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2.
BMJ Evid Based Med ; 25(1): 33-37, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31326896

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: GUIDE-IT, the largest trial to date, published in August 2017, evaluating the effectiveness of natriuretic peptide (NP)-guided treatment of heart failure (HF), was stopped early for futility on a composite outcome. However, the reported effect sizes on individual outcomes of all-cause mortality and HF admissions are potentially clinically relevant. OBJECTIVE: This systematic review and meta-analysis aims to combine all available trial level evidence to determine if NP-guided treatment of HF reduces all-cause mortality and HF admissions in patients with HF. STUDY SELECTION: Eight databases, no language restrictions, up to November 2017 were searched for all randomised controlled trials comparing NP-guided treatment versus clinical assessment alone in adult patients with HF. No language restrictions were applied. Publications were independently double screened and extracted. Fixed-effect meta-analyses were conducted. FINDINGS: 89 papers were included, reporting 19 trials (4554 participants), average ages 62-80 years. Pooled risk ratio estimates for all-cause mortality (16 trials, 4063 participants) were 0.87, 95% CI 0.77 to 0.99 and 0.80, 95% CI 0.72 to 0.89 for HF admissions (11 trials, 2822 participants). Sensitivity analyses, restricted to low risk of bias, produced similar estimates, but were no longer statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS: Considering all the evidence to date, the pooled effects suggest that NP-guided treatment is beneficial in reducing HF admissions and all-cause mortality. However, there is still insufficient high-quality evidence to make definitive recommendations on the use of NP-guided treatment in clinical practice. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: Systematic Review Cochrane Database Number: CD008966.

3.
J Gen Intern Med ; 2019 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31720968

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Advance care planning is widely advocated to improve outcomes in end-of-life care for patients suffering from heart failure. But until now, there has been no systematic evaluation of the impact of advance care planning (ACP) on clinical outcomes. Our aim was to determine the effect of ACP in heart failure through a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs). METHODS: We searched CINAHL, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Database of Systematic Reviews, Embase, ERIC, Ovid MEDLINE, Science Citation Index and PsycINFO (inception to July 2018). We selected RCTs including adult patients with heart failure treated in a hospital, hospice or community setting. Three reviewers independently screened studies, extracted data, assessed the risk of bias (Cochrane risk of bias tool) and evaluated the quality of evidence (GRADE tool) and analysed interventions according to the Template for Intervention Description and Replication (TIDieR). We calculated standardized mean differences (SMD) in random effects models for pooled effects using the generic inverse variance method. RESULTS: Fourteen RCTs including 2924 participants met all of the inclusion criteria. There was a moderate effect in favour of ACP for quality of life (SMD, 0.38; 95% CI [0.09 to 0.68]), patients' satisfaction with end-of-life care (SMD, 0.39; 95% CI [0.14 to 0.64]) and the quality of end-of-life communication (SMD, 0.29; 95% CI [0.17 to 0.42]) for patients suffering from heart failure. ACP seemed most effective if it was introduced at significant milestones in a patient's disease trajectory, included family members, involved follow-up appointments and considered ethnic preferences. Several sensitivity analyses confirmed the statistically significant direction of effect. Heterogeneity was mainly due to different study settings, length of follow-up periods and compositions of ACP. CONCLUSIONS: ACP improved quality of life, patient satisfaction with end-of-life care and the quality of end-of-life communication for patients suffering from heart failure and could be most effective when the right timing, follow-up and involvement of important others was considered.

