Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 97
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Base de dados
Intervalo de ano de publicação
1.
iScience ; 23(4): 100987, 2020 Mar 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32224433

RESUMO

Human mononuclear phagocytes comprise several subsets of dendritic cells (DCs), monocytes, and macrophages. Distinguishing one population from another is challenging, especially in inflamed tissues, owing to the promiscuous expression of phenotypic markers. Using a synthetic library of humanized llama single domain antibodies, we identified a novel surface marker for human naturally occurring monocyte-derived DCs. Our antibody targets an extra-cellular domain of LSP-1, specifically on monocyte-derived DCs, but not on other leukocytes, in particular monocytes, macrophages, classical DCs, or the recently described blood DC3 population. Our findings will pave the way for a better characterization of human mononuclear phagocytes in pathological settings.

2.
J Cell Sci ; 133(2)2020 Jan 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31996399

RESUMO

Microtubules are part of the dynamic cytoskeleton network and composed of tubulin dimers. They are the main tracks used in cells to organize organelle positioning and trafficking of cargos. In this Review, we compile recent findings on the involvement of microtubules in anterograde protein transport. First, we highlight the importance of microtubules in organelle positioning. Second, we discuss the involvement of microtubules within different trafficking steps, in particular between the endoplasmic reticulum and the Golgi complex, traffic through the Golgi complex itself and in post-Golgi processes. A large number of studies have assessed the involvement of microtubules in transport of cargo from the Golgi complex to the cell surface. We focus here on the role of kinesin motor proteins and protein interactions in post-Golgi transport, as well as the impact of tubulin post-translational modifications. Last, in light of recent findings, we highlight the role microtubules have in exocytosis, the final step of secretory protein transport, occurring close to focal adhesions.

4.
Mol Biol Cell ; 31(1): 27-44, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31746668

RESUMO

Processing of amyloid precursor protein (APP) by the ß-secretase BACE1 is the initial step of the amyloidogenic pathway to generate amyloid-ß (Aß). Although newly synthesized BACE1 and APP are transported along the secretory pathway, it is not known whether BACE1 and APP share the same post-Golgi trafficking pathways or are partitioned into different transport routes. Here we demonstrate that BACE1 exits the Golgi in HeLa cells and primary neurons by a pathway distinct from the trafficking pathway for APP. By using the Retention Using Selective Hooks system, we show that BACE1 is transported from the trans-Golgi network to the plasma membrane in an AP-1- and Arf1/4-dependent manner. Subsequently, BACE1 is endocytosed to early and recycling endosomes. Perturbation of BACE1 post-Golgi trafficking results in an increase in BACE1 cleavage of APP and increased production of both Aß40 and Aß42. These findings reveal that Golgi exit of BACE1 and APP in primary neurons is tightly regulated, resulting in their segregation along different transport routes, which limits APP processing.

5.
Mol Cell ; 77(4): 748-760.e9, 2020 Feb 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31785928

RESUMO

Mutations affecting exon 9 of the CALR gene lead to the generation of a C-terminally modified calreticulin (CALR) protein that lacks the KDEL endoplasmic reticulum (ER) retention signal and consequently mislocalizes outside of the ER where it activates the thrombopoietin receptor in a cell-autonomous fashion, thus driving myeloproliferative diseases. Here, we used the retention using selective hooks (RUSH) assay to monitor the trafficking of CALR. We found that exon-9-mutated CALR was released from cells in response to the biotin-mediated detachment from its ER-localized hook, in vitro and in vivo. Cellular CALR release was confirmed in suitable mouse models bearing exon-9-mutated hematopoietic systems or tumors. Extracellular CALR mediated immunomodulatory effects and inhibited the phagocytosis of dying cancer cells by dendritic cells (DC), thereby suppressing antineoplastic immune responses elicited by chemotherapeutic agents or by PD-1 blockade. Altogether, our results demonstrate paracrine immunosuppressive effects for exon-9-mutated CALR.

