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1.
Int J Infect Dis ; 2019 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31493523

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the performance of a rapid influenza diagnostic tests (RIDT) and influenza vaccines' effectiveness (VE) during an outbreak setting. METHODS: We compared the performance of a RIDT with RT-PCR for influenza virus detection in influenza-like illness (ILI) patients enrolled during the 2016/17 season in Mexico City. Using the test-negative design, we estimated influenza VE in all participants and stratified by age, virus subtype, and vaccine type (trivalent vs quadrivalent inactivated vaccines). The protective value of some clinical variables was evaluated by regression analyses. RESULTS: We enrolled 592 patients. RT-PCR detected 93 cases of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09, 55 of AH3N2, 141 of B, and 13 A/B virus infections. RIDT showed 90.7% sensitivity and 95.7% specificity for influenza A virus detection, and 91.5% sensitivity and 95.3% specificity for influenza B virus detection. Overall VE was 33.2% (95% CI: 3.0 - 54.0; p = 0.02) against any laboratory-confirmed influenza infection. VE estimates against influenza B were higher for the quadrivalent vaccine. Immunization and occupational exposure were protective factors against influenza. CONCLUSIONS: The RIDT was useful to detect influenza cases during an outbreak setting. Effectiveness of 2016/17 influenza vaccines administered in Mexico was low but significant. Our data should be considered for future local epidemiological policies.

2.
Respirology ; 2019 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31429166
3.
J Bras Pneumol ; 45(6): e20170157, 2019 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31365731

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the anthropometric data obtained for residents of the city of São Paulo, Brazil, in a study of Latin America conducted in two phases (baseline, in 2003, and follow-up, in 2012). METHODS: This was an analysis of data obtained for São Paulo residents in a two-phase population-based study evaluating the prevalence of COPD and its relationship with certain risk factors among individuals ≥ 40 years of age. The anthropometric data included values for weight, height, body mass index (BMI), and waist circumference. In the follow-up phase of that study, the same variables were evaluated in the same population sample as that of the baseline phase. RESULTS: Of the 1,000 São Paulo residents enrolled in the baseline phase of that study, 587 participated in the follow-up phase, and 80 (13.6%) of those 587 subjects had COPD. Comparing the baseline and follow-up phases, we found increases in all anthropometric measures in both groups (COPD and non-COPD), although the differences were significant only in the non-COPD group. The subjects with mild COPD showed increases in weight and BMI (Δweight = 1.6 ± 5.7 and ΔBMI = 0.7 ± 2.2), whereas those with moderate or severe COPD showed reductions (Δweight = -1.7 ± 8.1 and ΔBMI = -0.4 ± 3.0), as did those with severe or very severe COPD (Δweight = -0.5 ± 5.4 and ΔBMI = -0.8 ± 3.3). CONCLUSIONS: Between the two phases of the study, the subjects with mild COPD showed increases in weight and BMI, whereas those with a more severe form of the disease showed reductions.

4.
Virus Res ; 272: 197731, 2019 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31445105

RESUMO

Biennial H1N1pdm09 influenza A virus (IAV) epidemics have been associated with major severity of respiratory disease in Mexico. Atypically and in contrast with what happened in USA, Canada and Europe during 2017, an increase of infections due to the H1N1pdm09 pandemic virus instead of H3N2 was observed. In order to determine the viral contribution to severe acute respiratory disease, we characterized the pathogenicity determinants of IAV in Mexico during the 2015-2016 and 2016-2017 seasons. The RNA segments of 20 IAV samples were sequenced by NGS platform and phylogenetic analysis was conducted. The analysis of the hemagglutinin (HA) sequences established that all virus samples, except one, belong to clade (6B.1). The IAVs presented the substitution S162 N, which introduces a new glycosylation site in the hemagglutinin. We also found the D222 G substitution, which has been associated with a higher tropism towards the lower respiratory tract, and a non-reported insertion of one Ile in NS1 (Ile113). The IAVs from 2016 to 2017 in Mexico belong to the new clade 6B.1. The new glycosylation site in HA (S162 N) is a major change that may affect the efficacy of the current vaccine. We detected in several patients pathogenicity determinants associated with the severity of the respiratory disease.

