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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34097227

RESUMO

In major/life-threatening bleeding, administration of timely and appropriate reversal agents is imperative to reduce morbidity and mortality. Due to complexities associated with the use of reversal agents, a clinical pharmacist-driven anticoagulation reversal program (ARP) was developed. The goal of this program was to ensure appropriateness of reversal agents based on the clinical scenario, optimize selection and avoid unintended consequences. This study describes the impact of a pharmacist-driven anticoagulation program on patient outcomes and cost. A single center retrospective chart review of adult patients whom the ARP was consulted from October 2018 to January 2020 was performed. Patients were included in the efficacy analysis if they were > 18 years of age and presented with acute bleeding. Patients were excluded from the efficacy analysis if the recommended reversal agent was not administered, if a repeat head CT was not available for patients who presented with intracranial hemorrhage (ICH), or if the patient was not bleeding. All patients were included in the economic evaluation. The primary outcome was the percentage of patients who achieved effective hemostasis within 24 h of anticoagulation reversal. Secondary outcomes include incidence of thromboembolic events, in-hospital mortality, and cost avoidance. One hundred twenty-one patients were evaluated by the ARP with 92 patients included in the efficacy analysis. The primary sites of bleeding were ICH in 46% and gastrointestinal (GI) in 29%. Hemostasis was achieved in 84% of patients. Thrombotic events occurred in 7.4% of patients and in-hospital mortality was 26.4%. Total cost avoidance was $1,005,871.78. To our knowledge, this is the first study to evaluate the impact of a pharmacist-driven ARP on clinical and economic outcomes. Implementation of a pharmacist-driven ARP was associated with favorable outcomes and cost savings.

2.
JAMA Surg ; 156(5): 472-478, 2021 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33688932

RESUMO

Importance: Previous studies comparing emergency surgery outcomes with surgeon experience have been small or used administrative databases without controlling for patient physiology or operative complexity. Objective: To evaluate the association of acute care surgeon experience with patient morbidity and mortality after emergency surgical procedures. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study evaluated the association of surgeon experience with emergency surgery outcomes at 5 US academic level 1 trauma centers where the same surgeons provided emergency general surgical care. A total of 772 patients who presented with a traumatic injury and required an emergency surgical procedure or who presented with or developed a condition requiring an emergency general surgical intervention were operated on by 1 of 56 acute care surgeons. Surgeon groups were divided by experience of less than 6 years (early career), 6 to 10 years (early midcareer), 11 to 30 years (late midcareer), and 30 years or more (late career) from the end of training. Surgeons with less than 3 years of experience were also compared with the entire cohort. Hierarchical logistic regression models were constructed controlling for Emergency Surgery Score, case complexity, preoperative transfusion, and trauma or emergency general surgery. Data were collected from May 2015 to July 2017 and analyzed from February to May 2020. Main Outcomes and Measures: Mortality, complications, length of stay, blood loss, and unplanned return to the operating room. Results: Of 772 included patients, 469 (60.8%) were male, and the mean (SD) age was 50.1 (20.0) years. Of 772 operations, 618 were by surgeons with less than 10 years of experience. Early- and late-midcareer surgeons generally operated on older patients and patients with more septic shock, acute kidney failure, and higher Emergency Surgery Scores. Patient mortality, complications, postoperative transfusion, organ-space surgical site infection, and length of stay were similar between surgeon groups. Patients operated on by early-career surgeons had higher rates of unplanned return to the operating room compared with those operated on by early-midcareer surgeons (odds ratio [OR], 0.66; 95% CI, 0.40-1.09), late-midcareer surgeons (OR, 0.34; 95% CI, 0.13-0.90), and late-career surgeons (OR, 1.11; 95% CI, 0.45-2.75). Patients operated on by surgeons with less than 3 years of experience had similar mortality compared with the rest of the cohort (OR, 1.97; 95% CI, 0.85-4.57) but higher rates of complications (OR, 2.07; 95% CI, 1.05-4.07). Conclusions and Relevance: In this study, experienced surgeons generally operated on older patients with more septic shock and kidney failure without affecting risk-adjusted mortality. Increased complications and unplanned return to the operating room may improve with experience. Early-career surgeons' outcomes may be improved if they are supported while experience is garnered.

