 44% de concentrado baseado em milho, polpa cítrica e farelo de soja, 17,3% de PB e 32,9% de FDN, enquanto a dieta com cana integral teve 18,2%, 37,7%, 44,1%, 16,6% e 34,7%, respectivamente. A despalha tendeu a aumentar a digestibilidade da MS (P=0,06) e o consumo diário de matéria orgânica digestível (P=0,10), sem afetar a produção de leite (18,4kg, P=0,65)....

Two experiments evaluated the responses in weight gain of heifers and milk yield of cows to the removal of the apical and lateral leaves of sugarcane. In both the animals were individually fed in total confinement. In Experiment 1, 32 Holstein x Gir heifers (295±45kg of body weight) were paired, blocked and allocated to a treatment for 42 days, following a 14-day standardization period. Treatments were whole or deleafed sugarcane. Body weight and intake were measured over time. The content of ingredients and nutrients in diets dry matter (DM) were 77.1% sugarcane, 19.2% soybean meal, 1% urea, 14.1% crude protein (CP), and 38.8% neutral detergent fiber (NDF) for deleafed sugarcane, and 78.6%, 17.9%, 0.9%, 13.7%, and 45.3% for whole sugarcane, respectively. Daily weight gain was 1.395kg for deleafed and 1.125kg for whole sugarcane (P=0.05). There was no treatment effect on DM intake (P=0.78). Leaf removal increased the rate of feed intake (P=0.04) and the daily intake of digestible non-NDF organic matter (P=0.03). In Experiment 2, 14 Holsteins (256±124 days of lactation) were paired blocked and allocated to a sequence of two treatments in a cross - over design, with 21 - day periods, and measurement of the response on the third week. The deleafed sugarcane diet had 18.4% sugarcane in DM, 37.6% corn silage, 44% corn, citrus pulp, soybean meal based concentrate, 17.3% CP, and 32.9% NDF, while the whole sugarcane diet had 18.2%, 37.7%, 44.1%, 16.6%, and 34.7%, respectivel y. Deleafing tended to increase DM digestibility (P=0.06) and the daily intake of digestible organic matter (P=0.10), without affecting milk yield (18.4kg, P=0.65). Deleafing s ugarcane increased the weight gain of heifers consuming a high proportion of sug arcane in the diet, but this practice did not induce a positive performance response in late lactating cows consuming 18% sugarcane in the diet.

Animais , Bovinos/classificação , Digestão/fisiologia , Ganho de Peso/fisiologia , Mastigação , Saccharum
J Anim Sci ; 91(4): 1775-83, 2013 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23345561


The effects of rumen digesta volume and pH on VFA absorption and its relation to rumen wall morphology were evaluated. Nine rumen cannulated cows formed 3 groups based on desired variation in rumen morphology: The High group was formed by Holsteins yielding 25.9 kg milk/d and fed on a high-grain total mixed ration (TMR); the Medium group by Holstein-Zebu crossbreds yielding 12.3 kg milk/d and fed on corn silage, tropical pasture, and a commercial concentrate; and the Dry group by nonlactating grazing Jerseys fed exclusively on tropical pasture. Within each group, a sequence of 3 ruminal conditions was induced on each cow in 3 × 3 Latin Squares, with 7-d periods: high digesta volume and high pH (HVHP), low volume and high pH (LVHP), and low volume and low pH (LVLP). Rumen mucosa was biopsied on the first day of Period 1. Ruminal morphometric variables evaluated were mitotic index, absorptive surface and papillae number per square centimeter of wall, area per papillae, papillae area as a percentage of absorptive surface, and epithelium, keratinized layer, and nonkeratinized layer thickness. There was marked variation in rumen morphology among the groups of cows. Grazing Jerseys had decreased rumen wall absorptive surface area and basal cells mitotic index, and increased thickness of the epithelium and of the keratin layer compared with cows receiving concentrates. Mean rumen pH throughout the 4 h sampling period was: 6.78 for HVHP, 7.08 for LVHP, and 5.90 for LVLP (P < 0.01). The capacity of the rumen wall to absorb VFA was estimated by the Valerate/CrEDTA technique. The fractional exponential decay rate for the ratio of valeric acid to Cr (k Val/Cr) was determined by rumen digesta sampling at 20-min intervals during 4 h, after the mixing of markers and the return of the evacuated ruminal content. The k Val/Cr values for treatments HVHP, LVHP, and LVLP were, respectively: 19.6, 23.9, and 35.0 %/h (SEM = 2.01; P = 0.21 for contrast HVHP vs. LVHP and P < 0.01 for contrast LVHP vs. LVLP). The k Val/Cr was faster under low pH, but decreasing digesta volume under high pH did not elicit such a response. The correlation between the absorptive surface area per square centimeter of rumen wall and the mean of the 3 k Val/Cr values of each cow was 0.90 (P < 0.01). Cows capable of maintaining a less-acidic rumen environment had greater inflow of water into the digestive cavity, had a more developed rumen mucosa, and were more efficient VFA absorbers.

Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/metabolismo , Rúmen/anatomia & histologia , Absorção , Ração Animal , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal/fisiologia , Animais , Bovinos , Dieta/veterinária , Feminino , Conteúdo Gastrointestinal/química , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Tamanho do Órgão/fisiologia , Rúmen/fisiologia
Int J Impot Res ; 25(2): 69-73, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23034509


Phosphodiesterase-9 (PDE9) specifically hydrolyzes cyclic GMP, and was detected in human corpus cavernosum. However, no previous studies explored the selective PDE9 inhibition with BAY 73-6691 in corpus cavernosum relaxations. Therefore, this study aimed to characterize the PDE9 mRNA expression in mice corpus cavernosum, and investigate the effects of BAY 73-6691 in endothelium-dependent and -independent relaxations, along with the nitrergic corpus cavernosum relaxations. Male mice received daily gavage of BAY 73-6691 (or dimethylsulfoxide) at 3 mg kg(-1) per day for 21 days. Relaxant responses to acetylcholine (ACh), nitric oxide (NO) (as acidified sodium nitrite; NaNO2 solution), sildenafil and electrical-field stimulation (EFS) were obtained in corpus cavernosum in control and BAY 73-6691-treated mice. BAY 73-6691 was also added in vitro 30 min before construction of concentration-responses and frequency curves. PDE9A and PDE5 mRNA expression was detected in the mice corpus cavernosum in a similar manner. In vitro addition of BAY 73-6691 neither itself relaxed mice corpus cavernosum nor changed the NaNO2, sildenafil and EFS-induced relaxations. However, in mice treated chronically with BAY 73-6691, the potency (pEC50) values for ACh, NaNO2 and sildenafil were significantly greater compared with control group. The maximal responses (Emax) to NaNO2 and sildenafil were also significantly greater in BAY 73-6691-treated mice. BAY 73-6691 treatment also significantly increased the magnitude and duration of the nitrergic corpus cavernosum relaxations (8-32 Hz). In conclusion, murine corpus cavernosum expresses PDE9 mRNA. Prolonged PDE9 inhibition with BAY 73-6691 amplifies the NO-cGMP-mediated cavernosal responses, and may be of therapeutic value for erectile dysfunction.

3',5'-AMP Cíclico Fosfodiesterases/antagonistas & inibidores , GMP Cíclico/fisiologia , Óxido Nítrico/fisiologia , Pênis/enzimologia , Pênis/fisiologia , Pirazóis/farmacologia , Pirimidinas/farmacologia , 3',5'-AMP Cíclico Fosfodiesterases/genética , 3',5'-AMP Cíclico Fosfodiesterases/fisiologia , Animais , Nucleotídeo Cíclico Fosfodiesterase do Tipo 5/genética , Estimulação Elétrica , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Relaxamento Muscular/efeitos dos fármacos , Óxido Nítrico/farmacologia , Inibidores de Fosfodiesterase/farmacologia , Piperazinas/farmacologia , Purinas/farmacologia , RNA Mensageiro/análise , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Citrato de Sildenafila , Sulfonas/farmacologia
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec ; 63(4): 805-813, ago. 2011. graf, tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: lil-599597


