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1.
Emergencias (Sant Vicenç dels Horts) ; 32(1): 9-18, feb. 2020. graf, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS-Express | ID: ibc-ET2-3431

RESUMO

Objetivos. Analizar qué características clínicas y del ECG de la primera valoración de pacientes con dolor torácico no traumático (DNT) se asocian con una clasificación inicial de sospecha de síndrome coronario agudo (SCA) y con el diagnóstico final de SCA, e identificar cuáles resultan sobre o infravaloradas durante la clasificación inicial. Método. Se incluyeron las consultas consecutivas por DTNT en una unidad de dolor torácico durante 10 años (2008-2017) en las que se disponía de los diagnósticos inicial de sospecha (SCA/no SCA) y final de alta de urgencias (SCA/no SCA). Se incluyeron 33 variables independientes (2 demográficas, 5 comorbilidad cardiovascular, 22 dolor torácico, 4 datos ECG). Se calcularon las odds ratio (OR) para la clasificación (inicial y final) como SCA para cada variable independiente, crudas y ajustadas en modelos globales que incluían todas ellas. En estos modelos ajustados se comparó si las OR para la clasificación inicial y final como SCA eran significativamente diferentes. Resultados. Se incluyeron 34.552 visitas. Las 33 variables analizadas mostraron asociación significativa para la clasificación inicial y final del DTNT como SCA, y en muchos casos esta asociación se mantuvo en el modelo ajustado. Diecinueve variables mostraron OR significativamente diferentes para la sospecha inicial de SCA que para el diagnóstico final de SCA: 10 sobrestimaban la asociación final y 9 la subestimaban. Conclusión. Los datos clínicos iniciales clásicamente utilizados para sospechar SCA pacientes con DTNT en urgencias identifican todos ellos individualmente a pacientes con riesgo incrementado de ser clasificado inicial y finalmente como SCA; sin embargo, algunos de ellos sobreestiman y otros subestiman inicialmente el riesgo final. Los urgenciólogos debieran sensibilizarse más con estos datos subestimados


Objectives. To analyze clinical data and electrocardiographic (ECG) findings obtained during the initial evaluation of patients with nontraumatic chest pain (NTCP). To explore associations between these findings and the initial and final diagnoses of acute coronary syndrome (ACS). To assess which variables initially over- or underestimate risk ACS. Methods. Consecutive patients with NTCP attended in a chest pain unit during the 10-year period of 2008–2017 were included if the suspected and discharge diagnoses of interest (ACS or non-ACS) had been recorded. Thirtythree independent variables (demographic, 2; cardiovascular, 5; chest pain, 22; ECG, 4). We included all variables in models to calculate crude and adjusted odds ratios (ORs) between each independent variable and the initial and final diagnoses. The adjusted ORs were compared to determine whether the initial and final diagnoses of ACS differed significantly in relation to the variables. Results. A total of 34 552 patient visits were attended. The ORs for the 33 variables were significantly associated with initial and final NTCP classification as ACS or non-ACS, and in many cases the association was confirmed by the adjusted ORs. The adjusted ORs for 19 variables were significantly different in their relation to the initial and final diagnoses of ACS: 10 overpredicted the probability of the diagnosis and 9 underpredicted it. Conclusions. The variables traditionally used to warn of ACS in emergency patients with NTCP identify individuals likely to be initially and finally diagnosed with ACS. However, some of these variables overestimate or underestimate the risk of a final ACS diagnosis. Emergency medicine physicians should be aware of variables associated with underestimation of risk

2.
Emergencias (Sant Vicenç dels Horts) ; 31(6): 377-384, dic. 2019. graf, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-ET2-3122