3.
J Trauma Acute Care Surg ; 89(1): 118-124, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32176177

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Emergency Surgery Score (ESS) was recently developed and retrospectively validated as an accurate mortality risk calculator for emergency general surgery. We sought to prospectively validate ESS, specifically in the high-risk nontrauma emergency laparotomy (EL) patient. METHODS: This is an Eastern Association for the Surgery of Trauma multicenter prospective observational study. Between April 2018 and June 2019, 19 centers enrolled all adults (aged >18 years) undergoing EL. Preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative variables were prospectively and systematically collected. Emergency Surgery Score was calculated for each patient and validated using c-statistic methodology by correlating it with three postoperative outcomes: (1) 30-day mortality, (2) 30-day complications (e.g., respiratory/renal failure, infection), and (3) postoperative intensive care unit (ICU) admission. RESULTS: A total of 1,649 patients were included. The mean age was 60.5 years, 50.3% were female, and 71.4% were white. The mean ESS was 6, and the most common indication for EL was hollow viscus perforation. The 30-day mortality and complication rates were 14.8% and 53.3%; 57.0% of patients required ICU admission. Emergency Surgery Score gradually and accurately predicted 30-day mortality; 3.5%, 50.0%, and 85.7% of patients with ESS of 3, 12, and 17 died after surgery, respectively, with a c-statistic of 0.84. Similarly, ESS gradually and accurately predicted complications; 21.0%, 57.1%, and 88.9% of patients with ESS of 1, 6, and 13 developed postoperative complications, with a c-statistic of 0.74. Emergency Surgery Score also accurately predicted which patients required intensive care unit admission (c-statistic, 0.80). CONCLUSION: This is the first prospective multicenter study to validate ESS as an accurate predictor of outcome in the EL patient. Emergency Surgery Score can prove useful for (1) perioperative patient and family counseling, (2) triaging patients to the intensive care unit, and (3) benchmarking the quality of emergency general surgery care. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Prognostic study, level III.


Assuntos
Emergências , Cirurgia Geral , Medição de Risco/métodos , Ferimentos e Lesões/cirurgia , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/mortalidade , Pontuação de Propensão , Estudos Prospectivos , Ferimentos e Lesões/mortalidade
4.
Cureus ; 11(6): e5034, 2019 Jun 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31501726

RESUMO

In patients with significant comorbid conditions, acute cholecystitis is managed through surgical intervention or with cholecystostomy tube placement (CTP). The literature is not definitive in its recommendations for cholecystectomy versus cholecystostomy. This case report describes a presentation of acute calculous cholecystitis managed with CTP. Over a 10-week period, due to complications with the tube, the decision was made to perform a cholecystectomy. Upon open surgical exploration, an atraumatic, ruptured, and chronically inflamed gallbladder was found without attachment to the subhepatic plate and, in essence, free "floating" in the peritoneum. To our knowledge, this is the first-known documented case report in the English medical literature. An elderly woman, with significant co-morbidities, following two months of antibiotic treatment for acute cholecystitis and subsequent percutaneous cholecystostomy tube placement and re-placements, underwent elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy, which was converted to open surgery. Upon exploration, a detached, "floating" gallbladder was found posterior to the transverse colon and removed after lysing extensive peritoneal adhesions. Subsequent to the cholecystectomy, the patient had uncomplicated recovery. The literature does not present a clear consensus on CTP use vs early cholecystectomy in high-risk patients with acute cholecystitis. This management decision is based primarily on the surgeon's clinical judgment and the use of evidence-based risk assessment indices. The "floating gallbladder" is a rare, benign complication that affirms the importance of extensively assessing the risks and benefits of CTP as compared to cholecystectomy in the elderly and/or comorbid patient.