4.
BMJ Open ; 9(9): e030596, 2019 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31542753

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of drug interventions that may modify the progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in adults with CKD stages 3 and 4. DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis. METHODS: Searching MEDLINE, EMBASE, Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, International Clinical Trials Registry Platform, Health Technology Assessment, Science Citation Index, Social Sciences Citation Index, Conference Proceedings Citation Index and Clinical Trials Register, from March 1999 to July 2018, we identified randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of drugs for hypertension, lipid modification, glycaemic control and sodium bicarbonate, compared with placebo, no drug or a drug from another class, in ≥40 adults with CKD stages 3 and/or 4, with at least 2 years of follow-up and reporting renal function (primary outcome), proteinuria, adverse events, maintenance dialysis, transplantation, cardiovascular events, cardiovascular mortality or all-cause mortality. Two reviewers independently screened citations and extracted data. For continuous outcomes, we used the ratio of means (ROM) at the end of the trial in random-effects meta-analyses. We assessed methodological quality with the Cochrane Risk of Bias Tool and confidence in the evidence using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) framework. RESULTS: We included 35 RCTs and over 51 000 patients. Data were limited, and heterogeneity varied. Final renal function (estimated glomerular filtration rate) was 6% higher in those taking glycaemic control drugs (ROM 1.06, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.10, I2=0%, low GRADE confidence) and 4% higher in those taking lipid-modifying drugs (ROM 1.04, 95% CI 1.00 to 1.08, I2=88%, very low GRADE confidence). For RCTs of antihypertensive drugs, there were no significant differences in renal function. Treatment with lipid-modifying drugs led to a 36% reduction in cardiovascular disease and 26% reduction in all-cause mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Glycaemic control and lipid-modifying drugs may slow the progression of CKD, but we found no pooled evidence of benefit nor harm from antihypertensive drugs. However, given the data limitations, further research is needed to confirm these findings. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42015017501.

5.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 7: CD004307, 2019 07 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31313293

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Financial incentives, monetary or vouchers, are widely used in an attempt to precipitate, reinforce and sustain behaviour change, including smoking cessation. They have been used in workplaces, in clinics and hospitals, and within community programmes. OBJECTIVES: To determine the long-term effect of incentives and contingency management programmes for smoking cessation. SEARCH METHODS: For this update, we searched the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group Specialised Register, clinicaltrials.gov, and the International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP). The most recent searches were conducted in July 2018. SELECTION CRITERIA: We considered only randomised controlled trials, allocating individuals, workplaces, groups within workplaces, or communities to smoking cessation incentive schemes or control conditions. We included studies in a mixed-population setting (e.g. community, work-, clinic- or institution-based), and also studies in pregnant smokers. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We used standard Cochrane methods. The primary outcome measure in the mixed-population studies was abstinence from smoking at longest follow-up (at least six months from the start of the intervention). In the trials of pregnant women we used abstinence measured at the longest follow-up, and at least to the end of the pregnancy. Where available, we pooled outcome data using a Mantel-Haenzel random-effects model, with results reported as risk ratios (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs), using adjusted estimates for cluster-randomised trials. We analysed studies carried out in mixed populations separately from those carried out in pregnant populations. MAIN RESULTS: Thirty-three mixed-population studies met our inclusion criteria, covering more than 21,600 participants; 16 of these are new to this version of the review. Studies were set in varying locations, including community settings, clinics or health centres, workplaces, and outpatient drug clinics. We judged eight studies to be at low risk of bias, and 10 to be at high risk of bias, with the rest at unclear risk. Twenty-four of the trials were run in the USA, two in Thailand and one in the Phillipines. The rest were European. Incentives offered included cash payments or vouchers for goods and groceries, offered directly or collected and redeemable online. The pooled RR for quitting with incentives at longest follow-up (six months or more) compared with controls was 1.49 (95% CI 1.28 to 1.73; 31 RCTs, adjusted N = 20,097; I2 = 33%). Results were not sensitive to the exclusion of six studies where an incentive for cessation was offered at long-term follow up (result excluding those studies: RR 1.40, 95% CI 1.16 to 1.69; 25 RCTs; adjusted N = 17,058; I2 = 36%), suggesting the impact of incentives continues for at least some time after incentives cease.Although not always clearly reported, the total financial amount of incentives varied considerably between trials, from zero (self-deposits), to a range of between USD 45 and USD 1185. There was no clear direction of effect between trials offering low or high total value of incentives, nor those encouraging redeemable self-deposits.We included 10 studies of 2571 pregnant women. We judged two studies to be at low risk of bias, one at high risk of bias, and seven at unclear risk. When pooled, the nine trials with usable data (eight conducted in the USA and one in the UK), delivered an RR at longest follow-up (up to 24 weeks post-partum) of 2.38 (95% CI 1.54 to 3.69; N = 2273; I2 = 41%), in favour of incentives. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Overall there is high-certainty evidence that incentives improve smoking cessation rates at long-term follow-up in mixed population studies. The effectiveness of incentives appears to be sustained even when the last follow-up occurs after the withdrawal of incentives. There is also moderate-certainty evidence, limited by some concerns about risks of bias, that incentive schemes conducted among pregnant smokers improve smoking cessation rates, both at the end of pregnancy and post-partum. Current and future research might explore more precisely differences between trials offering low or high cash incentives and self-incentives (deposits), within a variety of smoking populations.


