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1.
Food Chem ; 304: 125442, 2020 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31491714

RESUMO

In this study, the effects of moderate electric fields during thermal denaturation of ß-lactoglobulin were examined through an in situ circular dichroism approach, complemented by intrinsic extrinsic fluorescence analysis. Results have shown that the effects of electric fields in protein unfolding were linearly dependent on the applied electric field intensity (V/cm) and increased by the use of low electric frequencies - i.e. 50 to 200 Hz. These electric effects caused significant changes on ß-lactoglobulin melting temperature, unfolded conformation and subsequent intermolecular interactions, revealed by the increase of surface hydrophobicity (ANS affinity) and higher conservation of retinol binding. The obtained data provides a clear evidence that moderate electric fields contribute to distinct folding/unfolding of ß-lactoglobulin, resulting in structural modifications. These findings are relevant for (bio)-technological applications involving electric fields processing, bringing new insights for the development of innovative strategies to control protein function and tune production of functional protein systems.

2.
Food Res Int ; 116: 628-636, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30716989

RESUMO

Sodium caseinate (NaCAS) is widely used in the food industry to provide nutritional and functional benefits. This work deals with the effects of applying moderate electric fields (MEF) of different intensity - ranging from 2 V·cm-1 to 17 V·cm-1 - on the physical and functional properties of NaCAS solutions during Ohmic heating (OH) at 95 °C. Self-standing gels were produced regardless the heating technique applied (i.e. conventional or OH), and these gels were much more prone to physical rupture when compared with the ones produced from unheated NaCAS. Interestingly, OH treatment formed gels with lower values of strain at rupture and water holding capacity than unheated samples; this pattern was not observed for gels obtained through the conventional heating treatment (at 0 V·cm-1). These effects may be linked with disturbances of the distribution of random coil structures and enhanced solubility of NaCAS at its isoelectric point, reducing aggregation and impairing the development of a more compact protein network. Results show that OH presents potential to be used as volumetric heating tool for NaCAS solubilization and for the production of distinctive acidified systems.

3.
J Agric Food Chem ; 66(43): 11227-11233, 2018 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30296069

RESUMO

Milk proteins are being widely used in formulated foods as a result of their excellent technological, functional, and biological properties. However, the most representative proteins from casein and whey fractions are also recognized as major allergens and responsible for the prevalence of cow's milk protein allergy in childhood. Electroheating technologies based on thermal processing of food as a result of application of moderate electric fields, also known by ohmic heating (OH) or Joule effect, are establishing a solid foothold in the food industry. Currently, the influence of OH on allergenic aspects of milk proteins is under debate but still undisclosed. The occurrence of electrical effects on the protein structure and its function has already been reported; thus, the impact of OH over allergenicity should not be overlooked. On the basis of these recent findings, it is then relevant to speculate about the impact of this emergent technology on the potential allergenicity of milk proteins.


Assuntos
Eletricidade , Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Proteínas do Leite/química , Proteínas do Leite/imunologia , Alérgenos/química , Alérgenos/imunologia , Temperatura Alta , Hipersensibilidade a Leite
4.
Bioresour Technol ; 254: 325-339, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29395742

RESUMO

This review provides an overview of recent research on electrotechnologies applied to the valorization of bioresources. Following a comprehensive summary of the current status of the application of well-known electric-based processing technologies, such as pulsed electric fields (PEF) and high voltage electrical discharges (HVED), the application of moderate electric fields (MEF) as an extraction or valorization technology will be considered in detail. MEF, known by its improved energy efficiency and claimed electroporation effects (allowing enhanced extraction yields), may also originate high heating rates - ohmic heating (OH) effect - allowing thermal stabilization of waste stream for other added-value applications. MEF is a simple technology that mostly makes use of green solvents (mainly water) and that can be used on functionalization of compounds of biological origin broadening their application range. The substantial increase of MEF-based plants installed in industries worldwide suggests its straightforward application for waste recovery.


Assuntos
Reatores Biológicos , Eletricidade , Biocombustíveis
5.
Plant Foods Hum Nutr ; 73(1): 68-73, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29335878

RESUMO

This study aimed to recover bioactive compounds by solid-liquid extraction from the agro-industrial residue obtained during juçara fruits processing into pulp. A preliminary study using different solvents (methanol, ethanol and water) indicated ethanol in aqueous solution as the best solvent for antioxidants recovery. Then, a Box-Behnken design was applied considering as independent variables the solvent composition (30-70% ethanol in water), temperature (30-70 °C) and time (30-60 min), in order to evaluate the effects of these factors on antioxidant activity in juçara extract. Results showed that the extracts with higher antioxidant activity were obtained using 30% ethanol at 70 °C for 60 min; measurements included ABTS and DPPH assays, determination of total phenolic content and total monomeric anthocyanins. Furthermore, the effect of pH in antioxidants recovery was evaluated. For this purpose, the 30% ethanol solution was acidified to pH 1 and 2 with HCl. Principal component analysis showed the formation of three distinct groups: one characterized by high bioactive compounds content (pH 1.0), another with superior antioxidant activity (pH 5.75, non-acidified), and finally the group at pH 2 presenting the worst concentrations in the evaluated responses. HPLC analysis showed the presence of cyanidin-3-O-rutinoside and cyanidin-3-O-glucoside in the extracts. Therefore, the conventional solid-liquid extraction using renewable solvent can be successfully applied to recover bioactive compounds from juçara residue, which can be used by different food industries.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Fracionamento Químico/métodos , Euterpe/química , Antocianinas/análise , Antocianinas/isolamento & purificação , Antioxidantes/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Etanol/química , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Metanol/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Solventes/química
6.
Food Res Int ; 99(Pt 1): 435-443, 2017 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28784503

RESUMO

The influence that ohmic heating technology and its associated moderate electric fields (MEF) have upon production of whey protein isolate cold-set gels mediated by iron addition was investigated. Results have shown that combining heating treatments (90°C, 5min) with different MEF intensities let hydrogels with distinctive micro and macro properties - i.e. particle size distribution, physical stability, rheological behavior and microstructure. Resulting hydrogels were characterized (at nano-scale) by an intensity-weighted mean particle diameter of 145nm, a volume mean of 240nm. Optimal conditions for production of stable whey protein gels were attained when ohmic heating treatment at a MEF of 3V∙cm-1 was combined with a cold gelation step using 33mmol∙L-1 of Fe2+. The consistency index of hydrogels correlated negatively to MEF intensity, but a shear thickening behavior was observed when MEF intensity was increased up to 10V∙cm-1. According to transmission electron microscopy, ohmic heating gave rise to a more homogenous and compact fine-stranded whey protein-iron microstructure. Ohmic heating appears to be a promising technique, suitable to tailor properties of whey protein gels and with potential for development of innovative functional foods.

7.
Carbohydr Polym ; 174: 1181-1191, 2017 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28821043

RESUMO

Microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) can provide improved properties when the aim is the development of biodegradable packaging materials. In this work the physicochemical properties of polysaccharide-based films (chitosan and starch) with the incorporation of MCC and the application of moderate electric field (MEF) and ultrasonic bath (UB) as treatments, were evaluated. For each treatment, the thickness, moisture content, solubility, water vapor permeability, contact angle, mechanical properties, along with its color and opacity were determined. The surface morphologies of the films were assessed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) were also performed. It was observed that the addition of different concentrations of MCC as well as the application of MEF are responsible for changes in the properties of the films, being this effect dependent on the polysaccharide used. Chitosan-based films were slightly yellow, transparent and presented a more homogeneous structure. The use of MEF was efficient in decreasing the permeability to water vapor in chitosan based films without MCC, as well as in production of films with a more hydrophobic surface. The addition of MCC promoted more opaque, rigid, less flexible and less hydrophobic films. Starch-based films were whitish, with a more heterogeneous structure and the application of MEF generated more hydrophilic films with lower tensile strength and Young's modulus. The films with MCC were more opaque, less flexible and less hydrophilic than the films without MCC. The composites presented good thermal properties, which increases their applicability as packaging materials. Therefore, the incorporation of MCC into polysaccharide-based films as well as the application of MEF can be an approach to change the properties of films.