5.
Cureus ; 11(1): e3889, 2019 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30911446

RESUMO

Background Platelets are commonly administered to trauma patients to reverse the effects of pre-injury anti-platelet drugs if these individuals are judged to be at risk for ongoing bleeding (i.e., traumatic brain injury). In the U.S. blood banks, platelets are maintained at room temperature and are not infused prior to 72 hours storage due to rigorous screening methods. Recent work suggested that cold refrigerated platelets may be effective at restoring platelet function. We hypothesized that refrigerated platelets might be superior to room temperature platelets in reversing aspirin and clopidogrel-induced platelet dysfunction. Methods Using a cross-over design, 10 healthy, adult subjects underwent platelet removal by apheresis, received anti-platelet drugs (aspirin 325 mg and clopidogrel 75 mg) daily for three days, and then had return of their own platelets (about 3 x 1011 platelets). Five subjects were randomly assigned to receive platelets stored at 4°C, and five received platelets stored at room temperature. One month later, this entire process was repeated with each subject receiving platelets stored by the alternative method. Thus, subjects served as their own controls. At multiple time points during the study in vivo platelet function was assessed by bleeding times, which were measured by a single observer blinded to patient group. Results Bleeding times rose dramatically after anti-platelet drugs were given, but remained well above the normal range (seven minutes) despite reinfusion of platelets. There were no differences in platelet function according to the method of storage. Conclusions Transfusion with autologous platelets appears to be ineffective in reversing the anti-platelet effects of aspirin and clopidogrel. Cold refrigerated platelets were no more effective than room temperature stored platelets in restoring platelet function. This abstract was presented at American College of Surgeons-clinical congress, Boston 10-22-2018. (Khoury L, Cohn S, Panzo M. Inability to Reverse Aspirin and Clopidogrel-Induced Platelet Dysfunction with Platelet Infusion. Journal of the American College of Surgeons. 2018. 227. S265. DOI: 10.1016/j.jamcollsurg.2018.07.546).

6.
J Trauma Acute Care Surg ; 85(3): 476-484, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29787535

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fatigued surgeon performance has only been assessed in simulated sessions or retrospectively after a night on call. We hypothesized that objectively assessed fatigue of acute care surgeons affects patient outcome. METHODS: Five acute care surgery services prospectively identified emergency cases over 27 months. Emergency cases were defined by the surgeon identifying the patient as requiring immediate operation upon consultation or admission. Within 48 hours, surgeons reported sleep time accumulated before operation, if nonclinical delays to operation occurred, and patient volume during the shift. To maximize differences, fatigued surgeons were defined as performing a case after midnight without having slept in the prior 18 hours. Rested surgeons performed cases at or before 8 PM or after at least 3 hours of sleep before operation. A four-level ordinal scale was used to assign case complexity. Hierarchical logistic regression models were constructed to assess the impact of fatigue on mortality and major morbidity while controlling for center and patient level factors. RESULTS: Of 882 cases collected, 611 met criteria for fatigue or rested. Of these cases, 370 were performed at night and 182 by a fatigued surgeon. Rested surgeons were more likely to be operating on an older or female patient; other characteristics were similar. Mortality and major morbidity were similar between fatigued and rested surgeons (12.1% vs 12.1% and 46.9% vs 48.9%), respectively. After controlling for center and patient factors, surgeon fatigue did not affect mortality or major morbidity. Mortality variance was 6.30% and morbidity variance was 7.02% among centers. CONCLUSION: Acute care surgeons have similar outcomes in a fatigued or rested state. Work schedules for acute care surgeons should not be adjusted to shifts less than 24 hours for the sole purpose of improving patient outcomes. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Prognostic study, level IV.


Assuntos
Fadiga/complicações , Cirurgiões/estatística & dados numéricos , Desempenho Profissional/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Idoso , Competência Clínica/estatística & dados numéricos , Cuidados Críticos/estatística & dados numéricos , Fadiga/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Morbidade , Mortalidade , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Admissão e Escalonamento de Pessoal/tendências , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Cirurgiões/psicologia
7.
Cureus ; 10(12): e3671, 2018 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30761224