Assuntos
Motivação , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/métodos , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/psicologia , Terapia Comportamental , Feminino , Instalações de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Gravidez , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Recompensa , Prevenção do Hábito de Fumar , Local de Trabalho
7.
BMJ Open ; 9(6): e028062, 2019 06 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31196901

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To characterise serum creatinine and urinary protein testing in UK general practices from 2005 to 2013 and to examine how the frequency of testing varies across demographic factors, with the presence of chronic conditions and with the prescribing of drugs for which kidney function monitoring is recommended. DESIGN: Retrospective open cohort study. SETTING: Routinely collected data from 630 UK general practices contributing to the Clinical Practice Research Datalink. PARTICIPANTS: 4 573 275 patients aged over 18 years registered at up-to-standard practices between 1 April 2005 and 31 March 2013. At study entry, no patients were kidney transplant donors or recipients, pregnant or on dialysis. PRIMARY OUTCOME MEASURES: The rate of serum creatinine and urinary protein testing per year and the percentage of patients with isolated and repeated testing per year. RESULTS: The rate of serum creatinine testing increased linearly across all age groups. The rate of proteinuria testing increased sharply in the 2009-2010 financial year but only for patients aged 60 years or over. For patients with established chronic kidney disease (CKD), creatinine testing increased rapidly in 2006-2007 and 2007-2008, and proteinuria testing in 2009-2010, reflecting the introduction of Quality and Outcomes Framework indicators. In adjusted analyses, CKD Read codes were associated with up to a twofold increase in the rate of serum creatinine testing, while other chronic conditions and potentially nephrotoxic drugs were associated with up to a sixfold increase. Regional variation in serum creatinine testing reflected country boundaries. CONCLUSIONS: Over a nine-year period, there have been increases in the numbers of patients having kidney function tests annually and in the frequency of testing. Changes in the recommended management of CKD in primary care were the primary determinant, and increases persist even after controlling for demographic and patient-level factors. Future studies should address whether increased testing has led to better outcomes.

8.
J Clin Epidemiol ; 114: 38-48, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31150837

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Low disease prevalence poses challenges for diagnostic accuracy studies because of the large sample sizes that are required to obtain sufficient precision. The aim is to collate and discuss designs of diagnostic accuracy studies suited for use in low-prevalence situations. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: We conducted a literature search including backward citation tracking and expert consultation. Two reviewers independently selected studies on designs for estimating diagnostic accuracy in a low-prevalence situation. During a 1-day expert meeting, all designs were discussed and recommendations were formulated. RESULTS: We identified six designs for diagnostic accuracy studies that are suitable in low-prevalence situations because they reduced the total sample size or the number of patients undergoing the index test or reference standard depending on which poses the highest burden. We described the advantages and limitations of these designs and evaluated efficiencies in sample sizes, risk of bias, and alignment with the clinical pathway for applicability in routine care. CONCLUSION: Choosing a study design for diagnostic accuracy studies in low-prevalence situations should depend on whether the aim is to limit the number of patients undergoing the index test or reference standard, and the risk of bias associated with a particular design type.

9.
Heart ; 105(17): 1316-1324, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31118199

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Advance care planning (ACP) is widely advocated to contribute to better outcomes for patients suffering from heart failure. But clinicians appear hesitant to engage with ACP. Our aim was to identify interventions with the greatest potential to engage clinicians with ACP in heart failure. METHODS: A systematic review and meta-analysis. We searched CINAHL, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Database of Systematic Reviews, Embase, ERIC, Ovid MEDLINE, Science Citation Index and PsycINFO for randomised controlled trials (RCTs) from inception to January 2018. Three reviewers independently extracted data, assessed risk of bias (Cochrane risk of bias tool), the quality of evidence (GRADE) and intervention synergy according to Template for Intervention Description and Replication. ORs were calculated for pooled effects. RESULTS: Of 14 175 articles screened, we assessed the full text of 131 studies. 13 RCTs including 3709 participants met all of the inclusion criteria. The intervention categories of patient-mediated interventions (OR 5.23; 95% CI 2.36 to 11.61), reminder systems (OR 3.65; 95% CI 1.47 to 9.04) and educational meetings (OR 2.35; 95% CI 1.29 to 4.26) demonstrated a favourable effect to engage clinicians with the completion of ACP. CONCLUSION: The review provides evidence from 13 published RCTs and suggests that interventions that involve patients to change clinical practice, reminder systems and educational meetings have the greatest effect in improving the implementation of ACP in heart failure.