5.
Environ Int ; 131: 105013, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31352264

RESUMO

The benefits of improved biomass cookstoves (ICS) depends on their adoption and sustained use. Few studies have documented if and how they are used more than five years after being introduced. We conducted a 9-year prospective cohort study among young rural women in the highlands of Michoacan, Mexico. Participants had received a Patsari ICS during a community trial either in 2005 or 2006. With retrospective information collected in 2012-13, we studied the households' energy use, ICS survival, and cooking practices during the follow-up period. Using an exposure model constructed with personal PM2.5 measurements in a subsample of homes at the time of the initial trial in 2005, we estimated the exposure associated with different energy use patterns during the follow-up period. The ICS had a mean lifespan of 4 years, after which more than half of the stoves were not in use; therefore, the use of open fire increased, particularly among the indigenous communities. ICS use peak was achieved two years after the initial trial, either exclusively or combined with open fire. Yearly household energy use and other variables were used to estimate chronic air pollution exposure. Mean PM2.5 exposure during the follow-up period ranged from 51 to 319 µg/m3; the median was 102 and 146 µg/m3 for mainly ICS and mainly open fire use, respectively. The ICS has a useful period after which it needs maintenance, repair, or replacement. Unfortunately, many programs have not afforded a follow-up component. Exposure to biomass smoke air pollutants can be reduced by using an ICS instead of the traditional open fire. Household energy strategies should ensure equitable access to clean energy options adapted to local needs and preferences with culturally appropriate technology implemented on a sustainable perspective.

6.
PLoS One ; 14(6): e0219077, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31247010

RESUMO

The objective was to verify the association between body composition from 18 to 22 years and pulmonary function at 22 years of age. This longitudinal analysis was conducted with a Brazilian birth cohort data. The outcomes were the forced expiratory volume in the first second and forced vital capacity (FVC), measured at 22 years follow-up. Main exposures: obesity (body mass index ≥ 30kg/m2), and highest tertiles of fat mass (FM) and fat mass index (air displacement plethysmography) measured at 18 and 22 years-old follow-ups. The reference category (not exposed) was defined by those individuals who were not classified in the highest adiposity categories mentioned, in both ages. Multivariable linear regressions stratified by sex were used. The sample comprised 3,511 participants. Those who belonged to the highest adiposity categories in 18 and 22 years follow-ups showed lower pulmonary function at 22 years when compared to those who were not classified in the higher adiposity categories in both ages (reference category); those in the highest tertile of FM showed a mean FVC -313mL (95%CI -421; -206) and -259mL (95%CI -336; -182) in men and women, compared to the reference category, respectively. Those who changed from the higher to the lower adiposity categories (from 18 to 22 years) showed pulmonary function similar to the reference, and those who presented the opposite body composition trajectory, showed decreased pulmonary function results at 22 years, mainly among women. We concluded that high body adiposity in two follow-ups and especially contemporary adiposity was associated with lower pulmonary function at 22 years.

7.
Rev Invest Clin ; 71(1): 55-63, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30835261

RESUMO

Background: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) has become a major health challenge worldwide due to its increasing incidence and mortality, which have serious repercussions for health-care systems. Methods: We conducted a review of international efforts to control COPD in primary care. Results: The WHO created the Alma-Ata declaration which established for the first time, access to health care as a human right. This precept led to the implementation of numerous programs including practical approach to Lung Health and variants in several countries; schemes designed to centralize medical care; and resources to improve attention of respiratory diseases by adapting approaches to the health-care needs of local populations. Primary respiratory health care should include actions for timely detection, health education, and targeted treatment, but the challenge for all health systems is to ensure that their programs function adequately, for they still show shortcomings in terms of their application. Conclusions: We conclude that offering primary health care based on models that combine opportune diagnoses with suitable treatment can positively influence the course of COPD by treating early stages, thus slowing its progression. However, more extensive education and broader dissemination of information are necessary to achieve this goal.


Assuntos
Assistência à Saúde/organização & administração , Atenção Primária à Saúde/métodos , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/terapia , Progressão da Doença , Saúde Global , Educação em Saúde/métodos , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/diagnóstico , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/epidemiologia
8.
Arch Bronconeumol ; 55(10): 513-518, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30890287

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: People with Down syndrome (DS) have high respiratory morbidity, evaluating their respiratory health with standardized, objective tests is desirable. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate the technical quality of Pulmonary Function Tests (PFTs) to determine which ones are most suitable for this population. METHODS: Participants included children, teenagers and adults with DS, 5 years of age or older (n=302). The technical quality of the impulse oscillometry system (IOS), forced spirometry, lung-diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (DLCO), and 6-min walk test (6MWT) were analyzed by age group. Capnography and pulse oximetry were included in the study. Technical quality was determined on the basis of current international PFTs standards. RESULTS: Fifty-one percent of participants were males. A total of 184 participants (71%) who completed the IOS fulfilled the quality criteria, while 210 (70%) completed the 6MWT. Performance on forced spirometry and DLCO was poor. All pulse oximetries and 96% percent heart rates obtained had good quality, but exhaled carbon dioxide (PetCO2) and respiratory rate (RR) showed deficient repeatability. CONCLUSIONS: IOS appears to be the most reliable instrument for evaluating lung mechanics in individuals with DS.

