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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e238403, 2022. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1180733

RESUMO

Abstract As a result of biodiversity and ecosystem service losses associated with biological invasions, there has been growing interest in basic and applied research on invasive species aiming to improve management strategies. Tradescantia zebrina is a herbaceous species increasingly reported as invasive in the understory of disturbed forest ecosystems. In this study, we assess the effect of spatial and seasonal variation on biological attributes of this species in the Atlantic Forest. To this end, we measured attributes of T. zebrina associated with plant growth and stress in the four seasons at the forest edge and in the forest interior of invaded sites in the Iguaçu National Park, Southern Brazil. The invasive plant had higher growth at the forest edge than in the forest interior and lower leaf asymmetry and herbivory in the winter than in the summer. Our findings suggest that the forest edge environment favours the growth of T. zebrina. This invasive species is highly competitive in the understory of semi-deciduous seasonal forests all over the year. Our study contributes to the management of T. zebrina by showing that the summer is the best season for controlling this species.


Resumo As perdas de biodiversidade e os seus serviços ecossistêmicos ocasionadas pelas invasões biológicas, têm despertado o interesse em pesquisas básicas e aplicadas sobre as espécies invasoras com o objetivo de buscar estratégias de manejo. Tradescantia zebrina é uma das herbáceas crescentemente relatadas como uma invasora no sub-bosque florestal de ecossistemas impactados. Neste estudo, nós estudamos o efeito da variação espacial e sazonal sobre atributos biológicos desta espécie na Floresta Atlântica. Assim, nós mensuramos atributos de T. zebrina associados com o crescimento vegetal e o estresse nas quatro estações do ano em borda e interior da floresta de locais invadidos no Parque Nacional do Iguaçu, Sul do Brasil. A planta invasora apresentou maior crescimento na borda florestal do que no interior. Adicionalmente, assimetria foliar e herbivoria obtidos no inverno foram menores quando comparados ao verão. Nossos achados sugerem que os ambientes de borda florestal favorecem o crescimento de T. zebrina. Esta espécie invasora é altamente competitiva no sub-bosque da Floresta Estacional Semidecídua durante o ano todo. Nosso estudo contribui com o manejo de T. zebrina mostrando que o verão é a melhor estação para o controle desta espécie.

2.
Braz J Biol ; 82: e238403, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33825758

RESUMO

As a result of biodiversity and ecosystem service losses associated with biological invasions, there has been growing interest in basic and applied research on invasive species aiming to improve management strategies. Tradescantia zebrina is a herbaceous species increasingly reported as invasive in the understory of disturbed forest ecosystems. In this study, we assess the effect of spatial and seasonal variation on biological attributes of this species in the Atlantic Forest. To this end, we measured attributes of T. zebrina associated with plant growth and stress in the four seasons at the forest edge and in the forest interior of invaded sites in the Iguaçu National Park, Southern Brazil. The invasive plant had higher growth at the forest edge than in the forest interior and lower leaf asymmetry and herbivory in the winter than in the summer. Our findings suggest that the forest edge environment favours the growth of T. zebrina. This invasive species is highly competitive in the understory of semi-deciduous seasonal forests all over the year. Our study contributes to the management of T. zebrina by showing that the summer is the best season for controlling this species.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Tradescantia , Brasil , Florestas , Árvores
3.
Braz J Biol ; 74(4): 803-9, 2014 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25627589

RESUMO

Considering that in previous studies, the surface roughness (micrometric dimension) showed a weak effect on the colonization of stream macroalgae, we investigated the effects of different crevice sizes (milimetric dimension, a scale slightly higher than previous investigations) on the macroalgal abundance in three streams exposed to full sunlight in southern Brazil. We used smooth sterile glass plates with different shapes: P - plane surface without crevices; S - sinuous surface (depth of crevices with 0.159 mm ± 0.03); N - non-unifom surface (0.498 mm ± 0.09); C - surfaces with convex structures (1.190 mm ± 0.12); and three additional surface types with different patterns of heterogeneity with combinations of glass pieces: P + S (H1); P + S + N (H2) and P + S + N + C (H3). The plates were placed into the streams and after 105 days the percent cover of macroalgal community was measured. No significant differences among treatments were recorded. However, we observed a trend of macroalgae occurs within the crevices in all treatments and this suggests that, for stream macroalgae, the crevice sizes used in this study was still not enough to provide an expressive algal growth, even in the treatment with bigger crevices.


