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1.
World Neurosurg ; 2020 Jun 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32565373

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To study the surgical anatomy of the labyrinthine artery (LA) and the subarcuate artery (SA) their anatomical relationships, and clinical implications as injury of the LA can result in hearing loss. METHODS: Ten formalin-fixed latex-colored specimens were studied (twenty sides). After a retrosigmoid craniotomy and neurovascular dissection under microscopic magnification, a 4-mm, 0º and 30º endoscopic lenses were used to improve visualization. Results were statistically analyzed. RESULTS: The LA was a constant artery that followed the vestibulocochlear nerve into the internal auditory canal. The SA was an inconstant artery that ended in the dura mater around the subarcuate fossa in 35% of cases. The LA originated from the AICA in 89.3% of specimens and from the basilar artery in 10.7%. The SA branched off from the AICA when present. The origin of the LA was inferomedial to the vestibulocochlear nerve in most cases (71.4%) whereas the SA was usually lateral (70%). The distal portion of the LA was inferomedial to the vestibulocochlear nerve in 71.4% of cases. The distal portion of the SA was superolateral to the nerve in all cases (p < 0.00001). CONCLUSION: Knowledge of the different trajectory and anatomical relationship of the LA and the SA with the vestibulocochlear nerve is of paramount importance to differentiate them during surgery. The LA is usually inferomedial to the vestibulocochlear nerve at its distal and proximal aspects, whereas the SA usually originates lateral and ends superolateral to the nerve.

2.
Laryngoscope ; 130(1): 18-24, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30933319

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: Releasing the nasoseptal flap (NSF) pedicle from the sphenopalatine artery (SPA) foramen may considerably improve flap reach and surface area. Our objectives were quantify increases in pedicle length and NSF reach through extended pedicle dissection into the pterygopalatine fossa (PPF) through cadaveric dissections and present clinical applications. STUDY DESIGN: Anatomical study and retrospective clinical cohort study. METHODS: Twelve cadaveric dissections were performed. Following standard NSF harvest, the distance from the anterior edge of the flap to the anterior nasal spine while pulling the flap anteriorly was measured. As dissection into the SPA foramen and PPF continued, similar interval measurements were completed in four stages after release from the SPA foramen, release of the internal maxillary artery (IMAX), and transection of the descending palatine artery (DPA). The extended pedicle dissection technique was performed in seven consecutive patients for a variety of different pathologies. RESULTS: The mean length of the NSF from the anterior nasal spine and maximum flap reach were 1.91 ± 0.40 cm/9.3 ± 0.39 cm following standard harvest, 2.52 ± 0.61 cm/9.75±1.06 cm following SPA foramen release, 4.93 ± 0.89 cm/12.16 ± 0.54 cm following full IMAX dissection, and 6.18 ± 0.68 cm/13.41 ± 0.75 cm following DPA transection. No flap dehiscence or necrosis was observed in all seven surgical patients. CONCLUSIONS: Extended pedicle dissection of the NSF to the SPA/IMAX markedly improves the potential length and reach of the flap. This technique may provide a feasible option for reconstruction of large anterior skull base and craniocervical junction defects. Seven successful cases are presented here, but further studies with larger series are warranted to validate findings in a clinical setting. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 4 Laryngoscope, 130:18-24, 2020.

3.
Neurosurgery ; 86(2): 250-256, 2020 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30980077

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) is a common treatment modality for vestibular schwannoma (VS), with a role in primary and recurrent/progressive algorithms. At our institution, routine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is obtained at 6 and 12 mo following SRS for VS. OBJECTIVE: To analyze the safety and financial impact of eliminating the 6-mo post-SRS MRI in asymptomatic VS patients. METHODS: A prospectively maintained SRS database was retrospectively reviewed for VS patients with 1 yr of post-treatment follow-up, 2005 to 2015. Decisions at 6-mo MRI were binarily categorized as routine follow-up vs clinical action-defined as a clinical visit, additional imaging, or an operation as a direct result of the 6-mo study. RESULTS: A total of 296 patients met screening criteria, of whom 53 were excluded for incomplete follow-up and 8 for NF-2. Nine were reimaged prior to 6 mo due to clinical symptoms. Routine 6-mo post-SRS MRI was completed by 226 patients (76% of screened cohort), following from which zero instances of clinical action occurred. When scaled using national insurance database-derived financials-which estimated the mean per-study charge for MRI of the brain with and without contrast at $1767-the potential annualized national charge reduction was approximated as $1 611 504. CONCLUSION: For clinically stable VS, 6-mo post-SRS MRI does not contribute significantly to management. We recommend omitting routine MRI before 12 mo, in patients without new or progressive neurological symptoms. If extrapolated nationally to the more than 100 active SRS centers, thousands of patients would be spared an inconvenient, nonindicated study, and national savings in health care dollars would be on the order of millions annually.