8.
Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr ; 57(7): 1377-1393, 2017 May 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26065435

RESUMO

Whey proteins are widely used as nutritional and functional ingredients in formulated foods because they are relatively inexpensive, generally recognized as safe (GRAS) ingredient, and possess important biological, physical, and chemical functionalities. Denaturation and aggregation behavior of these proteins is of particular relevance toward manufacture of novel nanostructures with a number of potential uses. When these processes are properly engineered and controlled, whey proteins may be formed into nanohydrogels, nanofibrils, or nanotubes and be used as carrier of bioactive compounds. This review intends to discuss the latest understandings of nanoscale phenomena of whey protein denaturation and aggregation that may contribute for the design of protein nanostructures. Whey protein aggregation and gelation pathways under different processing and environmental conditions such as microwave heating, high voltage, and moderate electrical fields, high pressure, temperature, pH, and ionic strength were critically assessed. Moreover, several potential applications of nanohydrogels, nanofibrils, and nanotubes for controlled release of nutraceutical compounds (e.g. probiotics, vitamins, antioxidants, and peptides) were also included. Controlling the size of protein networks at nanoscale through application of different processing and environmental conditions can open perspectives for development of nanostructures with new or improved functionalities for incorporation and release of nutraceuticals in food matrices.


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Nanoestruturas/química , Proteínas do Soro do Leite/química , Fenômenos Químicos , Inocuidade dos Alimentos , Géis/química , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Nanotubos/química , Desnaturação Proteica , Domínios e Motivos de Interação entre Proteínas , Temperatura Ambiente
9.
J Agric Food Chem ; 59(21): 11589-97, 2011 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21932854

RESUMO

Thermal processing often results in disruption of the native conformation of whey proteins, thus affecting functional properties. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of moderate electric fields on denaturation kinetics and thermodynamic properties of whey protein dispersions at temperatures ranging from 75 to 90 °C. Application of electric fields led to a lower denaturation of whey proteins, kinetically traduced by lower values of reaction order (n) and rate constant (k) (p < 0.05), when compared to those from conventional heating under equivalent heating rates and holding times. Furthermore, the application of electric fields combined with short come-up times has reduced considerably the denaturation of proteins during early stages of heating (>30% of native soluble protein than conventional heating) and has determined also considerable changes in calculated thermodynamic properties (such as E(a), ΔH(‡), ΔS(‡)). In general, denaturation reactions during moderate electric fields processing were less dependent on temperature increase.


Assuntos
Proteínas do Leite/química , Desnaturação Proteica , Animais , Bovinos , Eletricidade , Cinética , Termodinâmica , Proteínas do Soro do Leite
10.
Biomacromolecules ; 11(11): 2912-8, 2010 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20873858

RESUMO

Electric fields application is receiving increased attention because of its uniform heating of liquids. The mechanisms of unfolding and aggregation of whey proteins during ohmic heating may influence properties of edible films made thereof. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of ohmic heating on physical and structural properties of whey protein edible films and compare them with those obtained by conventional heating. The results showed that ohmic heating determined less aggregation and lower concentration of free sulphydryls in film-forming solutions. Ohmic films were thinner, less permeable to water vapor and presented nearly the same mechanical properties of conventional films. Ohmic heating induced protein conformational changes by increasing the contents of ß-sheet structures in the film network. This work emphasized the effects of ohmic heating in unfolding and aggregation mechanisms of whey proteins during heat denaturation, which determined the production of protein edible films with distinctive properties.


Assuntos
Proteínas do Leite/química , Eletricidade , Calefação , Dobramento de Proteína , Desdobramento de Proteína , Soluções , Proteínas do Soro do Leite
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