RESUMO

Objetivo. Analizar la evolución de las características epidemiológicas de las visitas atendidas de forma consecutiva en una unidad de dolor torácico (UDT) de un servicio de urgencias hospitalario (SUH) durante un periodo de 10 años. Método. Se incluyeron todas las visitas por dolor torácico no traumático (DTNT), analizándose la evolución temporal de las características epidemiológicas, de la clasificación diagnóstica inicial (evaluación clínica inicial y electrocardiograma) y final (al alta de la UDT), y los tiempos necesarios para alcanzar las mismas. Resultados. Se incluyeron 34.552 pacientes consecutivos con una edad media 59 (DE: 13) años, el 42% mujeres. Se observó un incrementó en el número anual de visitas a la UDT (p < 0,001), menor afluencia los meses de verano (p < 0,001), y mayor los días laborables (p < 0,001) y de 8-16 horas (p < 0,001). Se comprobó que progresivamente más pacientes eran mujeres (+0,29% anual, p < 0,05), menores de 50 años (+0,92%, p < 0,001), con más factores de riesgo cardiovascular, menos antecedentes de cardiopatía isquémica y con DTNT menos sugestivo de síndrome coronario agudo (SCA). La clasificación diagnóstica inicial y final descartó SCA en un 52,2% y un 80,4% de pacientes, respectivamente, hecho que aumentó progresivamente durante el periodo evaluado (+1,86%, p < 0,001; y +0,56%, p = 0,04; respectivamente). El tiempo de clasificación inicial no se modificó, pero se incrementó el necesario para la clasificación final (p < 0,001), que resultó superior en pacientes con diagnostico final de SCA (p < 0,001). Conclusión. Se observa un mayor uso de la UDT tras su creación, causado por un incremento de pacientes con DTNT de características no típicamente coronarias, disminuyendo el porcentaje de clasificados inicial y finalmente como debidos a SCA


Objective. To analyze changes in the characteristics of consecutively treated patients attended in the chest pain unit of a hospital emergency department over a 10-year period. Methods. All patients presenting with nontraumatic chest pain (NTCP) were included. We analyzed changes over time in epidemiologic characteristics, initial diagnostic classification (on clinical and electrocardiographic evaluation), final diagnosis (on discharge), and time until these diagnoses. Results. A total of 34 552 consecutive patients with a mean (SD) age of 59 (13) years were included; 42% were women. The annual number of visits rose over time. Visits were fewer in summer and more numerous on workdays and between the hours of 8 AM and 4 PM (P<.001, both comparisons). The number of women increased over time (up 0.29% annually, P<.05) as did the number of patients under the age of 50 years (up 0.92% annually, P<.001). With time, patients had fewer cardiovascular risk factors and less often had a history of ischemic heart disease. Fewer cases of NTCP had signs suggestive of acute coronary syndrome (ACS). ACS was ruled out at the time of initial and final diagnoses in 52.2% and 80.4%, respectively, and these percentages which rose over the 10-year period by 1.86% (P<.001) and 0.56% (P=.04). Time to initial diagnosis did not change. However, time to final diagnosis did increase (P<.001), and the delay was longer in patients diagnosed with ACS (P<.001). Conclusions. The chest pain unit was more active at the end of the period, in keeping with the increase in patients with NTCP whose characteristics were not typical of coronary disease. The percentages of patients initially and finally diagnosed with ACS decreased with time


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Dor no Peito/epidemiologia , Serviços Médicos de Emergência , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/epidemiologia , Métodos Epidemiológicos , Assistência Ambulatorial/organização & administração , Assistência Ambulatorial/estatística & dados numéricos , Infarto do Miocárdio sem Supradesnível do Segmento ST , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Análise de Variância
3.
Emergencias ; 31(6): 377-384, 2019.
Artigo em Espanhol, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31777208