9.
Rev Invest Clin ; 71(1): 28-35, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30810541

RESUMO

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a major cause of chronic morbidity and mortality worldwide. While the cut-off point to define airflow obstruction has been controversial, it is widely accepted that the spirometry test is vital, as well as performing it after using a bronchodilator. The 6-second spirometry and the forced expiratory volume in 1 second/forced expiratory volume in 6 seconds (FEV1/FEV6) have demonstrated validity for defining obstruction, and it would be advisable to incorporate them in the definitions of obstruction. Another relevant issue is that spirometry with borderline obstruction can vary over time, changing to above or below the cut-off point. Thus, surveillance should be considered over time, repeating the spirometry to have a greater certainty in the diagnosis. The objective of this article was to conduct an in-depth review of the controversies in the diagnosis of COPD. During the past years, COPD definition has been updated in different times; however, it is now considered more as a complex syndrome with systemic participation, requiring a multidimensional assessment, and not only a spirometry.


Assuntos
Obstrução das Vias Respiratórias/diagnóstico , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/diagnóstico , Espirometria/métodos , Obstrução das Vias Respiratórias/etiologia , Obstrução das Vias Respiratórias/fisiopatologia , Broncodilatadores/administração & dosagem , Volume Expiratório Forçado/fisiologia , Humanos , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/fisiopatologia , Fatores de Tempo
10.
Rev Invest Clin ; 71(1): 17-27, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30810544

RESUMO

Electronic cigarettes, handheld devices that generate an aerosol that may contain nicotine by heating a solution or e-liquid, have been increasingly used especially in the young population. The aerosol's composition is determined by temperature, and by the substances contained in the heated liquid: glycerin, propylene glycol, nicotine in variable concentrations, flavoring agents, and other non-nicotine compounds. >80 compounds (including known toxics, e.g., formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, metallic nanoparticles, and acrolein) have been found in e-liquid and aerosols. Airway irritation, mucus hypersecretion, and inflammatory response, including systemic changes, have been observed after the exposure to e-cigarettes, leading to an increase in respiratory symptoms and changes in respiratory function and the host defense mechanisms. E-cigarette has been linked with an increase of symptoms in individuals with asthma, cystic fibrosis, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. One of the major concerns in public health is the rise in e-cigarette experimentation among never-smokers, especially children and adolescents, which leads to nicotine addiction and increases the chances of becoming with time a conventional smoker. There is an urgent need to regulate e-cigarettes and electronic nicotine delivery systems, at least with the same restrictions to those applied to tobacco products, and not to consider them as harmless products.


Assuntos
Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina/métodos , Nicotina/administração & dosagem , Vaping/efeitos adversos , Adolescente , Aerossóis , Criança , Humanos , Nicotina/efeitos adversos , Saúde Pública , Doenças Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Doenças Respiratórias/etiologia , Doenças Respiratórias/fisiopatologia , Vaping/epidemiologia
11.
Ann Glob Health ; 85(1)2019 Jan 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30741508

RESUMO

The PLATINO and PREPOCOL population-based studies documented the prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in several Latin American (Mexico City, Sao Paulo, Montevideo, Santiago and Caracas) and Colombian (Medellin, Bogota, Barranquilla, Bucaramanga and Cali) cities. COPD ranged between 6.2 and 19.6% in individuals ≥40 years of age, with substantial rates of underdiagnosis (up to 89%) but also overdiagnosis, mostly due to the lack of spirometric confirmation. The main risk factor was tobacco smoking, but male gender and age were also associated with COPD. COPD in never smokers represented about one third of the cases and was associated with previous history of tuberculosis or a diagnosis of asthma. COPD associated with biomass smoke exposure was a common clinical phenotype in Latin America, found as a risk factor in PREPOCOL and other observational studies in the region. Smoking has been decreasing in Latin America and efforts have been made to implement cleaner biomass stoves. Unfortunately, treatment of COPD in Latin America remains highly variable with low rates of smoking cessation counselling, low use of inhaled bronchodilators and influenza vaccination. A primary-care approach to COPD, particularly in the form of integrated programs is lacking but would be critical to improving rates of diagnosis and treatment of COPD.