10.
Pediatr Obes ; 14(9): e12529, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31022330

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The prevalence of obesity in childhood is of high concern, especially in deprived populations. We explored trends in obesity following the introduction of a citywide strategy focused on preschool children. METHODS: Analysis of obesity prevalence using the National Child Measurement Programme 2009 to 2017 for primary-school children in Leeds using 5-year aggregated data for Leeds, comparable cities, and England as a whole. RESULTS: Prevalence of obesity in Leeds for school entry children fell significantly (9.4% to 8.8%), whilst comparable cities (CC) and England as a whole showed no change (comparison of trends: P < 0.001 and P < 0.001). The reduction in Leeds was primarily in the most deprived (11.5% to 10.5%; trend comparison CC: P < 0.001, Eng: P < 0.001), but also amongst the affluent (6.8% to 6.0%; trend comparison CC: P = 0.087, Eng: P = 0.012). Prevalence in older children in Leeds was unchanged whilst it increased for comparable cities and England (trend comparison CC: P < 0.001, Eng: P < 0.001). In the deprived, obesity increased: Leeds by 1.4%; CC 1.3%, England 1% (trend comparison Eng: P = 0.004). In the affluent, obesity prevalence reduced more in Leeds than elsewhere: 2% in Leeds, 0.8% in CC, and 0.7% in England (trend comparison CC: P < 0.001, Eng: P ≤ 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: There has been a notable decrease in the prevalence of obesity especially amongst the most disadvantaged children at entry to primary school in Leeds. How this was achieved merits in-depth consideration.

11.
Br J Gen Pract ; 69(683): e373-e380, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31015226

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Changes in clinical guidelines for primary prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD) have widened eligibility for statin therapy. AIM: To illustrate the potential impacts of changes in clinical guidelines. DESIGN AND SETTING: Modelling the impacts of seven consecutive European guidelines based on a cohort of people aged ≥50 years from the Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing. METHOD: The eligibility for statin therapy of a sample of people without a history of CVD was established, according to changing guideline recommendations and modelled associated potential costs. The authors calculated the numbers needed to treat (NNT) to prevent one major vascular event in patients at the lowest baseline risk for which each of the seven guidelines recommended treatment, and for those at low, medium, high, and very-high risk according to 2016 guidelines. These were compared with the NNT that patients reported as required to justify taking a daily medicine. RESULTS: The proportion of patients eligible for statins increased from approximately 8% in 1987 to 61% in 2016; associated costs rose from €13.9 million to €107.1 million per annum. The NNT for those at the lowest risk for which each guideline recommended treatment rose from 40 to 400. By 2016, the NNT for low-risk patients was 400 compared to ≤25 very-high risk patients. The proportion of patients eligible for statins achieving NNT levels that patients regarded as justified to taking a daily medicine fell as guidelines changed over time. CONCLUSION: Increased eligibility for statin therapy impacts large proportions of the present population and healthcare budgets. Decisions to take and reimburse statins should be considered on the basis of expected cost-effectiveness and acceptability to patients.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Definição da Elegibilidade , Feminino , Humanos , Irlanda , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Preferência do Paciente , Seleção de Pacientes , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Prevenção Primária , Fatores de Risco
12.
Br J Gen Pract ; 69(683): e389-e397, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30910876