Avaliou-se o efeito da suplementação de uma combinação homeopática sobre a contagem de células somáticas do leite (CCS), o teor sanguíneo de cortisol e a resposta de anticorpos neutralizantes antivírus da raiva de vacas leiteiras. Trinta e duas vacas Holandesas em lactação foram blocadas em pares e aleatoriamente alocadas a um de dois tratamentos por 63 dias, posterior a um período de padronização de 14 dias. A CCS mensurada no final da padronização ajustou os valores semanais de CCS no modelo de análise estatística. Os tratamentos foram: 150 gramas de uma combinação homeopática (Hypothalamus, 10-30; Colibacilinum, 10-30; Streptococus Beta Hemolyticum, 10-60; Streptococus Uberis, 10-60; Phytolacca, 10-60; Calcium Phosphoricum, 10-30; Natrum Muriaticum, 10-60; Urtica Urens, 10-30; Silicea Terra, 10-400) em veículo mineral, ou 150 gramas do mesmo veículo mineral (controle). A homeopatia tendeu a aumentar a CCS de 124 para 222 x1.000 células mL-1 (P=0,09) e a CCS linearizada (P=0,08). Não foram detectados efeitos de tratamento sobre a concentração sérica de cortisol após estresse induzido por aspiração percutânea do saco ventral do rúmen (P=0,59) ou sobre o título de anticorpos neutralizantes em resposta à vacinação antivírus da raiva (P=0,40). A suplementação com homeopatia tendeu a aumentar a CCS de vacas com baixa CCS.

The effect of supplementing a homeopathic combination on milk somatic cell count (SCC), blood cortisol content and the antibody response to rabies vaccination of dairy cows was evaluated. Thirty-two lactating Holstein cows were paired blocked and randomly assigned to one of two treatments for 63 days, following a 14-day standardization period. The SCC measured at the end of standardization period adjusted weekly SCC values in the statistical analysis model. Treatments were: 150 grams of a homeopathic combination (Hypothalamus, 10-30; Colibacilinum, 10-30; Streptococcus Beta Hemolyticum, 10-60, Streptococcus Uberis, 10-60; Phytolacca, 10-60; Calcium Phosphoricum, 10-30; Natrum Muriaticum, 10-60; Urtica Urens, 10-30, Silicea Terra, 10-400) in mineral vehicle, or 150 grams of the same mineral vehicle (Control). Homeopathy tended to increase SCC from 124 to 222 x1,000 cells mL-1 (P=0.09) and linear SCC (P=0.08). There were no detectable treatment effects upon serum cortisol concentration following stress induced by percutaneous aspiration of the ventral rumen (P=0.59) and upon serum antibody title in response to rabies vaccination (P=0.40). The supplementation with homeopathy tented to increase the SCC of low SCC cows.

Animais , Feminino , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/metabolismo , Bovinos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Contagem de Células , Células Híbridas/metabolismo , Hidrocortisona/sangue , Homeopatia/veterinária , Raiva/veterinária , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição do Lactente , Mastite Bovina
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec ; 63(4): 922-930, ago. 2011. ilus, graf, tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: lil-599612


Avaliou-se o efeito da suplementação de uma combinação homeopática sobre o desempenho e a digestibilidade de nutrientes em vacas leiteiras. Trinta e duas vacas Holandesas foram blocadas em pares e aleatoriamente alocadas a um de dois tratamentos por 63 dias, posterior a um período de padronização de 14 dias. Variáveis mensuradas no final da padronização ajustaram medidas semanais da mesma variável no modelo de análise estatística. Os tratamentos foram: Suplementação diária com 150 gramas de uma combinação homeopática (Hypothalamus, 10-30; Colibacilinum, 10-30; Streptococus Beta Hemolyticum, 10-60; Streptococus Uberis, 10-60; Phytolacca, 10-60; Calcium Phosphoricum, 10-30; Natrum Muriaticum, 10-60; Urtica Urens, 10-30; Silicea Terra, 10-400) em veículo mineral, ou 150 gramas do mesmo veículo mineral (controle). A suplementação com homeopatia aumentou o teor de proteína no leite de 3,09 para 3,19 por cento (P=0,01) e tendeu a aumentar a secreção diária de proteína de 0,737 para 0,776kg (P=0,10). A queda na digestibilidade da fibra e da matéria orgânica (P=0,10), e a similaridade na relação entre alantoína e creatinina na urina (P=0,32), sugerem que houve aumento na eficiência de síntese de proteína microbiana no rúmen. Apesar de o mecanismo não ter sido elucidado, a combinação homeopática aumentou o teor de proteína do leite.