4.
Clin Anat ; 2019 Oct 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31625185

RESUMO

Although the sphenoidal emissary foramen (SEF) and its content are anatomically and clinically relevant, accurate description of them in the modern literature is lacking. This study aimed to examine and describe the SEF and its content (the sphenoidal emissary vein [SEV]). We analyzed 1,000 computed tomography (CT) images, 170 dry skulls, 50 formalin-fixed specimens, and three specimens (heads) following guidelines proposed by Dr. Albert L. Rhoton Jr. MD for latex injection. SEV morphology was determined by histological staining and electron microscopy. The SEF was observed in 46.8% of the CTs studied (25.4% bilateral and 21.4% unilateral), and 45.2% of the dry skulls (18.8% bilateral and 26.4% unilateral). In 9.5% of CTs and 21.1% of dry skulls there was a blind channel in the external surface of the cranial base; since there was no communication with the cranial cavity, it was not considered as the SEF. During the dissections, the SEF was found in seven individuals. In three of them, the SEV was an alternative route for venous drainage of the venous plexus of the foramen ovale. Its walls were composed of collagen fibers and its endothelium contained rhomboid cells resembling those commonly found in the superior sagittal sinus. The presence of the SEF and SEV can anatomically explain the spread of certain cranial base pathologies from or toward Meckel's cave or the cavernous sinus, and should be taken into account during procedures in the middle cranial fossa, percutaneous approaches, odontological procedures, and treatment of dural arteriovenous fistulas. Clin. Anat., 2019. © 2019 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

5.
J Neurosurg ; : 1-5, 2019 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31518983

RESUMO

Benign notochordal cell tumors (BNCTs) are considered to be benign intraosseous lesions of notochord origin; however, recent spine studies have suggested the possibility that some chordomas arise from BNCTs. Here, the authors describe two cases demonstrating histological features of BNCT and concomitant chordoma involving the clivus, which, to the best of the authors' knowledge, have not been previously documented at this anatomical site.An 18-year-old female presented with an incidentally discovered clival mass. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a 2.8-cm nonenhancing lesion in the upper clivus that was T2 hyperintense and T1 hypointense. She underwent an uneventful endoscopic transsphenoidal resection. Histologically, the tumor demonstrated areas of classic chordoma and a distinct intraosseous BNCT component. The patient completed adjuvant radiation therapy. Follow-up showed no recurrence at 18 months.A 39-year-old male presented with an incidentally discovered 2.8-cm clival lesion. The nonenhancing mass was T2 hyperintense and T1 hypointense. Surgical removal of the lesion was performed through an endoscopic transsphenoidal approach. Histological analysis revealed areas of BNCT with typical features of chordoma. Follow-up did not demonstrate recurrence at 4 years.These cases document histologically concomitant BNCT and chordoma involving the clivus, suggesting that the BNCT component may be a precursor of chordoma.

6.
J Neurol Surg B Skull Base ; 80(4): 338-351, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31316880

RESUMO

Introduction Although numerous anatomical and operative atlases have been published, those that have focused on the skull base either have provided views that are quite difficult to achieve in the operating room to better depict surgical anatomy or are written at the level of an audience with considerable knowledge and experience. Methods Five sides of three formalin-fixed latex-injected specimens were dissected under microscopic magnification. A posterior petrosectomy approach was performed by three neurosurgical residents at different training levels with limited previous experience in anatomical dissection mentored by the senior authors (C. L. W. D. and M. J. L.) and a clinical skull base fellow with additional anatomical dissection experience (M. P. C.). Anatomical dissections were performed until the expected level of dissection quality was achieved to demonstrate each important step of the surgical approach that would be understandable to all trainees of all levels. Following dissection education, representative case applications were reviewed. Results The posterior petrosectomy (also known as presigmoid retrolabyrinthine approach) affords excellent access to cranial nerves III to XI and a diverse array of pathologies. Key steps include positioning and skin incision, scalp and muscle flaps, burr holes, craniotomy flap elevation, superficial mastoidectomy, otic capsule exposure and presigmoid dura decompression, primary presigmoid durotomy, inferior temporal durotomy, superior petrosal sinus ligation, tentorium sectioning, and final exposure. Conclusion The posterior petrosectomy is a challenging approach; thorough operative-style laboratory dissection is essential to provide trainees with a suitable guide. We describe a comprehensive approach to learning this technique, intended to be understandable and usable by a resident audience.