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Out-of-office blood pressure (BP) is recommended for diagnosing hypertension in primary care due to its increased accuracy compared to office BP. Moreover, being diagnosed as hypertensive has previously been linked to lower wellbeing. There is limited evidence regarding the acceptability of out-of-office BP and its impact on wellbeing. AIM: To assess the acceptability and psychological impact of out-of-office monitoring in people with suspected hypertension. DESIGN AND SETTING: A pre- and post-evaluation of participants with elevated (≥130 mmHg) systolic BP, assessing the psychological impact of 28 days of self-monitoring followed by ambulatory BP monitoring for 24 hours. METHOD: Participants completed standardised psychological measures pre- and post-monitoring, and a validated acceptability scale post-monitoring. Descriptive data were compared using χ2 tests and binary logistic regression. Pre- and post-monitoring comparisons were made using the paired t-test and Wilcoxon signed rank test. RESULTS: Out-of-office BP monitoring had no impact on depression and anxiety status in 93% and 85% of participants, respectively. Self-monitoring was more acceptable than ambulatory monitoring (n = 183, median 2.4, interquartile range [IQR] 1.9-3.1 versus median 3.2, IQR 2.7-3.7, P<0.01). When asked directly, 48/183 participants (26%, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 20 to 33%) reported that self-monitoring made them anxious, and 55/183 (30%, 95% CI = 24 to 37%) reported that ambulatory monitoring made them anxious. CONCLUSION: Out-of-office monitoring for hypertension diagnosis does not appear to be harmful. However, health professionals should be aware that in some patients it induces feelings of anxiety, and self-monitoring may be preferable to ambulatory monitoring.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/etiologia , Monitorização Ambulatorial da Pressão Arterial/psicologia , Hipertensão/diagnóstico , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Autocuidado/psicologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Depressão/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/psicologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários
13.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 2: CD013272, 2019 02 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30784046

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Competitions might encourage people to undertake and/or reinforce behaviour change, including smoking cessation. Competitions involve individuals or groups having the opportunity to win a prize following successful cessation, either through direct competition or by entry into a lottery or raffle. OBJECTIVES: To determine whether competitions lead to higher long-term smoking quit rates. We also aimed to examine the impact on the population, the costs, and the unintended consequences of smoking cessation competitions. SEARCH METHODS: This review has merged two previous Cochrane reviews. Here we include studies testing competitions from the reviews 'Competitions and incentives for smoking cessation' and 'Quit & Win interventions for smoking cessation'. We updated the evidence by searching the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group Specialized Register in June 2018. SELECTION CRITERIA: We considered randomized controlled trials (RCTs), allocating individuals, workplaces, groups within workplaces, or communities to experimental or control conditions. We also considered controlled studies with baseline and post-intervention measures in which participants were assigned to interventions by the investigators. Participants were smokers, of any age and gender, in any setting. Eligible interventions were contests, competitions, lotteries, and raffles, to reward cessation and continuous abstinence in smoking cessation programmes. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: For this update, data from new studies were extracted independently by two review authors. The primary outcome measure was abstinence from smoking at least six months from the start of the intervention. We performed meta-analyses to pool study effects where suitable data were available and where the effect of the competition component could be separated from that of other intervention components, and report other findings narratively. MAIN RESULTS: Twenty studies met our inclusion criteria. Five investigated performance-based reward, where groups of smokers competed against each other to win a prize (N = 915). The remaining 15 used performance-based eligibility, where cessation resulted in entry into a prize draw (N = 10,580). Five of these used Quit & Win contests (N = 4282), of which three were population-level interventions. Fourteen studies were RCTs, and the remainder quasi-randomized or controlled trials. Six had suitable abstinence data for a meta-analysis, which did not show evidence of effectiveness of performance-based eligibility interventions (risk ratio (RR) 1.16, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.77 to 1.74, N = 3201, I2 = 57%). No trials that used performance-based rewards found a beneficial effect of the intervention on long-term quit rates.The three population-level Quit & Win studies found higher smoking cessation rates in the intervention group (4% to 16.9%) than the control group at long-term follow-up, but none were RCTs and all had important between-group differences in baseline characteristics. These studies suggested that fewer than one in 500 smokers would quit because of the contest.Reported unintended consequences in all sets of studies generally related to discrepancies between self-reported smoking status and biochemically-verified smoking status. More serious adverse events were not attributed to the competition intervention.Using the GRADE system we rated the overall quality of the evidence for smoking cessation as 'very low', because of the high and unclear risk of bias associated with the included studies, substantial clinical and methodological heterogeneity, and the limited population investigated. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: At present, it is impossible to draw any firm conclusions about the effectiveness, or a lack of it, of smoking cessation competitions. This is due to a lack of well-designed comparative studies. Smoking cessation competitions have not been shown to enhance long-term cessation rates. The limited evidence suggesting that population-based Quit & Win contests at local and regional level might deliver quit rates above baseline community rates has not been tested adequately using rigorous study designs. It is also unclear whether the value or frequency of possible cash reward schedules influence the success of competitions. Future studies should be designed to compensate for the substantial biases in the current evidence base.