The effect of supplementing a homeopathic combination on dairy cow performance and nutrient digestibility was evaluated. Thirty-two Holstein cows were paired blocked and randomly assigned to one of two treatments for 63 days, following a 14-day standardization period. Variables measured at the end of the standardization period adjusted weekly measurements of the same variable in the statistical analysis model. Treatments were: Daily supplementation of 150 grams of a homeopathic combination (Hypothalamus, 10-30; Colibacilinum, 10-30; Streptococcus Beta Hemolyticum, 10-60, Streptococcus Uberis, 10-60; Phytolacca, 10-60; Calcium Phosphoricum, 10-30; Natrum Muriaticum, 10-60; Urtica Urens, 10-30, Silicea Terra, 10-400) in mineral vehicle, or 150 grams of the same mineral vehicle (Control). Supplementation with homeopathy increased milk protein content from 3.09 to 3.19 percent (P=0.01) and tended to increase the daily secretion of protein from 0.737 to 0.776kg (P=0.10). The trend for decreased fiber and organic matter digestibilities (P=0.10), and the similar allantoin to creatinine ratio in urine (P=0.32), suggests that there was an increase in the efficiency of microbial protein synthesis in the rumen. Although the mechanism could not be elucidated, the homeopathic combination increased milk protein content.

Animais , Feminino , Bovinos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Digestão , Homeopatia/veterinária , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição do Lactente , Motilidade Gastrointestinal , Silicea Terra/administração & dosagem , Sólidos Totais
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec ; 63(2): 423-432, abr. 2011. graf, tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: lil-591135


Avaliou-se a substituição parcial de farelo de soja na dieta-controle por ureia encapsulada ou por ureia, ambos acrescidos de polpa cítrica. Dezoito vacas foram alocadas a uma sequência de três tratamentos, em seis quadrados latinos 3x3, com períodos de 21 dias. O teor de proteína bruta nas dietas foi 15,5 por cento, cerca de 1,5 por cento oriundo de nitrogênio não proteico (NNP). O uso de NNP reduziu o consumo diário de matéria seca em 0,8kg (P=0,04), sem influenciar a produção de leite (31,5kg, P=0,98). A conversão do alimento em leite foi menor na dieta-controle (P<0,09). As fontes de NNP aumentaram o teor de N-ureico no plasma (NUP) duas horas após a alimentação da manhã (P=0,06). A frequência de NUP acima de 22,0mg/dL foi maior com ureia (P<0,01), similarmente ao observado para o teor e a secreção diária de N-ureico no leite (P<0,01). A substituição de farelo de soja por NNP e polpa cítrica melhorou a eficiência alimentar, sem afetar o balanço de nitrogênio.

The partial replacement of the soybean meal in the control diet for encapsulated urea or urea, both with added citrus pulp was evaluated. Eighteen Holstein cows were allocated to a sequence of the three treatments, in six 3x3 latin squares, with 21-day periods. The dietary level of crude protein was 15.5 percent, around 1.5 percent from non-protein nitrogen (NPN). The use of NPN reduced 0.8kg of daily dry matter intake (P=0.04), without affecting milk yield (31.5kg, P=0.98). The conversion of feed into milk decreased for the control diet (P<0.09). The NPN sources increased plasma urea-N (PUN) two hours after the morning feeding (P=0.06). The frequency of PUN above 22.0mg/dL was increased by urea (P<0.01), similarly to the observed for milk urea-N content and daily secretion (P<0.01). The replacement of soybean meal for NPN and citrus pulp improved feed efficiency, without affecting the nitrogen balance.

Animais , Alimentação Alternativa , Bovinos/classificação , Soja/classificação , Nitrogênio/química , Ureia/química