6.
J Cell Biol ; 219(1)2020 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31863584

RESUMO

Glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) is sequestered inside muscle and fat and then released by vesicle traffic to the cell surface in response to postprandial insulin for blood glucose clearance. Here, we map the biogenesis of this GLUT4 traffic pathway in humans, which involves clathrin isoform CHC22. We observe that GLUT4 transits through the early secretory pathway more slowly than the constitutively secreted GLUT1 transporter and localize CHC22 to the ER-to-Golgi intermediate compartment (ERGIC). CHC22 functions in transport from the ERGIC, as demonstrated by an essential role in forming the replication vacuole of Legionella pneumophila bacteria, which requires ERGIC-derived membrane. CHC22 complexes with ERGIC tether p115, GLUT4, and sortilin, and downregulation of either p115 or CHC22, but not GM130 or sortilin, abrogates insulin-responsive GLUT4 release. This indicates that CHC22 traffic initiates human GLUT4 sequestration from the ERGIC and defines a role for CHC22 in addition to retrograde sorting of GLUT4 after endocytic recapture, enhancing pathways for GLUT4 sequestration in humans relative to mice, which lack CHC22.

7.
Dev Cell ; 52(1): 104-117.e5, 2020 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31866204

RESUMO

Ephrins can elicit either contact-mediated cell-cell adhesion or repulsion, depending on the efficiency of the removal of their ligand-receptor complexes from the cell surface, thus controlling tissue morphogenesis and oncogenic development. However, the dynamic of the turnover of newly assembled ephrin-Eph complexes during cell-cell interactions remains mostly unexplored. Here, we show that ephrin-A1-EphA2 complexes are locally formed at the tip of the filopodia, at cell-to-cell contacts. Clusters of ephrin-A1 from donor cells surf on filopodia associated to EphA2-bearing subdomains of acceptor cells. Full-length ephrin-A1 is transferred to acceptor cells by trans-endocytosis through a proteolysis-independent mechanism. Trans-endocytosed ephrin-A1 bound to its receptor enables signaling to be emitted from endo-lysosomes of acceptor cells. Localized trans-endocytosis of ephrin-A1 sustains contact-mediated repulsion on cancer cells. Our results uncover the essential role played by local concentration at the tip of filopodia and the trans-endocytosis of full-length ephrin to maintain long-lasting ephrin signaling.

8.
Cell Stress ; 3(12): 369-384, 2019 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31832602

RESUMO

Microcephaly is a neurodevelopmental condition characterized by a small brain size associated with intellectual deficiency in most cases and is one of the most frequent clinical sign encountered in neurodevelopmental disorders. It can result from a wide range of environmental insults occurring during pregnancy or postnatally, as well as from various genetic causes and represents a highly heterogeneous condition. However, several lines of evidence highlight a compromised mode of division of the cortical precursor cells during neurogenesis, affecting neural commitment or survival as one of the common mechanisms leading to a limited production of neurons and associated with the most severe forms of congenital microcephaly. In this context, the emergence of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and the Golgi apparatus as key guardians of cellular homeostasis, especially through the regulation of proteostasis, has raised the hypothesis that pathological ER and/or Golgi stress could contribute significantly to cortical impairments eliciting microcephaly. In this review, we discuss recent findings implicating ER and Golgi stress responses in early brain development and provide an overview of microcephaly-associated genes involved in these pathways.

9.
Front Cell Dev Biol ; 7: 232, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31681765

RESUMO

The steady-state localization of Golgi-resident glycosylation enzymes in the Golgi apparatus depends on a balance between anterograde and retrograde transport. Using the Retention Using Selective Hooks (RUSH) assay and high-content screening, we identified small molecules that perturb the localization of Mannosidase II (ManII) used as a model cargo for Golgi resident enzymes. In particular, we found that two compounds known as EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors, namely BML-265 and Tyrphostin AG1478 disrupt Golgi integrity and abolish secretory protein transport of diverse cargos, thus inducing brefeldin A-like effects. Interestingly, BML-265 and Tyrphostin AG1478 affect Golgi integrity and transport in human cells but not in rodent cells. The effects of BML-265 are reversible since Golgi integrity and protein transport are quickly restored upon washout of the compounds. BML-265 and Tyrphostin AG1478 do not lead to endosomal tubulation suggesting that, contrary to brefeldin A, they do not target the trans-Golgi ARF GEF BIG1 and BIG2. They quickly induce COPI dissociation from Golgi membranes suggesting that, in addition to EGFR kinase, the cis-Golgi ARF GEF GBF1 might also be a target of these molecules. Accordingly, overexpression of GBF1 prevents the effects of BML-265 and Tyrphostin AG1478 on Golgi integrity.