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To analyze changes in the characteristics of consecutively treated patients attended in the chest pain unit of a hospital emergency department over a 10-year period. MATERIAL AND METHODS: All patients presenting with nontraumatic chest pain (NTCP) were included. We analyzed changes over time in epidemiologic characteristics, initial diagnostic classification (on clinical and electrocardiographic evaluation), final diagnosis (on discharge), and time until these diagnoses. RESULTS: A total of 34 552 consecutive patients with a mean (SD) age of 59 (13) years were included; 42% were women. The annual number of visits rose over time. Visits were fewer in summer and more numerous on workdays and between the hours of 8 AM and 4 PM (P<.001, both comparisons). The number of women increased over time (up 0.29% annually, P<.05) as did the number of patients under the age of 50 years (up 0.92% annually, P<.001). With time, patients had fewer cardiovascular risk factors and less often had a history of ischemic heart disease. Fewer cases of NTCP had signs suggestive of acute coronary syndrome (ACS). ACS was ruled out at the time of initial and final diagnoses in 52.2% and 80.4%, respectively, and these percentages which rose over the 10-year period by 1.86% (P<.001) and 0.56% (P=.04). Time to initial diagnosis did not change. However, time to final diagnosis did increase (P<.001), and the delay was longer in patients diagnosed with ACS (P<.001). CONCLUSION: The chest pain unit was more active at the end of the period, in keeping with the increase in patients with NTCP whose characteristics were not typical of coronary disease. The percentages of patients initially and finally diagnosed with ACS decreased with time.

4.
Emergencias (Sant Vicenç dels Horts) ; 30(6): 405-407, dic. 2018. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-179710

RESUMO

Objetivo. Identificar la principales drogas de abuso que producen intoxicación aguda en el paciente VIH. Método. Estudio retrospectivo de 1 año evolución de los episodios de intoxicación por drogas de abuso en el paciente VIH en un servicio de urgencias. Se definió chemsex como el consumo de metanfetamina, GHB/GBL o mefedrona para mantener relaciones sexuales prolongadas. Resultados. Se incluyeron 101 pacientes, 93 (92%) eran varones. La principal droga fue la cocaína en 52 (51%) pacientes, seguida del GHB y anfetaminas. La prevalencia de chemsex fue del 87%. La mortalidad de la serie fue del 2%. El consumo de anfetaminas predijo ingreso en cuidados intensivos: OR 9,2 (IC 95% 1,6-52,2); p = 0,012. Conclusión. La cocaína fue la principal causa de intoxicación aguda. El chemsex tuvieron una elevada prevalencia


Objective. To identify the drugs usually abused in cases of acute poisoning in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected patients. Methods. Retrospective study of episodes of acute street drug poisoning in HIV-infected patients in our emergency department over a period of 1 year. Chemsex was defined as the use of methamphetamines, gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB), gamma-butyrolactone (GBL), and/or mephedrone in order to prolong sexual activity. Results. We included 101 patients, 93 (92%) of whom were men. The drug that caused the most cases of acute poisoning was cocaine, detected in 52 patients (51%). GHB and amphetamines were the next most frequently implicated street drugs. The prevalence of chemsex in this series was 87%. Mortality was 2%. Amphetamine poisoning was related to intensive care unit admission (odds ratio, 9,2 [95% CI, 1.6–52.2], P=.012). Conclusion. Cocaine use was the main cause of acute poisoning in this series. The prevalence of chemsex was high


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , HIV , Drogas Ilícitas/envenenamento , Envenenamento/etiologia , Cocaína/envenenamento , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Cocaína/mortalidade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia , Metanfetamina/envenenamento , Psicotrópicos/farmacocinética , Oxibato de Sódio/envenenamento
6.
Emergencias ; 30(6): 405-407, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30638344

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To identify the drugs usually abused in cases of acute poisoning in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected patients. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Retrospective study of episodes of acute street drug poisoning in HIV-infected patients in our emergency department over a period of 1 year. Chemsex was defined as the use of methamphetamines, -hydroxybutyrate (GHB), -butyrolactone (GBL), and/or mephedrone in order to prolong sexual activity. RESULTS: We included 101 patients, 93 (92%) of whom were men. The drug that caused the most cases of acute poisoning was cocaine, detected in 52 patients (51%). GHB and amphetamines were the next most frequently implicated street drugs. The prevalence of chemsex in this series was 87%. Mortality was 2%. Amphetamine poisoning was related to intensive care unit admission (odds ratio, 9,2 [95% CI, 1.6-52.2], P=.012). CONCLUSION: Cocaine use was the main cause of acute poisoning in this series. The prevalence of chemsex was high.