7.
Oper Neurosurg (Hagerstown) ; 17(1): E12-E13, 2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31197348

RESUMO

Selected upper cerebellopontine angle (CPA)/petroclival region lesions can be visualized and resected through a middle fossa approach with anterior petrosectomy. This approach is particularly well suited for tumors that extend from the CPA into Meckel's cave or the middle cranial fossa. We present the case of a 55-yr-old man who presented with sudden left-sided hearing loss, with complete recovery after medical treatment. MRI demonstrated a left 1.8 cm contrast-enhancing upper CPA lesion with extension into Meckel's cave most consistent with a trigeminal schwannoma. The patient initially opted for observation. MRI 11 mo later showed notable enlargement in the tumor, and the patient started to experience left-sided neuralgic face pain. The decision was made to perform surgery. Documented and verified informed consent was obtained A step-by-step surgical video with surgical anatomy images highlights the 5 steps followed by the authors to perform an anterior petrosectomy. The dura mater was opened parallel to the superior petrosal sinus both in the infratentorial and supratentorial spaces in order to clip and coagulate the superior petrosal sinus and divide the tentorium. The lesion was fully visualized and the trigeminal nerve was clearly identified displaced inferiorly but not splayed by the tumor, making the diagnosis of trigeminal schwannoma unlikely. The lesion was debulked and dissected off the brainstem as well as the trigeminal nerve with the final view of intact nerve fascicles entering the posterior aspect of Meckel's cave. Pathology returned as a WHO grade 1 meningioma. The patient recovered well with only mild facial hypesthesia and complete tumor resection on follow-up imaging.

8.
World Neurosurg ; 130: e356-e361, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31233929

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Maffucci syndrome (MS) and Ollier disease (OD) are rare diseases characterized by multiple benign enchondromas. The incidence of skull base (SB) enchondromas and the risk of malignant transformation remain unknown. Most SB lesions are asymptomatic, and surgical resection carries significant morbidity. Observation may be a reasonable strategy. We report our experience with observation of probable SB enchondromas in MS/OD patients. METHODS: Retrospective review of OD/MS patients with cranial imaging between 1995 and 2018 at 1 institution. RESULTS: 14 patients were included: 3 with MS (21.4%) and 11 with OD (78.6%). The median age was 28 years (range, 11-74 years) and 57.1% were female. Extracranial chondrosarcoma was reported in 3 (21.4%) patients. Seven (50%) patients with SB enchondroma or chondrosarcoma were identified on initial imaging. In patients with SB lesions, the indications for imaging were headache (n=3), seizure (n=1), and diplopia (n=1); 2 cases were incidental findings. The most commonly involved structures were petroclival fissure (86%) and clivus (71%). Treatment included observation (6/7) and resection (1/7). Follow-up imaging was available for all SB lesions, with a mean interval of 50.7 months (range, 5-225 months) and was negative for progression in all patients. CONCLUSIONS: Primary SB lesions in OD/MS patients frequently present in the petroclival junction. Cranial screening and close observation should be considered in MS/OD patients, given the increased risk of intra-axial intracranial tumors, de novo chondrosarcomas, or malignant degeneration of previously known lesions. In asymptomatic patients, observation appears to be a safe strategy in this cohort. Further case accumulation and follow-up are required to better understand the long-term outcomes.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Ósseas/epidemiologia , Condroma/epidemiologia , Condrossarcoma/epidemiologia , Encondromatose/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Base do Crânio/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Neoplasias Ósseas/complicações , Neoplasias Ósseas/patologia , Criança , Condroma/complicações , Condroma/patologia , Condrossarcoma/complicações , Condrossarcoma/patologia , Encondromatose/complicações , Encondromatose/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Neoplasias da Base do Crânio/complicações , Neoplasias da Base do Crânio/patologia , Adulto Jovem
9.
J Neurol Surg B Skull Base ; 80(3): 316-322, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31143577