12.
Rev Invest Clin ; 71(1): 5-6, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30810543
13.
Respir Care ; 64(2): 153-160, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30647102

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Measurements of inspiratory capacity (IC) and vital capacity (VC) are used to recognize dynamic hyperinflation, but appropriate reference values are required to achieve accurate clinical interpretations. Altitude above sea level is a potential determining factor for lung volumes, including IC and VC. OBJECTIVE: To describe IC and VC for healthy people who live in Mexico City at an altitude of 2,240 m above sea level. METHODS: Healthy subjects ages 9-81 y completed slow spirometry by following 2005 American Thoracic Society/European Respiratory Society standards. Once associations were explored, linear regression models were constructed and values were compared with those from previously published equations. RESULTS: A total of 441 healthy subjects (55.1% women) participated. The mean age was 32 y (minimum age, 9 y; maximum age, 81 y). IC and VC measurements were associated with sex, age, height, and weight. An accelerated increase in IC and VC was evident from 9 to 20 y of age, followed by a gradual decrease in both sexes. In general, IC was higher in our population than predicted by previously published reference equations. CONCLUSIONS: IC in healthy people at 2,240 m above sea level was higher than that of previous reports about European and Latin-American subjects of the same height, sex, and age who were at sea level. The present study provided robust reference values for persons who lived at a moderate altitude.

14.
J. bras. pneumol ; 45(6): e20170157, 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-1012581

RESUMO

ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate the anthropometric data obtained for residents of the city of São Paulo, Brazil, in a study of Latin America conducted in two phases (baseline, in 2003, and follow-up, in 2012). Methods: This was an analysis of data obtained for São Paulo residents in a two-phase population-based study evaluating the prevalence of COPD and its relationship with certain risk factors among individuals ≥ 40 years of age. The anthropometric data included values for weight, height, body mass index (BMI), and waist circumference. In the follow-up phase of that study, the same variables were evaluated in the same population sample as that of the baseline phase. Results: Of the 1,000 São Paulo residents enrolled in the baseline phase of that study, 587 participated in the follow-up phase, and 80 (13.6%) of those 587 subjects had COPD. Comparing the baseline and follow-up phases, we found increases in all anthropometric measures in both groups (COPD and non-COPD), although the differences were significant only in the non-COPD group. The subjects with mild COPD showed increases in weight and BMI (Δweight = 1.6 ± 5.7 and ΔBMI = 0.7 ± 2.2), whereas those with moderate or severe COPD showed reductions (Δweight = −1.7 ± 8.1 and ΔBMI = −0.4 ± 3.0), as did those with severe or very severe COPD (Δweight = −0.5 ± 5.4 and ΔBMI = −0.8 ± 3.3). Conclusions: Between the two phases of the study, the subjects with mild COPD showed increases in weight and BMI, whereas those with a more severe form of the disease showed reductions.


RESUMO Objetivo: Avaliar a evolução dos dados antropométricos obtidos em uma pesquisa latino-americana realizada em duas fases (basal, em 2003, e seguimento, em 2012) na cidade de São Paulo. Métodos: Estudo de base populacional que avaliou indivíduos com idade ≥ 40 anos com o objetivo de definir a prevalência da DPOC e sua relação com alguns fatores de risco. A avaliação antropométrica incluiu medições de peso, altura, índice de massa corpórea (IMC) e circunferência abdominal. Foram avaliadas as mesmas variáveis na mesma população na fase de seguimento. Resultados: Dos 1.000 indivíduos incluídos inicialmente, 587 participaram da fase de seguimento; desses, 80 (13,6%) tinham DPOC. Entre a avaliação inicial e a de seguimento ambos os grupos (DPOC e não DPOC) apresentaram aumentos nas medidas antropométricas, mas esses somente foram significativos no grupo não DPOC. Os indivíduos com DPOC leve tiveram aumentos de peso e IMC (Δpeso = 1,6 ± 5,7 kg e ΔIMC = 0,7 ± 2,2 kg/m2) enquanto aqueles com doença moderada ou grave tiveram reduções dessas medidas (DPOC moderada: Δpeso = −1,7 ± 8,1 kg e ΔIMC = −0,4 ± 3,0 kg/m2; e DPOC grave ou muito grave (Δpeso = −0,5 ± 5,4 kg e ΔIMC = −0,8 ± 3,3 kg/m2). Conclusões: Entre as duas fases da pesquisa, os pacientes com DPOC leve tiveram aumento de peso e IMC, enquanto aqueles com doença mais grave apresentaram perda ponderal e redução do IMC.