RESUMO

Background Drugged driving, or driving under the influence of any drug, is a growing public health concern, especially with the recent legislation legalizing marijuana use in certain states in the USA. We sought to gain a better understanding of the surgeons' perspective regarding marijuana (MJ) and alcohol (ETOH) and the relationship of recent laws to identification of MJ and ETOH in trauma victims. Methods Members of a national trauma surgical organization were asked to participate in an Institutional Review Board (IRB)-approved, web-based survey which centered on attitudes, knowledge, and beliefs regarding ETOH and MJ as they related to injury. Two Level I trauma center registries (located in TX and CA) were queried for the incidence of motor vehicular collision (MVC) and the presence of ETOH (defined as > 0.08 g/dL) or MJ from 2006 thru 2012. Results A total of 127 trauma surgeons participated in the survey. The majority were male (84%, n = 107) and with a median age of 52. Most were in surgical practice for greater than 11 years (78%, n = 99) and worked at a Level I trauma center (78%, n = 99) in an academic institution (65%, n = 83). MJ was illegal in the states where most of the participants were in practice (79%, n = 100), but 90% (n = 114) of respondents from states where MJ is legal stated they have not seen an increase in MVC since MJ was legalized. At the TX trauma center, only 4% of patients involved in a vehicular trauma tested positive for MJ, 21% of patients had the presence of ETOH, and 3% had both. For both MJ and also ETOH, the incidence remained the same each year. In CA, there was little yearly variation in the incidence of patients that tested positive for MJ (23%), ETOH (50%), and both (7%). In addition, the incidence of MJ was essentially unchanged after the decriminalization law was passed in 2010. Conclusion The prevalence of cannabis and alcohol varies among the states studied, TX and CA. The impact of decriminalization of marijuana did not seem to affect the incidence of drugged driving with marijuana in CA.

8.
Cureus ; 10(11): e3599, 2018 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30680260

RESUMO

Background In the United States, there is a constant debate between the proponents of the right to bear arms and those desiring to reduce the epidemic of gun violence. We sought to capture the trauma surgeons' perspective on gun control. Methods We presented an on-line based survey to the members of the American Association for the Surgery of Trauma (AAST). Survey questions were chosen to reflect the popular media poll questions as well as trauma-specific perspectives. We compared the trauma surgeons' perspectives to that of the general populace from a poll conducted by the New York Times (NYT). Results A total of 120 trauma surgeons responded to the survey. The age group ranged from 34 to 82 years, and the median age was 51. Most respondents were male (64%, n = 67) and worked at a Level I trauma center (80%, n = 96) in an academic setting (67%, n = 80). About half of the responding surgeons owned a household firearm (40%; n = 48 of the AAST members vs. 47%; n = 521 of the general populace). Sixty-one percent of the trauma surgeons (n = 73) and 53% (n = 588) of the NYT respondents favor stricter gun control laws. While 80% (n = 888) of the NYT respondents felt that mental health screening and treatment would decrease gun violence, only 56% (n = 67) of surgeons felt that mental health screening would be beneficial. The majority (90%, n = 999) of the NYT poll respondents favor a law restricting the sale of guns only by licensed dealers. Only (66%, n = 79) of the trauma surgeons were in agreement with the stricter gun sale legislation by licensed dealers. Conclusion Trauma surgeons appear to share similar views with the general American populace regarding gun violence and injury control.

9.
Cureus ; 10(11): e3610, 2018 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30693163

RESUMO

Background Despite evidence that helmet use decreases motorcycle-associated injuries and mortality, the use of motorcycle helmets is not universal. As trauma surgeons are frequently the primary providers responsible for motorcycle crash victims, we sought to gain a better understanding of trauma surgeons' perspectives on helmet use with motorcycles. Methods Members of the American Association for the Surgery of Trauma (AAST) were asked to participate in a survey that centered on attitudes, knowledge, and beliefs regarding motorcycle helmet use, associated injuries, and related costs. Demographic data were analyzed. In addition, we performed a literature search to attempt to clarify the current data on this subject. Results A total of 127 surgeons participated. The majority were male (64%, n=81), in academic practice (67%, n=85), and worked at a Level I trauma center (80%, n=102). Of those that owned a motorcycle, 100% wear a helmet when riding. Seven percent (n=9) of respondents believe helmet use increases cervical spine injury, although the majority (78%, n=99) disagree. In regards to head injuries and helmet use, most (93%, n=118) believe that helmets decrease the severity of head injury, improve outcomes (98%, n=124), and impact long-term disability (93%, n=118). Ninety percent (n=114) of surgeons believe that state legislation mandating motorcycle helmet use increases helmet utilization, and 82% (n=104) believe that the decision to wear a helmet should not be a personal decision. The majority (83%, n=106) of trauma surgeons agreed that helmet use would likely lead to a major reduction in motorcycle-related health care costs. Conclusions North American trauma surgeons wear helmets when they ride motorcycles and believe that these devices are highly protective, leading to a reduction in brain injury and the subsequent health care costs.

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