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1.
Mol Biol Evol ; 39(2)2022 02 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34893856

RESUMO

Domestic sheep and their wild relatives harbor substantial genetic variants that can form the backbone of molecular breeding, but their genome landscapes remain understudied. Here, we present a comprehensive genome resource for wild ovine species, landraces and improved breeds of domestic sheep, comprising high-coverage (∼16.10×) whole genomes of 810 samples from 7 wild species and 158 diverse domestic populations. We detected, in total, ∼121.2 million single nucleotide polymorphisms, ∼61 million of which are novel. Some display significant (P < 0.001) differences in frequency between wild and domestic species, or are private to continent-wide or individual sheep populations. Retained or introgressed wild gene variants in domestic populations have contributed to local adaptation, such as the variation in the HBB associated with plateau adaptation. We identified novel and previously reported targets of selection on morphological and agronomic traits such as stature, horn, tail configuration, and wool fineness. We explored the genetic basis of wool fineness and unveiled a novel mutation (chr25: T7,068,586C) in the 3'-UTR of IRF2BP2 as plausible causal variant for fleece fiber diameter. We reconstructed prehistorical migrations from the Near Eastern domestication center to South-and-Southeast Asia and found two main waves of migrations across the Eurasian Steppe and the Iranian Plateau in the Early and Late Bronze Ages. Our findings refine our understanding of genome variation as shaped by continental migrations, introgression, adaptation, and selection of sheep.


Assuntos
Genoma , Carneiro Doméstico , Animais , Ásia , Europa (Continente) , Variação Genética , Irã (Geográfico) , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Ovinos/genética , Carneiro Doméstico/genética
2.
Commun Biol ; 4(1): 1307, 2021 11 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34795381

RESUMO

The domestication and subsequent development of sheep are crucial events in the history of human civilization and the agricultural revolution. However, the impact of interspecific introgression on the genomic regions under domestication and subsequent selection remains unclear. Here, we analyze the whole genomes of domestic sheep and their wild relative species. We found introgression from wild sheep such as the snow sheep and its American relatives (bighorn and thinhorn sheep) into urial, Asiatic and European mouflons. We observed independent events of adaptive introgression from wild sheep into the Asiatic and European mouflons, as well as shared introgressed regions from both snow sheep and argali into Asiatic mouflon before or during the domestication process. We revealed European mouflons might arise through hybridization events between a now extinct sheep in Europe and feral domesticated sheep around 6000-5000 years BP. We also unveiled later introgressions from wild sheep to their sympatric domestic sheep after domestication. Several of the introgression events contain loci with candidate domestication genes (e.g., PAPPA2, NR6A1, SH3GL3, RFX3 and CAMK4), associated with morphological, immune, reproduction or production traits (wool/meat/milk). We also detected introgression events that introduced genes related to nervous response (NEURL1), neurogenesis (PRUNE2), hearing ability (USH2A), and placental viability (PAG11 and PAG3) into domestic sheep and their ancestral wild species from other wild species.


Assuntos
Domesticação , Fluxo Gênico , Filogenia , Seleção Genética , Ovinos/genética , Animais , Carneiro da Montanha/genética , Carneiro Doméstico/genética , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
3.
PLoS One ; 16(5): e0246497, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34029341

RESUMO

The present study is the first comprehensive report on diversity, population structure, genetic admixture and mitochondrial DNA variation in South Indian draught type zebu cattle. The diversity of South Indian cattle was moderately high. A significantly strong negative correlation coefficient of -0.674 (P<0.05) was observed between the effective population size of different breeds and their estimated FIS. The genetic structure analysis revealed the distinctness of Kangayam, Vechur and Punganur cattle from the rest of the zebu breeds. The results showed the influence of Hallikar breed in the development of most Mysore type cattle breeds of South India with the exception of Kangayam. Bayesian clustering analysis was performed to assess the taurine admixture in South Indian zebu cattle using purebred Jersey and Holstein-Friesian as reference genotypes. Relatively high levels of taurine admixture (>6.25%) was observed in Punganur, Vechur, Umblachery and Pulikulam cattle breeds. Two major maternal haplogroups, I1 and I2, typical of zebu cattle were observed, with the former being predominant than the later. The pairwise differences among the I2 haplotypes of South Indian cattle were relatively higher than West Indian (Indus valley site) zebu cattle. The results indicated the need for additional sampling and comprehensive analysis of mtDNA control region variations to unravel the probable location of origin and domestication of I2 zebu lineage. The present study also revealed major concerns on South Indian zebu cattle (i) risk of endangerment due to small effective population size and high rate of inbreeding (ii) lack of sufficient purebred zebu bulls for breeding and (iii) increasing level of taurine admixture in zebu cattle. Availability of purebred semen for artificial insemination, incorporation of genomic/molecular information to identify purebred animals and increased awareness among farmers will help to maintain breed purity, conserve and improve these important draught cattle germplasms of South India.


Assuntos
Estruturas Genéticas/genética , Variação Genética/genética , Genética Populacional , Endogamia , Animais , Bovinos , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Genótipo , Haplótipos/genética , Humanos , Índia , Taurina/genética
4.
Gene ; 770: 145345, 2021 Feb 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33333217

RESUMO

Selective breeding of genetically resistant animals is considered a promising strategy to face the problem of nematode resistance to anthelmintics and mitigate concerns about the presence of chemical residues in animal food products and the environment. Gastrointestinal nematode resistance is a complex, multifactorial trait related to host immunity. However, the mechanisms underlying host resistance and response to infection remain to be fully elucidated. In this context, the objective of this study was to provide insight into the chromosomal regions determining nematode resistance and resilience in Corriedale and resistance in Pampinta sheep breeds. A total of 170 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) from 76 candidate genes for immune response were studied in 624 Corriedale and 304 Pampinta animals. Lambs underwent artificial or natural challenges with infective larvae mainly from Haemonchus contortus. Fecal egg counts, estimated breeding values for fecal egg counts, and rate of packed cell volume change and FAMACHA© score change over the challenge were used, when available, as indicators of host parasite resistance or resilience. Phenotype-genotype association studies were conducted and significance values obtained were adjusted for multiple testing errors. Eight SNPs, located on OARs 3, 6, 12, and 20, reached significance in Corriedale sheep under artificial challenge. Those SNP represent allelic variants from the MHC-Ovine Lymphocyte Antigen-DRA, two C-type lectin domain families, the Interleukin 2 receptor ß, the Toll-like receptor 10, the Mannan binding lectin serine peptidase 2, and the NLR family, CARD domain containing 4 genes. On Pampinta lambs under natural challenge, we found three significant SNPs, located in the TIMP metallopeptidase inhibitor 3, the FBJ murine osteosarcoma viral oncogene homolog, and the Interleukin 20 receptor alpha genes, on OARs 3, 7, and 8, respectively. The results obtained herein confirm genomic regions previously reported as associated with nematode resistance in other sheep breeds, reinforcing their role in host response to parasites. These findings contribute to gain knowledge on parasite resistance and resilience in Corriedale sheep and report for the first time SNPs associated with resistance to gastrointestinal parasite infections in Pampinta breed.


Assuntos
Resistência à Doença/genética , Hemoncose/genética , Haemonchus , Helmintíase Animal/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Doenças dos Ovinos/genética , Ovinos/genética , Animais , Argentina , Ovinos/parasitologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/parasitologia
5.
Curr Biol ; 30(20): 4085-4095.e6, 2020 10 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32822607

RESUMO

The domestication and subsequent global dispersal of livestock are crucial events in human history, but the migratory episodes during the history of livestock remain poorly documented [1-3]. Here, we first developed a set of 493 novel ovine SNPs of the male-specific region of Y chromosome (MSY) by genome mapping. We then conducted a comprehensive genomic analysis of Y chromosome, mitochondrial DNA, and whole-genome sequence variations in a large number of 595 rams representing 118 domestic populations across the world. We detected four different paternal lineages of domestic sheep and resolved, at the global level, their paternal origins and differentiation. In Northern European breeds, several of which have retained primitive traits (e.g., a small body size and short or thin tails), and fat-tailed sheep, we found an overrepresentation of MSY lineages y-HC and y-HB, respectively. Using an approximate Bayesian computation approach, we reconstruct the demographic expansions associated with the segregation of primitive and fat-tailed phenotypes. These results together with archaeological evidence and historical data suggested the first expansion of early domestic hair sheep and the later expansion of fat-tailed sheep occurred ∼11,800-9,000 years BP and ∼5,300-1,700 years BP, respectively. These findings provide important insights into the history of migration and pastoralism of sheep across the Old World, which was associated with different breeding goals during the Neolithic agricultural revolution.


Assuntos
DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Genoma/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Carneiro Doméstico/genética , Cromossomo Y/genética , Animais , Cruzamento , Linhagem da Célula/genética , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Variação Genética/genética , Masculino , Mitocôndrias/genética , Fenótipo , Filogenia , Ovinos , Carneiro Doméstico/classificação , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
6.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 2815, 2020 06 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32499537

RESUMO

Understanding the genetic changes underlying phenotypic variation in sheep (Ovis aries) may facilitate our efforts towards further improvement. Here, we report the deep resequencing of 248 sheep including the wild ancestor (O. orientalis), landraces, and improved breeds. We explored the sheep variome and selection signatures. We detected genomic regions harboring genes associated with distinct morphological and agronomic traits, which may be past and potential future targets of domestication, breeding, and selection. Furthermore, we found non-synonymous mutations in a set of plausible candidate genes and significant differences in their allele frequency distributions across breeds. We identified PDGFD as a likely causal gene for fat deposition in the tails of sheep through transcriptome, RT-PCR, qPCR, and Western blot analyses. Our results provide insights into the demographic history of sheep and a valuable genomic resource for future genetic studies and improved genome-assisted breeding of sheep and other domestic animals.


Assuntos
Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos , Animais Selvagens/genética , Fator de Crescimento Derivado de Plaquetas/metabolismo , Carneiro Doméstico/genética , Alelos , Animais , Cruzamento , Feminino , Frequência do Gene , Variação Genética , Genética , Genômica , Genótipo , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Desequilíbrio de Ligação , Mutação , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Seleção Genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Ovinos , Especificidade da Espécie , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
7.
J Anim Sci Biotechnol ; 10: 30, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30918657

RESUMO

Background: Haemonchosis is a major economic problem in goat production in humid, tropical and subtropical regions. The disease is caused by an abomasal nematode, Haemonchus contortus, which is highly pathogenic in small ruminants. The aim of this study was to identifying single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) that were associated with fecal egg counts (FEC) and could be used as markers to identify resistance to H. contortus in goats. Results: Ten novel variants in the CIITA, ATP2A3, HSPA8, STAT5B, ESYT1, and SERPING1 genes were associated with FEC in goats with a nominal significance level of P < 0.05. Two missense mutation in the exon region of the caprine CIITA gene resulted in replacement of arginine with cysteine at position 9473550 (R9473550C) and aspartic acid with glutamic acid at position 9473870 (D9473870E). Chinese goat breeds had significantly higher FEC than Bangladeshi goat breeds within their respective genotypes. Polymorphism information content (PIC), effective allele number (Ne), and heterozygosity (He) were greatest for the STAT5B_197_A > G SNP locus in all goat breeds. Pairwise coefficients of linkage disequilibrium (D´, r 2) revealed complete LD (r 2 = 1) between significant SNP polymorphisms in CIITA and SERPING1 and strong LD (r 2 = 0.93 and 0.98) between polymorphisms in HSPA8 and ATP2A3, respectively. Correlation coefficient (r) between FEC and body weight (BW) was significantly positive (r = 0.56***, P < 0.001) but that between FEC and packed cell volume (PCV) was negatively significant (r = - 0.47**, P < 0.01) in the total population of goats. On the other hand, correlation coefficient (r) between BW and PCV was not significant in total population of goats. Association analysis revealed that haplotypes within ATP2A3, HSPA8, and SERPING1 were significantly associated with FEC. Quantitative real-time PCR revealed that the relative expression of mRNA was higher (P < 0.001) for resistant, compared to susceptible, groups of goats for all candidate genes except CIITA. Conclusions: This study identified SNP markers that can potentially be used in marker-assisted selection programs to develop goat breeds that are resistant to H. contortus.

8.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 1982, 2018 01 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29386528

RESUMO

The availability of genomic resources including linkage information for camelids has been very limited. Here, we describe the construction of a set of two radiation hybrid (RH) panels (5000RAD and 15000RAD) for the dromedary (Camelus dromedarius) as a permanent genetic resource for camel genome researchers worldwide. For the 5000RAD panel, a total of 245 female camel-hamster radiation hybrid clones were collected, of which 186 were screened with 44 custom designed marker loci distributed throughout camel genome. The overall mean retention frequency (RF) of the final set of 93 hybrids was 47.7%. For the 15000RAD panel, 238 male dromedary-hamster radiation hybrid clones were collected, of which 93 were tested using 44 PCR markers. The final set of 90 clones had a mean RF of 39.9%. This 15000RAD panel is an important high-resolution complement to the main 5000RAD panel and an indispensable tool for resolving complex genomic regions. This valuable genetic resource of dromedary RH panels is expected to be instrumental for constructing a high resolution camel genome map. Construction of the set of RH panels is essential step toward chromosome level reference quality genome assembly that is critical for advancing camelid genomics and the development of custom genomic tools.


Assuntos
Camelus/genética , Genoma , Mapeamento de Híbridos Radioativos , Animais , Cricetinae , DNA/genética , Feminino
9.
Vet Parasitol ; 237: 94-103, 2017 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28242041

RESUMO

Different sympatric species of Haemonchus parasites infecting ruminants and camels can be distinguished morphologically, but involves tedious microscopic examinations, measurements and several other limitations. Information on internal transcribed spacer-2 (ITS-2) sequence provides confirmatory differentiation of sympatric Haemonchus species. The present study introduces a novel, snapback primer probe based, real time PCR assay for the differentiation of three sympatric Haemonchus species, H. contortus (Hco), H. placei (Hpl) and H. longistipes (Hlo). The assay was designed to amplify a region of 130bp within the ITS-2 gene that included three diagnostic mutational sites capable of discriminating Hco, Hpl and Hlo. Following melt curve analysis, species-specific diagnostic melt peaks were obtained for Hco, Hpl and Hlo with a mean melting temperature of 56.6±0.3°C, 64.4±0.1°C and 54.4±0.1°C respectively. The test for analytical sensitivity revealed the ability of the assay to detect up to 5 copies per reaction. To evaluate the discriminating power of the assay, 174 samples from adult worms and 3rd stage larvae belonging to different Haemonchus species and various other nematode species including Cooperia curticei, Trichostrongylus axei, Trichostrongylus colubriformis, and Teladorsagia circumcincta were tested. Additionally, DNA extracted from 25 fecal egg samples was also tested and the specificity of the assay was verified by sequencing the ITS-2 gene of all the Haemonchus positive and non-Haemonchus samples. The assay worked accurately with 100% specificity in at least three real time PCR platforms. The assay is an effective alternative to the sequencing approach and is expected to be helpful for the screening of individual adult and larval Haemonchus parasites. However, caution needs to be applied while interpreting the results from fecal egg samples due to varying levels of sympatric co-infections from different Haemonchus species. The present study is the first report on the application of snapback primer probe methodology for the differentiation of nematode parasites.


Assuntos
Hemoncose/veterinária , Haemonchus/isolamento & purificação , Nematoides/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Coinfecção/veterinária , Primers do DNA/genética , DNA de Helmintos/genética , Fezes/parasitologia , Feminino , Hemoncose/parasitologia , Haemonchus/genética , Limite de Detecção , Nematoides/genética , Óvulo , Especificidade da Espécie , Simpatria
10.
Vet Parasitol ; 206(3-4): 188-99, 2014 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25468018

RESUMO

Haemonchus species are major gastro-intestinal parasites affecting ruminants across the world. The present study aimed to assess the sympatric species distribution, genetic diversity, population structure and frequency of ß-tubulin isotype 1 alleles associated with benzimidazole resistance. Internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) sequences revealed three sympatric species of Haemonchus, H. contortus, H. placei and H. longistipes with 12 distinct genotypes circulating among ruminant hosts in Pakistan. High genetic variability was observed in Pakistani Haemonchus isolates at nicotine amide dehydrogenase subunit 4 (ND4) and cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI) gene loci. Intra-population diversity parameters were higher in H. contortus isolates than H. placei. Phylogenetic analysis of ND4 and COI sequences did not reveal clustering of haplotypes originating from a particular host indicating high rate of gene flow among Haemonchus parasites infecting sheep, goat and cattle in Pakistan. ND4 and COI haplotypes from Pakistan were compared to sequences of Haemonchus isolates from 11 countries to elucidate the population structure. Multidimensional scaling (MDS) plot of pairwise FST derived from 531 ND4 haplotypes revealed clustering together of H. contortus from Pakistan, China, Malaysia and Italy while the isolates from Yemen and United States were found to be genetically distinct. With respect to H. placei, isolates from Pakistan were found to be genetically differentiated from isolates of other countries. The tests for selective neutrality revealed negative D statistics and did not reveal significant deviations in Pakistani Haemonchus populations while significant deviation (P < 0.05) was observed in Brazilian and Chinese H. contortus populations. Median Joining (MJ) network of ND4 haplotypes revealed Yemenese H. contortus being closer to H. placei cluster. ß-tubulin isotype 1 genotyping revealed 7.86% frequency of Y allele associated with benzimidazole resistance at F200Y locus in Pakistani Haemonchus isolates.


Assuntos
Variação Genética , Hemoncose/veterinária , Haemonchus/genética , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Bovinos , DNA de Helmintos/química , DNA de Helmintos/genética , DNA Espaçador Ribossômico/química , DNA Espaçador Ribossômico/genética , Demografia , Complexo IV da Cadeia de Transporte de Elétrons/genética , Especiação Genética , Genótipo , Cabras , Hemoncose/parasitologia , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Paquistão , Filogenia , Análise de Sequência de DNA/veterinária , Ovinos , Simpatria , Tubulina (Proteína)/genética
11.
PLoS One ; 9(2): e88337, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24533078

RESUMO

Sheep chromosome 3 (Oar3) has the largest number of QTLs reported to be significantly associated with resistance to gastro-intestinal nematodes. This study aimed to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within candidate genes located in sheep chromosome 3 as well as genes involved in major immune pathways. A total of 41 SNPs were identified across 38 candidate genes in a panel of unrelated sheep and genotyped in 713 animals belonging to 22 breeds across Asia, Europe and South America. The variations and evolution of immune pathway genes were assessed in sheep populations across these macro-environmental regions that significantly differ in the diversity and load of pathogens. The mean minor allele frequency (MAF) did not vary between Asian and European sheep reflecting the absence of ascertainment bias. Phylogenetic analysis revealed two major clusters with most of South Asian, South East Asian and South West Asian breeds clustering together while European and South American sheep breeds clustered together distinctly. Analysis of molecular variance revealed strong phylogeographic structure at loci located in immune pathway genes, unlike microsatellite and genome wide SNP markers. To understand the influence of natural selection processes, SNP loci located in chromosome 3 were utilized to reconstruct haplotypes, the diversity of which showed significant deviations from selective neutrality. Reduced Median network of reconstructed haplotypes showed balancing selection in force at these loci. Preliminary association of SNP genotypes with phenotypes recorded 42 days post challenge revealed significant differences (P<0.05) in fecal egg count, body weight change and packed cell volume at two, four and six SNP loci respectively. In conclusion, the present study reports strong phylogeographic structure and balancing selection operating at SNP loci located within immune pathway genes. Further, SNP loci identified in the study were found to have potential for future large scale association studies in naturally exposed sheep populations.


Assuntos
Resistência à Doença/genética , Doenças Parasitárias/genética , Doenças Parasitárias/transmissão , Animais , Teorema de Bayes , Análise por Conglomerados , Fezes/parasitologia , Frequência do Gene , Genótipo , Geografia , Haplótipos , Sistema Imunitário , Repetições de Microssatélites/genética , Nematoides , Contagem de Ovos de Parasitas , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Ovinos , Especificidade da Espécie
12.
PLoS One ; 7(3): e33268, 2012.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22428004

RESUMO

The cow mammary transcriptome was explored at -30, -15, 1, 15, 30, 60, 120, 240, and 300 d relative to parturition. A total of 6,382 differentially expressed genes (DEG) at a false discovery rate ≤ 0.001 were found throughout lactation. The greatest number of DEG (>3,500 DEG) was observed at 60 and 120 d vs. -30 d with the largest change between consecutive time points observed at -15 vs. 1 d and 120 vs. 240 d. Functional analysis of microarray data was performed using the Dynamic Impact Approach (DIA). The DIA analysis of KEGG pathways uncovered as the most impacted and induced 'Galactose metabolism', 'Glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchor biosynthesis', and 'PPAR signaling'; whereas, 'Antigen processing and presentation' was among the most inhibited. The integrated interpretation of the results suggested an overall increase in metabolism during lactation, particularly synthesis of carbohydrates and lipid. A marked degree of utilization of amino acids as energy source, an increase of protein export, and a decrease of the protein synthesis machinery as well cell cycle also were suggested by the DIA analysis. The DIA analysis of Gene Ontology and other databases uncovered an induction of Golgi apparatus and angiogenesis, and the inhibition of both immune cell activity/migration and chromosome modifications during lactation. All of the highly-impacted and activated functions during lactation were evidently activated at the onset of lactation and inhibited when milk production declined. The overall analysis indicated that the bovine mammary gland relies heavily on a coordinated transcriptional regulation to begin and end lactation. The functional analysis using DIA underscored the importance of genes associated with lactose synthesis, lipid metabolism, protein synthesis, Golgi, transport, cell cycle/death, epigenetic regulation, angiogenesis, and immune function during lactation.


Assuntos
Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/veterinária , Lactação/metabolismo , Glândulas Mamárias Animais/metabolismo , Transcriptoma/genética , Animais , Bovinos , Feminino , Galactose/metabolismo , Glicosilfosfatidilinositóis/biossíntese , Lactação/genética , Análise em Microsséries , Receptores Ativados por Proliferador de Peroxissomo/metabolismo , Fatores de Tempo
13.
PLoS One ; 7(3): e32455, 2012.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22438877

RESUMO

The overrepresented approach (ORA) is the most widely-accepted method for functional analysis of microarray datasets. The ORA is computationally-efficient and robust; however, it suffers from the inability of comparing results from multiple gene lists particularly with time-course experiments or those involving multiple treatments. To overcome such limitation a novel method termed Dynamic Impact Approach (DIA) is proposed. The DIA provides an estimate of the biological impact of the experimental conditions and the direction of the impact. The impact is obtained by combining the proportion of differentially expressed genes (DEG) with the log2 mean fold change and mean -log P-value of genes associated with the biological term. The direction of the impact is calculated as the difference of the impact of up-regulated DEG and down-regulated DEG associated with the biological term. The DIA was validated using microarray data from a time-course experiment of bovine mammary gland across the lactation cycle. Several annotation databases were analyzed with DIA and compared to the same analysis performed by the ORA. The DIA highlighted that during lactation both BTA6 and BTA14 were the most impacted chromosomes; among Uniprot tissues those related with lactating mammary gland were the most positively-impacted; within KEGG pathways 'Galactose metabolism' and several metabolism categories related to lipid synthesis were among the most impacted and induced; within Gene Ontology "lactose biosynthesis" among Biological processes and "Lactose synthase activity" and "Stearoyl-CoA 9-desaturase activity" among Molecular processes were the most impacted and induced. With the exception of the terms 'Milk', 'Milk protein' and 'Mammary gland' among Uniprot tissues and SP_PIR_Keyword, the use of ORA failed to capture as significantly-enriched (i.e., biologically relevant) any term known to be associated with lactating mammary gland. Results indicate the DIA is a biologically-sound approach for analysis of time-course experiments. This tool represents an alternative to ORA for functional analysis.


Assuntos
Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/estatística & dados numéricos , Glândulas Mamárias Animais/metabolismo , Animais , Bovinos , Interpretação Estatística de Dados , Mineração de Dados/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Galactose/metabolismo , Lactação/genética , Lactação/metabolismo , Lactose/biossíntese , Leite/metabolismo , Análise de Sequência com Séries de Oligonucleotídeos/estatística & dados numéricos , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Transcriptoma
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