15.
Respir Res ; 19(1): 239, 2018 Dec 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30514305

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The main causes of COPD are tobacco smoking (COPD-TS) and biomass smoke exposure (COPD-BS). COPD-TS is known to induce changes in adipokines, incretins, and peptide hormones, frequent biomarkers of inflammation; however, it is unknown if similar changes occur in COPD-BS. METHODS: Clinical and physiological characteristics, and serum concentration of C-peptide, ghrelin, GIP, GLP-1, glucagon, insulin, leptin, PAI-1, resistin, and visfatin were measured in women with COPD-BS, COPD-TS, and healthy controls. Data were compared with one-way ANOVA and Tukey's post hoc test; nonparametric were expressed as median (interquartile ranges), with Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn's post-hoc test. Multivariate analysis, age, BMI, MS, and FEV1% pred with levels of inflammatory mediators in COPD women. RESULTS: FEV1% pred, FVC% pred, and FEV1/FVC ratio were decremented in COPD. In COPD-TS increased C-peptide, ghrelin, GIP, GLP-1, and leptin, and reduced glucagon, PAI-1, resistin, and visfatin. In COPD-BS enlarged ghrelin, insulin, leptin, and PAI-1 comparatively with COPD-TS and control, while C-peptide and GLP-1 relatively with controls; conversely, glucagon, and resistin were reduced. Multivariate analysis showed association of ghrelin, insulin, PAI-1, and visfatin with BS exposure. CONCLUSIONS: women with COPD-BS have a distinct profile of adipokines, incretins, and peptide hormones, and specifically with ghrelin, insulin, PAI-1, and visfatin related to BS exposure.

16.
Ann Am Thorac Soc ; 2018 Dec 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30517026

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Single breath diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide (DLCOsb) evaluates gas exchange; however, the quality of maneuvers performed by children has not been evaluated, and reference values for young people living at moderate altitudes are not well established. OBJECTIVES: 1) to determine whether DLCOsb maneuvers performed by a pediatric population would meet 2017 ERS/ATS quality control standards; and 2) to report normal DLCOsb values for Mexican/Latino children and adolescents living at moderate altitudes. METHODS: This study involved healthy young people aged 4-20 years from the metropolitan area of Mexico City (2,240 m above sea level) recruited in schools from July 2014 to August 2017. DLCOsb testing was performed following the 2005 ATS/ERS standards, and the quality control of each maneuver was analyzed according to the 2017 ERS/ATS standards. We constructed models for DLCOsb with linear and quadratic terms for weight, height, and age as independent variables using shrinkage statistics, variance inflation factors, the Akaike information criterion, and R2 to compare the results of different models. RESULTS: They were 420 individuals (53% boys). Mean age was 11.7±4.5 (SD) years; 47% of maneuvers from children age 4-6 had grade A (13% grade B), while 90% of those in children older than 13 years had grade A or B. Forty-six percent of the subjects had a DLCOsb repeatability <1 ml/min/mmHg. The mean DLCOsb was higher for boys than that for girls, 32.4±13.6(SD) vs. 24.1±7.5 ml/min/mmHg, respectively. The reference equation for boys was DLCOsb=exp(1.63469 + (0.03251*age) + (0.00846*height) + (0.00304*weight)), R2=0.87; for girls, the best equation was DLCOsb =exp(1.56516 + (0.0193*age) + (0.00893*height) + (0.00273*weight)), R2=0.75. The transfer coefficient (KCOsb) remained constant with age and height, with a lower limit of normality of 6.5 ml/min/mmHg/L in boys and 5.4 ml/min/mmHg/L in girls. Measured DLCOsb was higher than predicted by other authors (p<0.001 by paired T-test). CONCLUSION: Individuals aged 4-20 years old can complete high-quality DLCOsb tests. Children and adolescents living at 2,240 m have a higher DLCOsb than do those living at sea level. Reference equations for DLCOsb obtained at sea level are poor predictors of the values measured at moderate altitude.