10.
Sci Adv ; 5(10): eaax0821, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31663020

RESUMO

Using a cell-based assay monitoring differential protein transport in the secretory pathway coupled to high-content screening, we have identified three molecules that specifically reduce the delivery of the major co-receptor for HIV-1, CCR5, to the plasma membrane. They have no effect on the closely related receptors CCR1 and CXCR4. These molecules are also potent in primary macrophages as they markedly decrease HIV entry. At the molecular level, two of these molecules inhibit the critical palmitoylation of CCR5 and thereby block CCR5 in the early secretory pathway. Our results open a clear therapeutics avenue based on trafficking control and demonstrate that preventing HIV infection can be performed at the level of its receptor delivery.

11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31588423

RESUMO

On May 29 at the Osaka University Hospital, Japan, the "Organelle Zones" research grant group (see http://organellezone.org/english/) organized a one day symposium for its own members and four guest speakers, with about 60 attendees. The research group studies three different ways in which regions within organelles carry out functions distinct from other parts of the organelle. Work at this sub-organellar level is increasingly recognised as an important aspect of cell biology. The group's projects are divided into these themes with 9 Principal Investigators and 18 Co-Investigators over 5 years. The symposium, followed a similar meeting in 2018, and had 4 external speakers and 4 internal members of the consortium. The talks were divided into three sessions, each show-casing one way of sub-compartmentalising organelles into zones.

12.
Cell Death Dis ; 10(10): 771, 2019 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31601788

RESUMO

The retention using selective hooks (RUSH) system allows to retain a target protein fused to green fluorescent protein (GFP) and a streptavidin-binding peptide (SBP) due to the interaction with a molar excess of streptavidin molecules ("hooks") targeted to selected subcellular compartments. Supplementation of biotin competitively disrupts the interaction between the SBP moiety and streptavidin, liberating the chimeric target protein from its hooks, while addition of avidin causes the removal of biotin from the system and reestablishes the interaction. Based on this principle, we engineered two chimeric proteins involved in autophagy, namely microtubule-associated proteins 1A/1B light chain 3B (MAP1LC3B, best known as LC3) and sequestosome-1 (SQSTM1, best known as p62) to move them as SBP-GFP-LC3 and p62-SBP-GFP at will between the cytosol and two different organelles, the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and the Golgi apparatus. Although both proteins were functional in thus far that SBP-GFP-LC3 and p62-SBP-GFP could recruit their endogenous binding partners, p62 and LC3, respectively, their enforced relocation to the ER or Golgi failed to induce organelle-specific autophagy. Hence, artificial tethering of LC3 or p62 to the surface of the ER and the Golgi is not sufficient to trigger autophagy.

13.
J Cell Biol ; 218(7): 2215-2231, 2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31142554

RESUMO

To ensure their homeostasis and sustain differentiated functions, cells continuously transport diverse cargos to various cell compartments and in particular to the cell surface. Secreted proteins are transported along intracellular routes from the endoplasmic reticulum through the Golgi complex before reaching the plasma membrane along microtubule tracks. Using a synchronized secretion assay, we report here that exocytosis does not occur randomly at the cell surface but on localized hotspots juxtaposed to focal adhesions. Although microtubules are involved, the RAB6-dependent machinery plays an essential role. We observed that, irrespective of the transported cargos, most post-Golgi carriers are positive for RAB6 and that its inactivation leads to a broad reduction of protein secretion. RAB6 may thus be a general regulator of post-Golgi secretion.

14.
Nanoscale ; 11(21): 10320-10328, 2019 May 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31106790

RESUMO

Precise localization and biophysical characterization of cellular structures is a key to the understanding of biological processes happening both inside the cell and at the cell surface. Atomic force microscopy is a powerful tool to study the cell surface - topography, elasticity, viscosity, interactions - and also the viscoelastic behavior of the underlying cytoplasm, cytoskeleton or the nucleus. Here, we demonstrate the ability of atomic force microscopy to also map and characterize organelles and microorganisms inside cells, at the nanoscale, by combining stiffness tomography with super-resolution fluorescence and electron microscopy. By using this correlative approach, we could both identify and characterize intracellular compartments. The validation of this approach was performed by monitoring the stiffening effect according to the metabolic status of the mitochondria in living cells in real-time.