Assuntos
Comportamento Competitivo , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Motivação , Recompensa , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/psicologia , Distinções e Prêmios , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados como Assunto , Humanos , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/estatística & dados numéricos
14.
Clin Epidemiol ; 11: 145-155, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30774449

RESUMO

Purpose: To use recorded weight values to internally validate weight status and weight change coding in the primary care Electronic Health Record (EHR). Patients and methods: We included adult patients with weight-related Read codes recorded in the UK's Clinical Practice Research Datalink EHR between 2000 and 2017. Weight status codes were compared to weight values recorded on the same day and positive predictive values (PPVs) were calculated for commonly used codes. Weight change codes were validated using three methods: the percentage (%) difference in kilograms at the time of the code and 1) the previous weight measurement, 2) the weight predicted using linear regression, and 3) the historic mean weight. Weight change codes were validated if estimates were consistent across two out of three methods. Results: A total of 8,108,481 weight codes were recorded in 1,000,002 patients' EHR. Twice as many were recorded in females (n=5,208,593, 64%). The mean body mass index for "overweight" codes ranged from 31.9 kg/m2 to 46.9 kg/m2 and from 17.4 kg/m2 to 19.2 kg/m2 for "underweight" codes. PPVs for the most commonly used weight status codes ranged from 81.3% (80%-82.5%) to 99.3% (99.2%-99.4%). Across the estimation methods, and using only validated weight change codes, mean weight loss ranged from - 5.2% (SD 5.8%) to -7.9% (SD 7.3%) and mean weight gain from 4.2 % (SD 5.5%) to 7.9 % (SD 8.2%). The previous and predicted weight methods were most consistent. Conclusion: We have developed an internationally applicable methodology to internally validate weight-related EHR coding by using available weight measurement data. We demonstrate the UK Read codes that can be confidently used to classify weight status and weight change in the absence of weight values. We provide the first evidence from primary care that a Read code for unexpected weight loss represents a mean loss of ≥ 5 % in a 6-month period, which was broadly consistent across age groups and gender.

16.
BMC Med ; 16(1): 229, 2018 12 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30567539

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The UK's National Health Service (NHS) is currently subject to unprecedented financial strain. The identification of unnecessary healthcare resource use has been suggested to reduce spending. However, there is little very research quantifying wasteful test use, despite the £3 billion annual expenditure. Geographical variation has been suggested as one metric in which to quantify inappropriate use. We set out to identify tests ordered from UK primary care that are subject to the greatest between-practice variation in their use. METHODS: We used data from 444 general practices within the Clinical Practice Research Datalink to calculate a coefficient of variation (CoV) for the ordering of 44 specific tests from UK general practices. The coefficient of variation was calculated after adjusting for differences between practice populations. We also determined the tests that had both a higher-than-average CoV and a higher-than-average rate of use. RESULTS: In total, 16,496,218 tests were ordered for 4,078,091 patients over 3,311,050 person-years from April 1, 2015, to March 31, 2016. The tests subject to the greatest variation were drug monitoring 158% (95%CI 153 to 163%), urine microalbumin (52% (95%CI 49.9 to 53.2%)), pelvic CT (51% (95%CI 50 to 53%)) and Pap smear (49% (95%CI 48 to 51%). Seven tests were classified as high variability and high rate (clotting, vitamin D, urine albumin, prostate-specific antigen (PSA), bone profile, urine MCS and C-reactive protein (CRP)). CONCLUSIONS: There are wide variations in the use of common tests, which is unlikely to be explained by clinical indications. Since £3 billion annually are spent on tests, this represents considerable variation in the use of resources and inefficient management in the NHS. Our results can be of value to policy makers, researchers, patients and clinicians as the NHS strives towards identifying overuse and underuse of tests.


Assuntos
Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina/estatística & dados numéricos , Padrões de Prática Médica , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Adulto , Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina/economia , Feminino , Política de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Programas Nacionais de Saúde , Padrões de Prática Médica/economia , Atenção Primária à Saúde/economia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Reino Unido
17.
BMJ ; 363: k4666, 2018 Nov 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30487169

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To assess the temporal change in test use in UK primary care and to identify tests with the greatest increase in use. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: UK primary care. PARTICIPANTS: All patients registered to UK General Practices in the Clinical Practice Research Datalink, 2000/1 to 2015/16. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Temporal trends in test use, and crude and age and sex standardised rates of total test use and of 44 specific tests. RESULTS: 262 974 099 tests were analysed over 71 436 331 person years. Age and sex adjusted use increased by 8.5% annually (95% confidence interval 7.6% to 9.4%); from 14 869 tests per 10 000 person years in 2000/1 to 49 267 in 2015/16, a 3.3-fold increase. Patients in 2015/16 had on average five tests per year, compared with 1.5 in 2000/1. Test use also increased statistically significantly across all age groups, in both sexes, across all test types (laboratory, imaging, and miscellaneous), and 40 of the 44 tests that were studied specifically. CONCLUSION: Total test use has increased markedly over time, in both sexes, and across all age groups, test types (laboratory, imaging, and miscellaneous) and for 40 of 44 tests specifically studied. Of the patients who underwent at least one test annually, the proportion who had more than one test increased significantly over time.


Assuntos
Técnicas e Procedimentos Diagnósticos/tendências , Atenção Primária à Saúde/tendências , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Reino Unido , Adulto Jovem
19.
Open Heart ; 5(2): e000826, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30364517

RESUMO

Aim: To identify the key components of natriuretic peptide (NP)-guided treatment interventions which reduced hospitalisation in patients with heart failure (HF). Methods and results: We extracted detailed information on the components of interventions from studies of NP-guided treatment of HF identified in a previous systematic review. We used meta-regression techniques to assess univariate associations between components and the strength of the reduction in HF hospitalisations and all-cause mortality. A Bayesian meta-analysis approach was used to re-estimate study-level effects in order to identify the study with the most effective NP-guided monitoring intervention. Finally, we examined the intervention options common to the studies in which the 95% credible interval excluded no effect. We identified eight components of NP-guided treatment from ten studies. Univariate comparisons produced mainly equivocal results, but single trial choice and common components analysis led to similar conclusions. Using a predefined treatment protocol, setting a stringent NP target (N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide of 1000 pg/mL or B-type natriuretic peptide 100 pg/mL) and including a relative targetwere potential key components to reducing HF hospitalisations using NP-guided therapy. Conclusion: This analysis provides a description of the key components of NP-guided treatment which could help policy makers develop specific recommendations for HF management. Our research suggests that NP-guided interventions could be simplified, but more research in relevant health settings, such as primary care, is required.

20.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 14663, 2018 10 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30279510

RESUMO

The incidence of cancer in the United Kingdom has increased significantly over the last four decades. The aim of this study was to examine trends in UK cancer incidence and mortality by cancer site and assess the potential for overdiagnosis. Using Cancer Research UK incidence and mortality data for the period (1971-2014) we estimated percentage change in incidence and mortality rates and the incidence-mortality ratio (IMR) for cancers in which incidence had increased >50%. Incidence and mortality trend plots were used to assess the potential for overdiagnosis. Incidence rates increased from 67% (uterine) to 375% (melanoma). Change in mortality rates ranged from -69% (cervical) to +239% (liver). The greatest divergences occurred in uterine (IMR = 132), prostate (IMR = 9.6), oral (IMR = 9.8) and thyroid cancer (IMR = 5.3). Only in liver cancer did mortality track incidence (IMR = 1.1). For four cancer sites; uterine, prostate, oral and thyroid, incidence and mortality trends are suggestive of overdiagnosis. Trends in melanoma and kidney cancer suggest potential overdiagnosis and an underlying increase in true risk, whereas for cervical and breast cancer, trends may also reflect improvements in treatments or earlier diagnosis. A more detailed analysis is required to fully understand these patterns.


Assuntos
Sobremedicalização/tendências , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Neoplasias/mortalidade , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Mortalidade/tendências , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
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