17.
Chest ; 2018 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30419235

RESUMO

Air pollution poses a great environmental risk to health. Outdoor fine particulate matter (PM2.5) exposure is the fifth leading risk factor for death in the world, accounting for 4.2 million deaths and more than a hundred million disability-adjusted-life-years lost according to the Global Burden of Disease Report. The World Health Organization attributes 3.8 million additional deaths to Indoor air pollution. Air pollution can harm acutely, usually manifested by respiratory or cardiac symptoms, as well as chronically, potentially affecting every organ in the body. It can cause, complicate, or exacerbate many adverse health conditions. Tissue damage may result directly from pollutant toxicity, because fine and ultrafine particles can gain access to organs, or indirectly through systemic inflammatory processes. Susceptibility is partly under genetic and epigenetic regulation. Although air pollution affects people of all regions, ages, and social groups, it is likely to cause greater illness in those with heavy exposure and greater susceptibility. Persons are more vulnerable to air pollution if they have other illnesses or less social support. Harmful effects occur on a continuum of dosage and even at levels below air quality standards previously considered to be safe.

18.
Chest ; 2018 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30419237

RESUMO

Although air pollution is well-known to be harmful to the lung and airways, it can also damage most other organ systems of the body. It is estimated that about 500,000 lung cancer deaths and 1.6 million chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) deaths can be attributed to air pollution, but air pollution may also account for 19% of all cardiovascular deaths and 21% of all stroke deaths. Air pollution has been linked to other malignancies, such as bladder cancer and childhood leukemia. Lung development in childhood is stymied with exposure to air pollutants, and poor lung development in children predicts lung impairment in adults. Air pollution is associated with reduced cognitive function and increased risk of dementia. Particulate matter in the air (PM2.5) is associated with delayed psychomotor development and lower child intelligence. Studies link air pollution with diabetes mellitus prevalence, morbidity, and mortality. Pollution affects the immune system and is associated with allergic rhinitis, allergic sensitization, and autoimmunity. It is also associated with osteoporosis and bone fractures, conjunctivitis, dry eye disease, and blepharitis, inflammatory bowel disease, increased intravascular coagulation, and decreased glomerular filtration rate. Atopic and urticarial skin disease, acne, and skin aging are linked to air pollution. Air pollution is controllable and, therefore, many of these adverse health effects can be prevented.

19.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 5: 309, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30483506

RESUMO

Use of solid fuels for cooking or home heating has been related to various diseases of the respiratory tract. Woodsmoke contains a mixture of carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and volatile organic compounds. Inhalation of these materials induces local and systemic changes in the immune system which may impair critical cell defense mechanisms; however, few studies have investigated the early effects that PAH exposures have on immune cells as macrophages. The aim of this study was to analyze if the pre-exposure to PAHs derived from woodsmoke deteriorates macrophage ability to control the intracellular growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. By using an in vitro experimental model, we analyzed the phenotype and some metabolic changes on THP-1 and monocyte-derived macrophages. Our results demonstrated that exposure to PAHs leads to cell activation and deteriorates mitochondrial function of the macrophage thus facilitating growth of M. tuberculosis.

20.
Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis ; 13: 3549-3561, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30464437

RESUMO

Background: We aimed to study the adverse outcomes of symptomatic and asymptomatic non-obstructed individuals and those with mild COPD longitudinally in participants from three Latin-American cities. Methods: Two population-based surveys of adults with spirometry were conducted for these same individuals with a 5- to 9-year interval. We evaluated the impact of respiratory symptoms (cough, phlegm, wheezing or dyspnea) in non-obstructed individuals, and among those classified as Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) stage 1, COPD on exacerbation frequency, mortality and FEV1 decline, compared with asymptomatic individuals without airflow obstruction or restriction. Results: Non-obstructed symptomatic individuals had a marginal increased risk of mortality (HR 1.3; 95% CI 0.9-1.94), increased FEV1 decline (-4.5 mL/year; 95% CI -8.6, -0.4) and increased risk of 2+ exacerbations in the previous year (OR 2.6; 95% CI 1.2-6.5). Individuals with GOLD stage 1 had a marginal increase in mortality (HR 1.5; 95% CI 0.93-2.3) but a non-significant impact on FEV1 decline or exacerbations compared with non-obstructed individuals. Conclusions: The presence of respiratory symptoms in non-obstructed individuals was a predictor of mortality, lung-function decline and exacerbations, whereas the impact of GOLD stage 1 was mild and inconsistent. Respiratory symptoms were associated with asthma, current smoking, and the report of heart disease. Spirometric case-finding and treatment should target individuals with moderate-to-severe airflow obstruction and those with restriction, the groups with consistent increased mortality.

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