Assuntos
Membrana Celular/ultraestrutura , Núcleo Celular/ultraestrutura , Citoplasma/ultraestrutura , Microscopia de Força Atômica , Microtúbulos/ultraestrutura , Elasticidade , Células HeLa , Humanos , Viscosidade
15.
PLoS One ; 14(2): e0212711, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30794657

RESUMO

Wnts are a family of secreted palmitoleated glycoproteins that play key roles in cell to cell communication during development and regulate stem cell compartments in adults. Wnt receptors, downstream signaling cascades and target pathways have been extensively studied while less is known about how Wnts are secreted and move from producing cells to receiving cells. We used the synchronization system called Retention Using Selective Hook (RUSH) to study Wnt trafficking from endoplasmic reticulum to Golgi and then to plasma membrane and filopodia in real time. Inhibition of porcupine (PORCN) or knockout of Wntless (WLS) blocked Wnt exit from the ER. Wnt-containing vesicles paused at sub-cortical regions of the plasma membrane before exiting the cell. Wnt-containing vesicles were associated with filopodia extending to adjacent cells. These data visualize and confirm the role of WLS and PORCN in ER exit of Wnts and support the role of filopodia in Wnt signaling.


Assuntos
Membrana Celular/metabolismo , Retículo Endoplasmático/metabolismo , Pseudópodes/metabolismo , Vesículas Secretórias/metabolismo , Proteínas Wnt/metabolismo , Membrana Celular/genética , Retículo Endoplasmático/genética , Células HEK293 , Células HeLa , Humanos , Transporte Proteico/genética , Pseudópodes/genética , Vesículas Secretórias/genética , Proteínas Wnt/genética
16.
Clin Cancer Res ; 25(2): 710-723, 2019 01 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30322877

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Targeted therapies that use the signaling pathways involved in prostate cancer are required to overcome chemoresistance and improve treatment outcomes for men. Molecular chaperones play a key role in the regulation of protein homeostasis and are potential targets for overcoming chemoresistance.Experimental Design: We established 4 chemoresistant prostate cancer cell lines and used image-based high-content siRNA functional screening, based on gene-expression signature, to explore mechanisms of chemoresistance and identify new potential targets with potential roles in taxane resistance. The functional role of a new target was assessed by in vitro and in vivo silencing, and mass spectrometry analysis was used to identify its downstream effectors. RESULTS: We identified FKBP7, a prolyl-peptidyl isomerase overexpressed in docetaxel-resistant and in cabazitaxel-resistant prostate cancer cells. This is the first study to characterize the function of human FKBP7 and explore its role in cancer. We discovered that FKBP7 was upregulated in human prostate cancers and its expression correlated with the recurrence observed in patients receiving docetaxel. FKBP7 silencing showed that FKBP7 is required to maintain the growth of chemoresistant cell lines and chemoresistant tumors in mice. Mass spectrometry analysis revealed that FKBP7 interacts with eIF4G, a component of the eIF4F translation initiation complex, to mediate the survival of chemoresistant cells. Using small-molecule inhibitors of eIF4A, the RNA helicase component of eIF4F, we were able to kill docetaxel- and cabazitaxel-resistant cells. CONCLUSIONS: Targeting FKBP7 or the eIF4G-containing eIF4F translation initiation complex could be novel therapeutic strategies to eradicate taxane-resistant prostate cancer cells.


Assuntos
Hidrocarbonetos Aromáticos com Pontes/farmacologia , Proteínas de Ligação ao Cálcio/metabolismo , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos , Fator de Iniciação 4F em Eucariotos/metabolismo , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Neoplasias da Próstata/genética , Neoplasias da Próstata/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a Tacrolimo/metabolismo , Taxoides/farmacologia , Animais , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Biologia Computacional , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Progressão da Doença , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Inativação Gênica , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Neoplasias da Próstata/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Ligação Proteica , RNA Interferente Pequeno/genética , Transcriptoma , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
17.
Cell Death Differ ; 26(8): 1467-1484, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30349077