Assuntos
Overdose de Drogas/etiologia , Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Comportamento Sexual , Doença Aguda , Adulto , Overdose de Drogas/diagnóstico , Overdose de Drogas/epidemiologia , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Espanha
7.
Enferm. infecc. microbiol. clín. (Ed. impr.) ; 33(4): 243-247, abr. 2015. ilus, tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-136738

RESUMO

Aim: To describe the, incidence, the changes in the etiology and the prognosis of lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) in HIV infected patients, presenting by the first time to the Emergency Department (ED), during years 2000-2010. Study design: Prospective collection of data. Methods: Data were collected on the first visit of HIV-infected patients at our ED due to a LRTI, (defined according to the criteria of the European Respiratory Society), between 1/1/2000 and 31/12/2010. A series of epidemiological and laboratory variables as well as the need for admission to the intensive care unit (ICU). LRTI etiology were also collected. The influence of the mentioned variables on 30-day mortality were analyzed. Results One hundred thirty one patients were included. LRTI represented 27% of visits to the ED by HIV-infected patients. Mean age was 39±9 years. 72% of patients were males. 18% required admission to the ICU. The most frequent LRTI was pneumonia by P. jiroveci in 35 cases, bacterial penumonia in 27 and pulmonary tuberculosis in 20. LRTI incidence gradually reduced significantly over time from 6.13 × 1000 patients/year in year 2000 to 0.23 × 1000 patients/year in 2010 (p<0.05). Overall mortality was 14%. Logistic regression analysis showed that admission to ICU (p<0.004) and viral load (p<0.029) were independent variables predicting mortality. Conclusion: LRTI is a pathology with a decreasing incidence, probably related to the widespread utilization increased of HAART regimens. lts etiology has also been changing, but with a non negligible mortality, mostly when ICU admission was required (AU)


Objetivo: Describir la incidencia, la etiología y el pronóstico de la infección de las vías respiratorias bajas (IVRB) en los pacientes VIH, que acudieron a un Servicio de Urgencias (SU), durante el período del 2000–2010. Diseño: del estudio Estudio prospectivo de 10 años de evolución. Métodos: Se recogió únicamente el primer episodio del paciente que acude al SU por IRVB (definida según laEuropean Respiratory Society). Se analizaron una serie de variables epidemiológicas y de laboratorio, así como la necesidad de ingreso en una unidad de cuidados intensivos (UCI). Se estudió la etiología de la IRVB y la incidencia. Finalmente se analizaron la influencia de las variables con la mortalidad a 30 días. Resultados Se incluyeron un total de 131 pacientes. La edad media fue de 39 ± 9 años. El 72% de los pacientes eran varones y el 18% de los pacientes requirieron ingreso en la UCI. La IRVB más frecuente fue la neumonía por P. jirovecci, seguida de la neumonía bacteriana en 27 y la tuberculosis pulmonar en 20. La incidencia de IRVB se ha ido reduciendo gradualmente de forma significativa, 6,13 × 1.000 pacientes/año en 2000 a 0,23 × 1.000 pacientes/año en 2010 (p < 0,05). El análisis de regresión logística mostró que la única variable que predijo mortalidad fue el ingreso en UCI (p < 0,05; OR: 73,01). Conclusión: La IRVB es una enfermedad cuya incidencia y etiología han ido disminuyendo y cambiando respectivamente, probablemente en relación con la utilización generalizada del TAR. Sin embargo, todavía presenta una mortalidad nada despreciable, que es mayor cuando el paciente requiere ingreso en la UCI (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/complicações , Infecções Oportunistas Relacionadas com a AIDS/epidemiologia , Infecções Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Pneumocystis carinii/isolamento & purificação , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Prospectivos
8.
Enferm Infecc Microbiol Clin ; 33(4): 243-7, 2015 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25195179

RESUMO

AIM: To describe the incidence, the changes in the etiology and the prognosis of lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) in HIV infected patients, presenting by the first time to the Emergency Department (ED), during years 2000-2010. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective collection of data. METHODS: Data were collected on the first visit of HIV-infected patients at our ED due to a LRTI, (defined according to the criteria of the European Respiratory Society), between 1/1/2000 and 31/12/2010. A series of epidemiological and laboratory variables as well as the need for admission to the intensive care unit (ICU). LRTI etiology were also collected. The influence ofthe mentioned variables on 30-day mortality were analyzed. RESULTS: One hundred thirty one patients were included. LRTI represented 27% of visits to the ED by HIV-infected patients. Mean age was 39±9 years. 72% of patients were males. 18% required admission to the ICU. The most frequent LRTI was pneumonia by P. jiroveci in 35 cases, bacterial penumonia in 27 and pulmonary tuberculosis in 20. LRTI incidence gradually reduced significantly over time from 6.13 × 1000 patients/year in year 2000 to 0.23 × 1000 patients/year in 2010 (p<0.05). Overall mortality was 14%. Logistic regression analysis showed that admission to ICU (p<0.004) and viral load (p<0.029) were independent variables predicting mortality. CONCLUSION: LRTI is a pathology with a decreasing incidence, probably related to the widespread utilization increased of HAART regimens. lts etiology has also been changing, but with a non negligible mortality, mostly when ICU admission was required.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Pneumonia/epidemiologia , Adulto , Comorbidade , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Morbidade/tendências , Pneumonia Bacteriana/epidemiologia , Pneumonia por Pneumocystis/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Associada à Ventilação Mecânica/epidemiologia , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Espanha/epidemiologia , Tuberculose Pulmonar/epidemiologia , Carga Viral , Adulto Jovem
9.
PLoS One ; 8(4): e60273, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23565216

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pneumococcal pneumonia causes significant morbidity and mortality among adults. Given limitations of diagnostic tests for non-bacteremic pneumococcal pneumonia, most studies report the incidence of bacteremic or invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD), and thus, grossly underestimate the pneumococcal pneumonia burden. We aimed to develop a conceptual and quantitative strategy to estimate the non-bacteremic disease burden among adults with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) using systematic study methods and the availability of a urine antigen assay. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We performed a systematic literature review of studies providing information on the relative yield of various diagnostic assays (BinaxNOW® S. pneumoniae urine antigen test (UAT) with blood and/or sputum culture) in diagnosing pneumococcal pneumonia. We estimated the proportion of pneumococcal pneumonia that is bacteremic, the proportion of CAP attributable to pneumococcus, and the additional contribution of the Binax UAT beyond conventional diagnostic techniques, using random effects meta-analytic methods and bootstrapping. We included 35 studies in the analysis, predominantly from developed countries. The estimated proportion of pneumococcal pneumonia that is bacteremic was 24.8% (95% CI: 21.3%, 28.9%). The estimated proportion of CAP attributable to pneumococcus was 27.3% (95% CI: 23.9%, 31.1%). The Binax UAT diagnosed an additional 11.4% (95% CI: 9.6, 13.6%) of CAP beyond conventional techniques. We were limited by the fact that not all patients underwent all diagnostic tests and by the sensitivity and specificity of the diagnostic tests themselves. We address these resulting biases and provide a range of plausible values in order to estimate the burden of pneumococcal pneumonia among adults. CONCLUSIONS: Estimating the adult burden of pneumococcal disease from bacteremic pneumococcal pneumonia data alone significantly underestimates the true burden of disease in adults. For every case of bacteremic pneumococcal pneumonia, we estimate that there are at least 3 additional cases of non-bacteremic pneumococcal pneumonia.


Assuntos
Pneumonia Pneumocócica/diagnóstico , Streptococcus pneumoniae , Adulto , Bacteriemia/diagnóstico , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas , Humanos , Pneumonia Pneumocócica/epidemiologia , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Streptococcus pneumoniae/imunologia , Streptococcus pneumoniae/isolamento & purificação
10.
Eur J Intern Med ; 24(6): 579-82, 2013 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23535226

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Spontaneous rectus sheath hematoma is an uncommon and often misdiagnosed cause of abdominal pain. The aim of this study is to describe our experience in their management. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of the characteristics and outcomes of the spontaneous rectus sheath hematomas diagnosed over the last 12years was conducted. RESULTS: 24 patients were included (66% women; mean age: 74years; range: 54-87). All cases presented predisposing factors mainly anticoagulant therapy in 21 (87.5%) patients, hypertension in 19 (79.1%) and abdominal surgery in 12 (50%) cases. Eighteen (75%) referred triggering factors like coughing being the most common one, present in 17 (70.8%) patients. The main clinical findings were abdominal pain in 21 (87.5%) cases and the existence of an abdominal mass in 20 (83.3%). The diagnosis was confirmed by abdominal ultrasonography and/or computerized tomography in 23 (95.8%) patients. Nineteen cases (79.1%) responded to conservative management while 5 (20.8%) required interventional treatment, which consisted in an arteriography with selective embolization of the epigastric arteries in all cases. Four (80%) of the patients needing interventional treatment were receiving low molecular weight heparin. Nine (37.5%) patients developed hypovolemic shock and 1 (4%) died. CONCLUSIONS: Spontaneous rectus sheath hematomas should be considered in the differential diagnosis of abdominal pain, particularly in elderly women under anticoagulant therapy with onset of symptoms after a bout of cough. Most cases respond to conservative management, although those related to low molecular weight heparin might require interventional treatment; arteriography with selective embolization of the epigastric arteries is the first therapeutic option.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/efeitos adversos , Embolização Terapêutica , Artérias Epigástricas , Hematoma/diagnóstico , Reto do Abdome , Dor Abdominal/etiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Hematoma/complicações , Hematoma/terapia , Humanos , Hipertensão/complicações , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reto do Abdome/diagnóstico por imagem , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Resultado do Tratamento , Ultrassonografia
13.
Eur J Emerg Med ; 18(1): 50-4, 2011 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20531201

RESUMO

The aim of our study was to determine the usefulness of pneumococcal urinary antigen (UA) collected in the emergency department (ED) for the microbiologic diagnosis of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in HIV patients and to compare it with other diagnostic tests. Prospective study from 1 January 2007 to 31 December 2008 included HIV-infected patients admitted at the ED with respiratory symptoms and who were diagnosed of CAP. UA, two blood cultures and sputum sample for culture determination were collected from every patient. Sixty-four patients were included. The mean age was 42 years. A total of 31 (48%) UA tests, 12 (19%) blood cultures and 21 (33%) sputum cultures tested positive. A microbiological diagnosis was obtained in 38 (59%) cases. Pneumococcal pneumonia was diagnosed in 32 cases. The statistical analysis showed that the test with best performance was the UA, both in relation to blood and sputum cultures (P<0.05). Two patients died during hospitalization (series mortality of 3%). In conclusion, given its good diagnostic performance, UA should be requested in the ED for the aetiological diagnosis of CAP.


Assuntos
Infecções Oportunistas Relacionadas com a AIDS/diagnóstico , Antígenos de Bactérias/urina , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/diagnóstico , HIV-1 , Streptococcus pneumoniae/isolamento & purificação , Infecções Oportunistas Relacionadas com a AIDS/microbiologia , Infecções Oportunistas Relacionadas com a AIDS/urina , Adulto , Técnicas Bacteriológicas/métodos , Sangue/microbiologia , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/sangue , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/microbiologia , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/urina , Medicina de Emergência , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Espanha , Escarro/microbiologia
15.
Am J Emerg Med ; 28(4): 454-9, 2010 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20466225