Assuntos
Sedimentos Geológicos , Rios , Alga Marinha/fisiologia , Brasil , Ecossistema , Densidade Demográfica , Clima Tropical
4.
Braz J Biol ; 72(4): 853-7, 2012 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23295514

RESUMO

Experimental studies in rivers and streams are extremely difficult to run due to the fact that the conditions of these environments are very complex and provide a high level of heterogeneity, which hinders the precise control and standardization of variables. In this study, we present a practical sampler that was designed to make it easier to conduct research projects involving benthic communities of lotic environments, as well as a new nondestructive technique for quantification of the macroalgal communities typically found in these habitats. The sampler consists of an acrylic square tube in which water flows normally inside. This structure carries a removable glass plaque with a known area and can simulate various ecological situations by changing both biotic and abiotic conditions. Thus, it can mitigate the differences between environmental characteristics where each sampler is exposed. The new technique involves capturing digital images that can monitor a unique macroalgal community in development throughout time and a more precise quantification when compared with other techniques that are widely applied. The sampler is easy to build and the images simple to quantify, allowing the detection of spatial and temporal variations in richness and abundance of investigated communities.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Monitoramento Ambiental/instrumentação , Alga Marinha , Biomassa , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Rios , Alga Marinha/isolamento & purificação
5.
Braz. j. biol ; 68(4): 741-749, Nov. 2008. ilus, graf, tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-504491

RESUMO

Seasonal dynamics of macroalgal communities was analyzed monthly by samplings in three stream segments of the Pedras River Basin, mid-south region of Paraná State, southern Brazil, from April 2004 to March 2005. The seasonal fluctuations in macroalgal species richness and abundance were correlated with selected environmental variables. In general, the seasonal distribution patterns of these communities were distinct from those reported from other tropical and temperate regions, with higher macroalgal richness and abundance observed from late spring to late fall. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that the stream variable most closely related with the temporal distribution pattern observed was temperature, which had a very similar seasonal pattern to the biological parameters. On the other hand, the floristic composition was quite diverse in the streams sampled. Among the 25 taxa identified, only two were common to the three streams whereas 15 were restricted to a single sampling site. These data indicate that, although temperature seems to be an effective relationship with global temporal pattern, particular characteristics of each stream can strongly influence the seasonal tendencies in local scale. The results of Detrended Correspondence Analysis (DCA) and Cluster Analysis corroborated this observation.


A dinâmica sazonal das comunidades de macroalgas foi analisada mensalmente através de amostragens em três segmentos de riachos da Bacia do Rio das Pedras, região centro-sul do Estado do Paraná, Sul do Brasil, de abril de 2004 a março de 2005. As flutuações sazonais na riqueza e abundância de espécies de macroalgas foram correlacionadas com variáveis ambientais selecionadas. Em geral, os padrões de distribuição sazonal destas comunidades foram distintos daqueles reportados para outras regiões tropicais e temperadas, com maiores valores de riqueza e abundância observados no período compreendido entre o final da primavera e o final do outono. As análises de regressão linear múltipla revelaram que a variável do riacho mais fortemente relacionada com o padrão de distribuição temporal observado foi a temperatura, que teve um padrão sazonal muito similar àqueles observados para os parâmetros biológicos. Por outro lado, a composição florística foi bastante diversa nos riachos amostrados. Dentre os 25 táxons identificados, somente dois foram comuns aos três riachos, enquanto que 15 foram restritos a um único ponto de amostragem. Estes dados indicam que, embora a temperatura pareça ter tido uma relação efetiva com o padrão temporal global, características particulares de cada riacho podem influenciar fortemente as tendências sazonais em escala local. Os resultados da Análise de Correspondência Destendenciada (ADC) e da Análise de Grupamento corroboraram esta observação.


Assuntos
Eucariotos , Água Doce , Estações do Ano , Brasil , Densidade Demográfica , Clima Tropical
6.
Braz J Biol ; 68(4): 741-9, 2008 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19197491

RESUMO

Seasonal dynamics of macroalgal communities was analyzed monthly by samplings in three stream segments of the Pedras River Basin, mid-south region of Paraná State, southern Brazil, from April 2004 to March 2005. The seasonal fluctuations in macroalgal species richness and abundance were correlated with selected environmental variables. In general, the seasonal distribution patterns of these communities were distinct from those reported from other tropical and temperate regions, with higher macroalgal richness and abundance observed from late spring to late fall. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that the stream variable most closely related with the temporal distribution pattern observed was temperature, which had a very similar seasonal pattern to the biological parameters. On the other hand, the floristic composition was quite diverse in the streams sampled. Among the 25 taxa identified, only two were common to the three streams whereas 15 were restricted to a single sampling site. These data indicate that, although temperature seems to be an effective relationship with global temporal pattern, particular characteristics of each stream can strongly influence the seasonal tendencies in local scale. The results of Detrended Correspondence Analysis (DCA) and Cluster Analysis corroborated this observation.


Assuntos
Eucariotos/classificação , Água Doce , Estações do Ano , Brasil , Densidade Demográfica , Clima Tropical
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