RESUMO

LC3 is a protein that can associate with autophagosomes, autolysosomes, and phagosomes. Here, we show that LC3 can also redistribute toward the damaged Golgi apparatus where it clusters with SQSTM1/p62 and lysosomes. This organelle-specific relocation, which did not involve the generation of double-membraned autophagosomes, could be observed after Golgi damage was induced by various strategies, namely (i) laser-induced localized cellular damage, (ii) local expression of peroxidase and exposure to peroxide and diaminobenzidine, (iii) treatment with the Golgi-tropic photosensitizer redaporfin and light, (iv) or exposure to the Golgi-tropic anticancer peptidomimetic LTX-401. Mechanistic exploration led to the conclusion that both reactive oxygen species-dependent and -independent Golgi damage induces a similar phenotype that depended on ATG5 yet did not depend on phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase catalytic subunit type 3 and Beclin-1. Interestingly, knockout of ATG5 sensitized cells to Golgi damage-induced cell death, suggesting that the pathway culminating in the relocation of LC3 to the damaged Golgi may have a cytoprotective function.

18.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 14966, 2018 10 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30297865

RESUMO

The retention using selective hooks (RUSH) system allows to withhold a fluorescent biosensor such as green fluorescent protein (GFP) fused to a streptavidin-binding peptide (SBP) by an excess of streptavidin molecules that are addressed to different subcellular localizations. Addition of biotin competitively disrupts this interaction, liberating the biosensor from its hook. We constructed a human cell line co-expressing soluble secretory-SBP-GFP (ss-SBP-GFP) and streptavidin within the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) lumen and then used this system to screen a compound library for inhibitors of the biotin-induced release of ss-SBP-GFP via the conventional Golgi-dependent protein secretion pathway into the culture supernatant. We identified and validated a series of molecularly unrelated drugs including antianginal, antidepressant, anthelmintic, antipsychotic, antiprotozoal and immunosuppressive agents that inhibit protein secretion. These compounds vary in their capacity to suppress protein synthesis and to compromise ER morphology and Golgi integrity, as well as in the degree of reversibility of such effects. In sum, we demonstrate the feasibility and utility of a novel RUSH-based phenotypic screening assay.


Assuntos
Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos/métodos , Proteínas/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Análise por Conglomerados , Retículo Endoplasmático/metabolismo , Complexo de Golgi/metabolismo , Ensaios de Triagem em Larga Escala , Humanos , Análise de Componente Principal , Biossíntese de Proteínas , Estrutura Secundária de Proteína , Proteínas/química , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
19.
Methods Mol Biol ; 1827: 491-503, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30196513

RESUMO

Intracellularly expressed recombinant antibodies, or intrabodies, are powerful tools for cell biology studies as well as therapeutic applications. Cell biologists use them to either block the intracellular antibody target or to image endogenous target dynamics. We describe here methods to select recombinant antibodies from antibody phage display libraries and to subsequently express them as fluorescent intrabodies.


Assuntos
Anticorpos/isolamento & purificação , Espaço Intracelular/metabolismo , Engenharia de Proteínas/métodos , Imunofluorescência , Humanos , Imagem Tridimensional
20.
Sci Signal ; 11(529)2018 05 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29739880

RESUMO

Biophysical methods and x-ray crystallography have revealed that class A G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) can form homodimers. We combined computational approaches with receptor cross-linking, energy transfer, and a newly developed functional export assay to characterize the residues involved in the dimerization interfaces of the chemokine receptor CCR5, the major co-receptor for HIV-1 entry into cells. We provide evidence of three distinct CCR5 dimeric organizations, involving residues of transmembrane helix 5. Two dimeric states corresponded to unliganded receptors, whereas the binding of the inverse agonist maraviroc stabilized a third state. We found that CCR5 dimerization was required for targeting the receptor to the plasma membrane. These data suggest that dimerization contributes to the conformational diversity of inactive class A GPCRs and may provide new opportunities to investigate the cellular entry of HIV-1 and mechanisms for its inhibition.


Assuntos
Membrana Celular/metabolismo , HIV-1/fisiologia , Maraviroc/metabolismo , Multimerização Proteica , Receptores CCR5/química , Receptores CCR5/metabolismo , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Antagonistas dos Receptores CCR5/metabolismo , Cristalografia por Raios X , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Modelos Moleculares , Conformação Proteica , Receptores CCR5/genética
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA