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1.
Ciênc. rural (Online) ; 52(2): e20210041, 2022. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACSEXPRESS | ID: biblio-1286049

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Eurytrema coelomaticum is a trematode reported in the pancreatic ducts of ruminants. It is conjectured that may cause disorders in the pancreas, as well as digestive and metabolic processes dependent on them. This study, determined if there is an impairment of exocrine pancreatic function, and correlated it with parasite burden. Pancreas, blood, and fecal samples were collected from 119 bovines at a abattoir. Stool samples were subjected to the gelatin and x-ray film digestion tests (to detect the presence of trypsin in feces). Using blood samples, the following biochemical tests were performed: amylase, lipase, glucose, fructosamine, cholesterol, triglycerides, total protein, albumin, and globulins. Analyses were correlated with pancreatic parasite burden. Cattle with a high parasitic load presented higher incidence of negative tests in both gelatin digestion and x-ray film digestion tests (P < 0.001) when compared to non-parasitized animals and those with a low parasitic load. Changes in those tests only occurred if the parasitemia was moderate or severe. The activity of the amylase and lipase enzymes was significantly higher in animals with low parasitemia (P < 0.05), compared to non-parasitized animals and with a high parasitic burden. In this study, in cases of high parasitemia, negative results were observed in both gelatin and x-ray film in the feces digestion tests. However, the low infection of E. coelomaticum, higher levels of serum amylase and lipase that also indicated loss of pancreatic exocrine functions were reported.


RESUMO: Eurytrema coelomaticum, um trematódeo de ductos pancreáticos de ruminantes. Conjectura-se que possa ocasionar transtornos nas funções pancreáticas, mais especificamente nos processos digestivos e metabólicos dependentes destas. Neste estudo, o objetivo foi determinar se há comprometimento da função pancreática exócrina, correlacionado-a a carga parasitária. Foram utilizados pâncreas e respectivas amostras de sangue e fezes de 119 bovinos. As amostras de fezes foram submetidas aos testes de digestão da gelatina em tubo e digestão de filme radiográfico, ambos para detecção de tripsina nas fezes. Foram realizados os seguintes exames bioquímicos em amostras de sangue: amilase, lipase, glicemia, frutosamina, colesterol, triglicerídeos, proteínas totais, albumina e globulinas. Após isto, as análises bioquímicas foram correlacionadas com a quantidade numérica de parasitas encontrados no pâncreas (post-mortem). Houve maior quantidade de testes negativos (digestão do filme radiográfico e prova de digestão da gelatina) nos animais com alta carga parasitária (P < 0.001), quando comparados aos animais não parasitados e com baixa carga parasitária. Portanto, os exames supracitados se alteram somente se a quantidade de parasitas for moderada ou severa. As atividades das enzimas amilase e lipase foram significativamente maiores nos animais que apresentavam baixa parasitemia (P < 0.05), em comparação com os animais com alta carga parasitária e não parasitados. Conclui-se que em quadros de alta parasitemia há alteração significativa nos testes de digestão nas fezes, e que em quadros de baixa parasitemia há alterações significativas nos valores de amilase e lipase séricas, ambos comprovando alterações pancreáticas importantes, de acordo com o quadro de parasitemia.

2.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 53(2): 260, 2021 Apr 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33852073

RESUMO

This study was realized to analyze the combinations of climatic, physical, and socio-economic variables on distribution of breeding values for performance characteristics and scrotal circumference of Brangus cattle. Records of 84,703 Brangus animals, born from 2000 to 2010 distributed in 65 farms in Brazil were used. The characteristics analyzed were average daily gain from birth to weaning and from weaning to yearling (WW and YW), visual scores of conformations (WC and YC), muscle score (WM and YM), precocity score (WP and YS), and size score (WS and YS) at weaning and yearling and scrotal circumference (SC) at yearling. Components of (co)variance estimated through the animal model employing methodology to AIREML. Mean estimates of direct heritability obtained for visual scores at weaning (WC 0.16, WM 0.16, WP 0.19, and WS 0.22) were lower than those obtained at yearling (YC 0.28, YM 0.26, YP 0.24, and YS 0.40). WW had heritability greater than YW (0.27 and 0.12) and a heritability of 0.36 obtained for SC. Canonical, discriminant, and cluster analyses were performed in the SAS® 9.4 program. Three clusters of genetic values averages per farm were formed according to climatic, physical, and socio-economic variables. Brangus animals are from states of RS, PR, SP, MG, GO, MG, and MS. The highest breeding values were strongly related to thermal amplitude and municipality area. Spatial distribution of the breeding value of Brangus animals can help in the development of environmental indices, genetic evaluations, and the choice of animals for certain environments.


Assuntos
Fatores Econômicos , Escroto , Animais , Peso Corporal , Brasil , Bovinos/genética , Masculino , Desmame
3.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 52(6): 3869-3883, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33094421

RESUMO

Brazil is one of the world's largest milk producers. Several scientific studies have been developed related to landscape analyses that combine genetic with landscape structure data. In the present study, we aimed to analyze the relationship between genetic, environmental, and socioeconomic aspects of production in Girolando cattle in Brazil, as well as verify the spatial patterns of its genetic diversity. Genetic values and accuracy of 46,289 animals were used as well as information from DNA of 310 Girolando animals. Canonic, discriminant, and cluster analyses were conducted in SAS® and K-means method in ArcGIS 10.3 software. The relationship between genetic and geographic distance was analyzed using different methods in software Alleles in Space®. Clusters with animals with higher genetic values for milk production are located in municipalities with lower gross domestic product, fewer family-based establishments, and lower human development index. These clusters are associated with regions with higher area planted with crops, lower percentage of pastures that were less degraded, higher humidity, lower temperature range, and lower normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) values. The greater the geographical distance between groups of animals, the greater the genetic distance between them with a significant distinction over 504 km. There is high genetic heterogeneity among animals. From these results, it will be possible to develop methodologies for better evaluation of the animals within the production systems.


Assuntos
Bovinos/fisiologia , Indústria de Laticínios , Meio Ambiente , Variação Genética , Animais , Brasil , Cruzamento , Bovinos/genética , Feminino , Fatores Socioeconômicos
4.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 52(4): 1669-1680, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31858372

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to evaluate genetic parameters for subjective scores given at the Brazilian Sport Horse (BSH) Stallion Approval by estimating heritability (h2) for morphological, gait, and jumping traits and genetic correlations (γg) among the functional ones and by verifying selection feasibility. The analysis included 1179 complete evaluations from 294 horses, by 4.26 ± 0.96 judges. Each trait was evaluated using mixed models in SAS® v9.2, considering the individual as a random effect. Variance components and genetic parameters were obtained by single and two-trait animal models in a derivative-free restricted maximum likelihood analysis. Since many jumping traits were not described in Breed Regulation, mixed model results were used to enlighten the criteria adopted in the assignment of scores. Balanced bodies and conformations that favor collection were preferred by judges and presented moderate heritabilities. Additive variation was found for most jumping traits, with heritability equal to 0.74 (se = 0.04) for overall jump, and estimates for the separate aspects of the jump movement ranging from near null to 0.43 (se = 0.07) for temperament. Morphological scores had little effect over gait and jump scores while trot may be indicative of some additive value for jump distance and canter for hind limb mechanics. Conformation evaluations of separate body regions presented heritability estimates similar to previous studies and may provide more informative breeding values.


Assuntos
Marcha/genética , Cavalos , Animais , Brasil , Cruzamento , Feminino , Masculino , Fenótipo , Característica Quantitativa Herdável
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30958142

RESUMO

The current model of pigs and poultry production has increased stocking density and reduced downtime between lots. This scenario may favour a rise of infection and disease risk in animals. To avoid this problem, routine use of drugs has been made, intensifying the possibility of residues in animal products and antimicrobial resistance. The aim of this study was to measure carry-over and contaminants of veterinary drugs included in the feed production lines for poultry and pigs. Samples were taken from 25 production lines. LC-MS/MS was used for simultaneous analysis of 62 active ingredients. In the medicated feed, 80.4% of the samples had a concentration of active ingredients different from the stated doses. In 70% of the feed samples, there was heterogeneity in the mixture of active ingredients. In subsequent feeds, carry-over was greater than 1% of the stated dose in 63% of cases. Of the 25 analysed lines, only one showed no contamination with other active ingredients. No correlations were found between the nutritional composition of the feed and carry-over. The present study demonstrated that the current production model allows the occurrence of unwanted drugs in feed-in doses that can contaminate animal products and can select antimicrobial-resistant bacteria.


Assuntos
Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Produtos Avícolas/análise , Aves Domésticas , Suínos , Drogas Veterinárias/análise , Animais
6.
Rev. colomb. cienc. pecu ; 32(1): 21-33, ene.-mar. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1013912

RESUMO

Abstract Background: Little information is available on carcass quality in nulliparous and primiparous ewes of different breeds and genetic groups. Objective: To evaluate the effect of genetic group, pregnancy, age and their interactions on carcass traits, meat quality and fatty acid profile in sheep. Methods: Eighty-five Santa Ines ewes and their crosses with Texel, Dorper and Ile de France, aged 12 month were bred with White Dorper rams to assess the influence of pregnancy on carcass composition and meat quality. After weaning, all ewes (nulliparous and primiparous) were fattened for slaughter at 21 months of age. A further 24 six to twenty one-month-old female lambs from the same genetic groups were included in the analysis to determine the fatty acid profile. Results: Genetic group affected muscle and fat weight as well as the eye muscle length. Fat weight, muscle and fat ratios, subcutaneous fat thickness and cooking loss were affected by pregnancy with nulliparous females being fatter. Meat purpose breeds such as Dorper, Texel and Ile de France showed better meat quality compared to the Santa Ines hair breed. Of the 19 identified fatty acids, saturated were present in greater quantities, especially stearic and palmitic. Omega-6 content was influenced by age and pregnancy. Conclusions: Younger and nulliparous females have better carcass quality in terms of fatty acid composition.


Resumen Antecedentes: Existe poca información sobre la calidad de la canal en ovejas jóvenes nulíparas y primíparas de diferentes razas y grupos genéticos. Objetivo: Evaluar la influencia del grupo genético, de la preñez, de la edad y sus interacciones sobre la composición de la canal, calidad de la carne y perfil de ácidos grasos en la carne de ovejas. Métodos: Ochenta y cinco ovejas de 12 meses de edad de raza Santa Inés y sus cruces con Texel, Dorper y Ile de France fueron cruzadas con carneros White Dorper para evaluar la influencia de la gestación sobre la composición de la canal y la calidad de la carne. Después del destete, todas las ovejas (nulíparas y primíparas) fueron engordadas y sacrificadas a los 21 meses de edad. Otras 24 ovejas de seis a veintiún meses de edad del mismo grupo genético fueron incluidas en el análisis para determinar el perfil de ácidos grasos. Resultado s: El grupo genético afectó el peso del músculo y de la grasa, como también la longitud del ojo del músculo. El peso de la grasa, porcentajes de músculo y grasa, el grosor de la grasa subcutánea y las perdidas por cocción fueron afectadas por la preñez, siendo más gordas las hembras nulíparas. Los grupos genéticos especializados en producir carne como Dorper, Texel e Ile de France mostraron mejor calidad de carne comparado con la raza Santa Inés. De los 19 ácidos grasos identificados, los saturados estaban presentes en mayores cantidades, especialmente esteárico y palmítico. Los contenidos de Omega-6 fueron influenciados por la edad y la preñez. Conclusiones: Las ovejas más jóvenes y nulíparas tienen mejor calidad de carcasa en términos de composición de ácidos grasos.


Resumo Antecedentes: Existe pouca informação sobre a qualidade da carcaça em ovelhas jovens nulíparas e primíparas de diferentes raças e grupos genéticos. Objetivo: Avaliar a influência do grupo genético, da prenhes, da idade e suas interações sobre as características da carcaça, qualidade da carne e perfil de ácidos graxos na carne de ovelhas. Métodos: Oitenta e cinco ovelhas Santa Inês e suas cruzas com Texel, Dorper e Ile de France com 12 meses de idade foram cruzadas com carneiros White Dorper para avaliar a influência da prenhes sobre a composição da carcaça e a qualidade da carne. Após o desmame, todas as ovelhas (nulíparas e primíparas) foram engordadas para serem abatidas aos 21 meses de idade. Mais 24 ovelhas com idade variando entre seis a vinte e um meses do mesmo grupo genético foram incluídas na análise para determinar o perfil de ácidos graxos. Resultados: O grupo genético influenciou os pesos do musculo e da gordura bem como o comprimento da área de olho de lombo. O peso da gordura, a relação músculo e gordura, a espessura de gordura subcutânea e as perdas por cocção foram influenciadas pela prenhes, sendo as fêmeas nulíparas as mais gordas. Os grupos genéticos especializados em produção de carne como o Dorper, o Texel e o Ile de France apresentaram melhor qualidade de carne comparado a raça Santa Inês. Dos 19 ácidos graxos identificados, os presentes em maiores quantidades foram os saturados, principalmente o esteárico e o palmítico. O Conteúdo de ômega 6 foi influenciado pela idade e pela prenhes. Conclusões: As fêmeas jovens e nulíparas apresentam melhor qualidade de carcaça em termos de composição de ácidos graxos.

7.
Asian-Australas J Anim Sci ; 30(4): 593-601, 2017 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27282972

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate heat tolerance using heat tolerance indices, physiological, physical, thermographic, and hematological parameters in Santa Ines and Morada Nova sheep breeds in the Federal District, Brazil. METHODS: Twenty-six adult hair sheep, one and a half years old, from two genetic groups (Santa Ines: 12 males and 4 females; Morada Nova: 7 males and 3 females) were used and data (rectal temperature, respiratory rate, heart rate, skin temperatures; hematological parameters) were collected during three consecutive days, twice a day (morning and afternoon), with a total of six repetitions. Also physical parameters (biometric measurements, skin and hair traits) and heat tolerance indices (temperature-humidity index, Iberia and Benezra) were evaluated. The analyses included analyses of variance, correlation, and principal components with a significance level of 5%. RESULTS: The environmental indices, in general, indicate a situation of thermal discomfort for the animals during the afternoon. Breed significantly influenced (p<0.001) physiological and physical characteristics of skin, hair, biometric measurements and Iberia and Benezra heat tolerance indices. Santa Ines animals were bigger and had longer, greater number and darker hair, thicker skin, greater respiratory rate and Benezra index and lower Iberia index compared with Morada Nova breed. CONCLUSION: Although both breeds can be considered adapted to the environmental conditions of the region, Morada Nova breed is most suitable for farming in the Midwest region. The positive correlation found between the thermographic temperatures and physiological parameters indicates that this technique can be used to evaluate thermal comfort. Also, it has the advantage that animals do not have to be handled, which favors animal welfare.

8.
Rev. colomb. cienc. pecu ; 29(3): 218-225, jul.-set. 2016. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1042777

RESUMO

Summary Background: glycerin, a co-product of biodiesel production, could be included in animal feeds. Objective: to evaluate the effects of partial replacement of corn with glycerin on digestibility and ruminal fermentation kinetics, estimated by the in vitro gas production technique. Methods: dietary treatments consisted of corn substitution with crude glycerin (0, 4, 8, and 12% on a dry matter basis). In vitro digestibility of neutral detergent fiber and organic matter were calculated as the difference between the amount of incubated and undigested substrate. Cumulative gas pressure was measured in vitro using automatic equipment. Gas production kinetics was analyzed using a dual-pool logistic model. Results: increasing levels of crude glycerin to replace corn did not affect in vitro digestibility of neutral detergent fiber, organic matter, ammonia nitrogen content, or degradation rates. A negative linear effect on the partitioning factor and a linear increase in the rapidly degradable fraction were observed with the inclusion of crude glycerin. Conclusions: dietary inclusion of up to 12% crude glycerin (dry matter basis) replacing corn did not affect diet digestibility. A greater volume of gas was observed with the highest inclusion level of glycerin, indicating that alfalfa hay, corn and crude glycerin combination could affect fermentation, suggesting the occurrence of associative effects.


Resumen Antecedentes: una alternativa al uso de la glicerina, generada como residuo de la producción de biodiesel, es su utilización en la alimentación animal. Objetivo: evaluar los efectos de la sustitución parcial de maíz con glicerina sobre la digestibilidad de la dieta y la cinética de la fermentación ruminal, usando la técnica de producción de gas in vitro. Métodos: los tratamientos consistieron en la substitución de maíz por glicerina cruda (0, 4, 8 y 12% en base seca). La digestibilidad in vitro de la fibra detergente neutra y la materia orgánica fue calculada por la diferencia entre la cantidad del sustrato incubado y el no digerido. La presión acumulativa de gas in vitro fue medida por un equipo automático. La cinética de la producción de gas fue analizada empleando un modelo logístico bicompartimental. Resultados: la inclusión de niveles crecientes de glicerina en substitución del maíz no afectó la digestibilidad in vitro de la fibra detergente neutra, la materia orgánica, la tasa de nitrógeno amoniacal o las tasas de degradación. Se observó un efecto lineal negativo en el factor de partición y un aumento lineal en la fracción de rápida degradación por la inclusión de glicerina. Conclusión: la inclusión dietaria de hasta 12% de glicerina (base seca) para reemplazar al maíz no afectó la digestibilidad de la misma. Se observó una mayor produccion de gas con el mayor nivel de inclusión de glicerina, lo que indica que la combinación de heno de alfalfa, maíz y glicerina podría alterar la fermentación, lo que sugiere la existencia de efectos asociativos.


Resumo Antecedentes: um uso alternativo da glicerina gerado como um coproduto da produção de biodiesel pode ser a sua inclusão na alimentação animal. Objetivo: avaliar o efeito da substituição parcial do milho pela glicerina sobre a digestibilidade da dieta e a cinética de fermentação através da técnica in vitro de produção de gás. Métodos: os tratamentos consistiram na substituição do milho por glicerina bruta (0, 4, 8 e 12%) com base na matéria seca. A digestibilidade da fibra em detergente neutro e da matéria orgânica foi calculada como a diferença entre a quantidade de substrato incubado e o não digerido. A pressão acumulativa de gás foi mensurada in vitro utilizando um equipamento automático de medição de gás. A cinéticas da produção de gás foi analisada utilizando o modelo logístico bicompartimental. Resultados: o aumento dos níveis de inclusão da glicerina bruta para substituir o milho na dieta não afetou a digestibilidade in vitro da fibra em detergente neutro, a digestibilidade in vitro da matéria orgânica, teor de nitrogênio amoniacal e a taxa de degradação. Foram observados efeito linear negativo no fator de partição e aumento linear na fração rapidmente degradável com a inclusão da glicerina bruta na dieta. Conclusão: a inclusão dietética de até 12% da glicerina bruta (na matéria seca) para substituir o milho não afetou a digestibilidade da dieta. O maior volume de gás produzido foi observado para o maior nível de inclusão de glicerina indicando que a combinação de feno de alfafa, milho e glicerina bruta poderia alterar a fermentação, sugerindo a ocorrência de efeitos associativos.

9.
Animals (Basel) ; 6(2)2016 Jan 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26840335

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to compare physiological and thermographic responses to heat stress in three breeds of cattle. Fifteen animals of each of the Nelore, Pantaneiro and Curraleiro Pe-Duro breeds, of approximately two years of age, were evaluated. Heart and respiratory rates, rectal and surface temperature of animals as well as soil temperature were recorded at 8:30 and 15:30 on six days. Variance, correlation, principal factors and canonical analyses were carried out. There were significant differences in the rectal temperature, heart and respiratory rate between breeds (p < 0.001). Nelore and Pantaneiro breeds had the highest rectal temperatures and the lowest respiratory rate (p < 0.001). Breed was also significant for surface temperatures (p < 0.05) showing that this factor significantly affected the response of the animal to heat tolerance in different ways. The Curraleiro Pe-Duro breed had the lowest surface temperatures independent of the period evaluated, with fewer animals that suffered with the climatic conditions, so this may be considered the best adapted when heat challenged under the experimental conditions. Thermography data showed a good correlation with the physiological indexes, and body area, neck and rump were the main points.

10.
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 32(1): 178-190, jan./fev. 2016. tab, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-965275

RESUMO

In this study, a multivariate analysis of morphological and physiological characteristics was performed on clinically healthy rams from six breeds (Santa Ines, Bergamasca, Dorper, Texel, Ile de France and Hampshire Down) to determine if these characteristics were able to separate and determine the most important variables in the differentiation of breeds for heat adaptation. To characterize the thermal environment, mean temperature was 23°C and relative humidity ranged between 30.6-55.6%. Morphological and physiological data were subjected to multivariate statistical tests including principal components (PRINCOMP), clustering (CLUSTER), discriminant (DISCRIM), step-bystep (STEPDISC) and canonical (CANDISC) analyses, using the Statistical Analysis System (SAS®). A multiple analysis of variance (MANOVA) was carried out with the variables defined as important by the discriminant analysis. The principal components analysis for biometric characteristics and scrotum-testicle, for physiological characteristics and body temperature as well as the characteristics of the skin and hair explained 60, 70 and 67 % of the total variation, respectively. The dendrogram showed a clear separation between the breeds studied and the existence of two distinct groups, one formed by the Texel and the other by the other breeds, considering all the characteristics used in the study. The most useful morphological parameters to explain heat tolerance were diameter of hair, layer thickness of hair at withers, 12th thoracic vertebra and rump, withers height, thoracic and scrotal circumferences, body weight, anterior and posterior shin perimeters, hair and epidermis brightness as well as the content of red and yellow in the epidermis. Among physiological characteristics, respiratory rate was better than rectal temperature and heart rate to explain changes caused by thermal stress. From the multivariate and variance analyzes it can be concluded that the Santa Ines breed was the most tolerant to heat stress as it presented a highly pigmented epidermis, a shorter hair of larger diameter, the lower layer thickness of hair at withers, 12th thoracic vertebra and rump, the lower temperatures in the testicle and at the 12th thoracic vertebra as well as the lower respiratory rate and rectal temperature value.


Neste estudo, foram realizadas análises multivariadas das características fisiológicas e morfológicas em carneiros clinicamente saudáveis de seis raças (Santa Inês, Bergamácia, Dorper, Texel, Ile de France e Hampshire Down) para determinar se essas características foram capazes de separar as raças e determinar as variáveis mais importantes na diferenciação das raças na adaptação ao calor. Os dados foram submetidos a testes estatísticos multivariados, incluindo as análises de componentes principais (PINCOMP), agrupamento (CLUSTER), discriminante (DISCRIM), step-by-step (STEPDISC) e canônica (CANDISC), utilizando o pacote estatístico SAS®. A análise variância de múltipla (MANOVA) foi realizada com as variáveis definidas como importante pela análise discriminante. A análise dos componentes principais para características biométricas e escroto-testiculares, para as características fisiológicas e de temperatura corporal e para as características da pele e pelo explicaram 60, 70 e 67% da variação total, respectivamente. O dendrograma mostrou uma clara separação entre as raças estudadas e a existência de dois grupos distintos, um formado pela raça Texel e o outro pelas raças Dorper, Hampshire Down, Ile de France, Santa Inês e Bergamácia, considerando todas as características avaliadas. As características morfológicas mais importantes para explicar a tolerância ao calor foram o diâmetro do pelo, as espessuras das camadas de pelo na cernelha, na décima segunda vértebra torácica e na garupa, a altura da cernelha, as circunferências torácica e escrotal, o peso corporal, os perímetros das canelas anterior e posterior, as luminosidades da pele e do pelo, bem como os teores de pigmentação vermelho e amarelo na epiderme. Entre as características fisiológicas a frequência respiratória foi melhor que a temperatura retal e a frequência cardíaca para explicar as mudanças causadas pelo estresse térmico. A partir das análises multivariada e de variância pode-se concluir que a raça Santa Inês foi a mais tolerante ao estresse térmico, uma vez que apresentou epiderme altamente pigmentada, pelo mais curto e de diâmetro maior, menores espessuras das camadas de pelo na cernelha, na décima segunda vértebra torácica e na garupa, menores temperaturas no testículo e na décima segunda vértebra torácica, bem como as menores frequência respiratória e temperatura retal.


Assuntos
Ovinos , Termotolerância , Temperatura Alta
11.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 47(7): 1255-60, 2015 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26048693

RESUMO

We investigated the differences between weaning rates and technologies adopted by farmers in cow-calf production systems in Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. Interviews were carried out with 73 farmers about 48 technologies that could affect reproductive performance. Data were analyzed by multivariate analysis using a non-hierarchical cluster method. The level of significance was set at P < 0.05. Three distinct clusters of farmers were created (R (2) = 0.90), named as low (LWR), intermediate (IWR), and high (HWR) weaning rate, with 100, 91, and 96 % of the farmers identified within their respective groups and average weaning rates of 59, 72, and 83 %, respectively. IWR and HWR farmers used more improved natural pasture, fixed-time artificial insemination, selection for birth weight, and proteinated salt compared to LWR. HWR farmers used more stocking rate control, and IWR farmers used more ultrasound to evaluate reproductive performance compared to the LWR group. IWR and HWR adopted more technologies related to nutrition and reproductive aspects of the herd in comparison to LWR. We concluded that farmers with higher technology use on farm had higher weaning rates which could be used to benefit less efficient farmers.


Assuntos
Criação de Animais Domésticos , Bovinos/fisiologia , Indústria Alimentícia/instrumentação , Carne Vermelha/economia , Desmame , Animais , Brasil , Feminino , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Inquéritos e Questionários
12.
Int J Biometeorol ; 59(3): 357-64, 2015 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24848445

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to assess the seasonal effects of the environment on semen quality in bulls, using infrared thermography. Sperm motility (M), mass motion (MM), and vigor (VIG) were evaluated in sperm samples from 17 Bradford bulls aged approximately 24 months at the beginning of the study. Infrared thermography images and data were collected using an infrared FLIR T 300 camera and Quick Report 1.2 SP2 software to determine the temperature of the proximal and distal poles of the testis and to assess the testicular temperature gradient. The seasonal effects on physiological, seminal, and climatic variables were analyzed by the GLM ANOVA and CORR procedures using SAS®. The microclimatic factors were recorded in hourly intervals, and the daily mean temperature and mean relative humidity were calculated to determine the daily temperature-humidity index (THI) every day for 1 year. The temperature gradient (TG) variations of the testes were significantly higher in the autumn (4.5 °C), winter (4.0 °C), and spring (2.9 °C) compared to summer (0.9 °C) (P < 0.05). Ocular globe temperatures were lower in the winter (27.6 °C) and autumn (26.8 °C) compared to summer (33.9 °C) and spring (31.1 °C) (P < 0.05). The average MM (2.58), M (52.64), and VIG (2.70) of the semen decreased in the summer compared to other seasons (P < 0.01). The TG was negatively correlated with THI (-0.44; P < 0.05). For the seminal variables, MaD (-0.45; P < 0.05) and TD (-0.50; P < 0.01) presented a negative correlation with TG. The TG had a positive correlation between M and VIG, which had values of 0.36 and 0.35, respectively (P < 0.05). We have concluded that infrared thermography can be used to assess the testicular temperature gradient and its consequences on physical and quantitative aspects of sperm.


Assuntos
Escroto/fisiologia , Análise do Sêmen , Termografia , Animais , Temperatura Corporal , Bovinos , Umidade , Masculino , Escroto/anatomia & histologia , Estações do Ano , Espermatogênese , Temperatura
13.
Rev. colomb. cienc. pecu ; 27(2): 133-137, abri-jun. 2014. ilus, tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: lil-712501

RESUMO

Background: breeding soundness evaluation (BSE) of males is crucial for reproductive success in sheep production systems. Objective: to determine the causes of failure when annual BSE was used to evaluate reproductive performance of rams. Methods: we analyzed 1,017 reproductive assessment records and assigned animals to young or mature groups. Animals were classified as approved or failed in the BSE. Statistical analyses were performed through Chi-square tests, correlation, and factor analyses. Results: our results clearly show the importance of regularly performing BSE to detect potential failures in rams that might reduce general fertility rates. Conclusions: consistent physical causes of failure were identified, and fertility rates varied according to age and year of examination.


Antecedentes: la evaluación de la aptitud reproductiva (AR) del macho es crucial para el éxito reproductivo en los sistemas de producción ovina. Objetivo: determinar las causas de rechazo de carneros en el examen de la aptitud reproductiva. Métodos: fueron analizados 1017 registros de evaluación reproductiva de carneros clasificados como jóvenes y maduros. Los animales fueron clasificados como aprobados o no en el AR. Los análisis estadísticos incluyeron prueba de chi-cuadrado, correlaciones y análisis de los factores. Resultados: nuestros resultados demuestran claramente la importancia de la realización periódica del AR, ya que hubo una reducción en las tasas generales de los rechazos después de haber sido implementado. Conclusiones: se identificaron consistentes causas físicas de rechazo y las tasas de la fertilidad variaron según la edad y el año del examen.


Antecedentes: a avaliação da aptidão reprodutiva (AR) do macho é crucial para o sucesso dos sistemas de produção ovina. Objetivo: determinar as causas de reprovação de carneiros na AR. Métodos: 1.017 registros de AR de carneiros jovens a adultos foram avaliados. Os animais foram clasificados como aprovados ou reprobados no AR. Os dados foram analisados por qui-quadrado, correlação e análise de fatores. Resultados: ficou demontrado claramente a importância da realização periódica da AR uma vez que houve redução nos índices gerais de reprovação após a implementação da AR. Conclusões: consistentes causas físicas de reprovação foram identificadas e os índices de fertilidade variaram segundo a idade e o ano do exame.

14.
Ciênc. rural ; 39(3): 825-831, maio-jun. 2009. tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: lil-514077

RESUMO

O objetivo nesta pesquisa foi avaliar o valor nutritivo, determinando-se a matéria orgânica (MO), digestibilidade in vitro da MO (DIVMO), nutrientes digestíveis totais (NDT), digestibilidade in vitro da matéria seca (DIVMS), proteína bruta (PB) e fibra em detergente neutro (FDN), de quatro sistemas forrageiros (tratamentos), pastejados por vacas da raça Holandesa. Os tratamentos foram constituídos por "coastcross" (Cynodon dactylon L. Pers.) sobresemeada com azevém (Lolium multiflorium Lam. cv. 'Comum'); coastcross sobresemeada com azevém e trevo branco (Trifolium repens L., cv. 'Yi'); azevém mais trevo branco e apenas azevém. Entre 15 de maio e 24 de outubro de 2006, foram conduzidos cinco ciclos de pastejo, sendo avaliada a massa de forragem de pré-pastejo (MF), as composições botânica e estrutural e lotação (L). Para análise do valor nutritivo, foram coletadas amostras de pastejo simulado. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado com quatro tratamentos e duas repetições (piquetes). Não foram detectadas diferenças entre os tratamentos para as médias de MF e L. Observou-se que os melhores resultados de valor nutritivo estão associados à biomassa de lâmina foliar de azevém em todas as pastagens. Verificaram-se pequenas diferenças no valor nutritivo entre as pastagens sobresemeadas em comparação ao azevém e trevo branco ou azevém. Os valores médios de MO, DIVMO, NDT, DIVMS, PB e FDN das pastagens foram de 89,52; 69,50; 60,95; 70,96; 23,03 e 51,87 por cento, respectivamente.


This research aimed at evaluating the nutritive value by determining the organic matter (OM), in vitro OM digestibility (IVOMD), total digestibility nutrient (TDN), in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD), crude protein (CP) and neutral detergent fiber (NDF) of four pasture-based system grazed by Holstein cows. The treatments were sod seeding of ryegrass (Lolium multiflorium Lam. cv. 'Common') over coastcross (Cynodon dactylon L. Pers.,); sod seeding of ryegrass plus white clover (Trifolium repens L., cv. 'Yi') over coastcross ryegrass plus white clover or ryegrass. From May 15th to October 24th, 2006, in five grazing periods, the pregraze herbage mass (PM), botanical and structural compositions and stocking rate (SR) were evaluated. Hand-plucked samples were collected to analyze the nutritive value. The experimental design was completely randomized, with four treatments (pastures) and two replications (paddocks). Differences in PM and SR averages were not detected among treatments. Better results of nutritive value were associated of ryegrass leaf lamina biomass in all pastures. Small differences on nutritive value were observed on sod seeding 'coastcross' systems compared to ryegrass plus white clover or ryegrass pastures. The mean values of OM, IVOMD, TDN, IVDMD, CP and NDF of the pastures were 89.52; 69.50; 60.95; 70.96; 23.03 and 51.87 percent, respectively.

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