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: HIV-1-infected patients have higher incidence of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and risk of complications. Bacteremia has been associated with a higher risk of complications in such patients. We investigated factors associated with bacteremia in HIV-1-infected patients with CAP presenting at the emergency department. METHODS: We included HIV-1-infected patients with CAP for 3 years (March 2005-February 2008). Only patients in whom blood cultures were performed were finally included. Clinical data (age; sex; CD4(+) count; serum HIV viral load; previous or current intravenous drug use and antiretroviral treatment; systolic blood pressure; and cardiac and respiratory rates), analytical data (leukocyte count, arterial oxygen content, C-reactive protein value, and urgent Streptococcus pneumoniae and Legionella spp antigen urine detection), and APACHE-II (Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation) score were compiled. The need for intensive care unit admission, mechanical ventilation, mortality, and for patients finally discharged, duration of admission were retrospectively obtained from the clinical history. A multivariate analysis using logistic regression was performed to find independent predictors of bacteremia. RESULTS: We diagnosed 129 HIV-1-infected patients with CAP. Blood cultures were performed in 118 cases (91%). Bacteremia was present in 28 (24%). Independent predictors of bacteremia were the detection of S pneumoniae antigen in urine (odds ratio, 9.0; 95% confidence interval, 1.9-42.0) and the absence of current antiretroviral treatment (odds ratio, 7.1; 95% confidence interval, 1.4-33.3). In-hospital mortality was higher in patients with bacteremia (15% vs 0%). CONCLUSION: HIV-1-infected patients with CAP who are not on current antiretroviral therapy and have positive S pneumoniae antigenuria are at increased risk of having bacteremia. Bacteremic patients have a poor outcome.


Assuntos
Bacteriemia/diagnóstico , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Pneumonia Bacteriana/diagnóstico , APACHE , Adulto , Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Antígenos de Bactérias/sangue , Bacteriemia/etiologia , Bacteriemia/microbiologia , Proteína C-Reativa/análise , Contagem de Linfócito CD4 , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/diagnóstico , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/etiologia , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/microbiologia , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Feminino , HIV-1 , Infecções por Haemophilus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Haemophilus/etiologia , Haemophilus influenzae/imunologia , Humanos , Contagem de Leucócitos , Masculino , Infecções Pneumocócicas/diagnóstico , Infecções Pneumocócicas/etiologia , Pneumonia Bacteriana/etiologia , Pneumonia Bacteriana/microbiologia , Fatores de Risco , Infecções Estreptocócicas/diagnóstico , Infecções Estreptocócicas/etiologia , Streptococcus pneumoniae/imunologia , Streptococcus pyogenes/imunologia , Resultado do Tratamento
16.
Clin Vaccine Immunol ; 17(3): 447-53, 2010 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20042521

RESUMO

Gene polymorphisms, giving rise to low serum levels of mannose-binding lectin (MBL) or MBL-associated protease 2 (MASP2), have been associated with an increased risk of infections. The objective of this study was to assess the outcome of intensive care unit (ICU) patients with systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) regarding the existence of functionally relevant MBL2 and MASP2 gene polymorphisms. The study included 243 ICU patients with SIRS admitted to our hospital, as well as 104 healthy control subjects. MBL2 and MASP2 single nucleotide polymorphisms were genotyped using a sequence-based typing technique. No differences were observed regarding the frequencies of low-MBL genotypes (O/O and XA/O) and MASP2 polymorphisms between patients with SIRS and healthy controls. Interestingly, ICU patients with a noninfectious SIRS had a lower frequency for low-MBL genotypes and a higher frequency for high-MBL genotypes (A/A and A/XA) than either ICU patients with an infectious SIRS or healthy controls. The existence of low- or /high-MBL genotypes or a MASP2 polymorphism had no impact on the mortality rates of the included patients. The presence of high-MBL-producing genotypes in patients with a noninfectious insult is a risk factor for SIRS and ICU admission.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença , Lectina de Ligação a Manose/genética , Serina Proteases Associadas a Proteína de Ligação a Manose/genética , Síndrome de Resposta Inflamatória Sistêmica/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Adulto Jovem
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