RESUMO

Objectives Although vestibular schwannomas (VS) are known to cause cranial nerve deficits, cerebellar symptoms, and hydrocephalus, the role of these symptoms as the key driver of presentation from the patient's perspective has not been described. Our objective was to survey a large, retrospective VS cohort to document the patient-reported principal initial symptom, and self-reported tumor size, and to study trends in VS patient presentation. Methods Patients diagnosed with VS at our tertiary referral center and belonging to the Acoustic Neuroma Association (ANA) answered a questionnaire between 2015 and 2017. Demographic data, self-reported tumor size, and symptomatology were analyzed. Results 1,304 patients completed the questionnaire. Tumors were diagnosed from 1966 to 2017 at a mean 51.8 years (range: 8-86 years); 66% were female, and 1.1% had confirmed neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2). Tumor size was reported using a 6-point scale: 0 to 1 cm (22.9%), 1 to 2 cm (28.7%), 2 to 3 cm (20.5%), 3 to 4 cm (10%), greater than 4 cm (7.2%), and unknown (10.6%). Hearing loss was the most common symptom that led to diagnosis (51.5%), followed by dizziness (17%), tinnitus (11.2%), and incidental diagnosis (10.2%); a fraction that has increased significantly in the last decade ( p = 0.022). Larger tumors and NF2 were significantly associated with young age ( p < 0.001). Conclusion Our large-scale questionnaire-driven review of 1,304 patients confirms that VS presentations are stereotypical, with most individuals recalling hearing loss, dizziness, or tinnitus as their chief complaint. Many tumors were incidentally diagnosed; an expanding population, attributable to increased access to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Large tumors were significantly more prevalent among younger patients at diagnosis, excluding NF2 patients, suggesting a more aggressive tumor biology that remains incompletely understood.

10.
J Neurol Surg B Skull Base ; 80(Suppl 3): S284, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31143591

RESUMO

Objectives This video was aimed to describe the relevant anatomy and key surgical steps of retrosigmoid approach for gross total resection of a medium-sized vestibular schwannoma (VS). Design The procedure is described in a surgical instructional video. Setting The surgery took place at a tertiary skull base referral center. Participant Patient is a 63-year-old woman who reported with nonserviceable hearing (Pure Tone Average 60 dB Hearing level, Word Recognition Score 45%), occasional tinnitus, and a VS in the left cerebellopontine angle (CPA), extending into internal auditory canal (IAC), measuring 1.7 cm parallel to the petrous temporal bone. Main Outcome Measures The VS was resected by retrosigmoid approach. Results The surgery results gross total resection of the VS with postoperative House-Brackmann grade 1 facial nerve function and no postoperative complications. Conclusion The retrosigmoid approach is a good strategy to remove VS involving the CPA and the IAC. The link to the video can be found at: https://youtu.be/B6K_UkrKitg .

11.
J Neurol Surg B Skull Base ; 80(Suppl 3): S285, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31143592

RESUMO

Objectives This video was aimed to describe the surgical indications, relevant anatomy, and surgical steps of retrosigmoid approach for resection of a large cystic vestibular schwannoma (VS). Design The operative steps are described in a surgical instructional video. Setting The surgery took place at a tertiary skull base referral center. Participant Patient is a 62-year-old man who reported with right sided profound hearing loss with no word recognition, progressive dizziness and tinnitus, excruciating burning pain in the V2 distribution of right trigeminal nerve, wide-based gait, and a right cerebellopontine angle (CPA) cystic VS measuring 3.3 cm. Main Outcome Measures The large cystic VS was resected through retrosigmoid approach. Results The surgery resulted in removal of the large cystic VS with initial delayed facial weakness that completely resolved (House Brackmann grade 1) by 3 month follow-up. The patient had no other postoperative complications and is convalescing well from the procedure. Conclusion Cystic VS presents some unique challenges compared with their solid counterparts. The cystic tumor capsule may be very adherent to the adjacent structures, and distinguishing thin cyst walls from the arachnoid of the CPA, can be quite challenging. The retrosigmoid approach provides adequate surgical exposure for VS tumor resection. The link to the video can be found at: https://youtu.be/sFNvRWG465Q .

12.
World Neurosurg ; 127: e561-e569, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30928599

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leak is a frustrating complication of skull base surgery. Published methodologies using national surgical databases to assess CSF leak have not accounted for variability between skull base operations. OBJECTIVE: Our goal was to attempt the development of a novel framework for adapting big data techniques to skull base surgery and assess the reliability of corresponding data manipulations. METHODS: A retrospective nested case-control analysis was performed using patients from the National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (NSQIP) registry, 2012-2015. Current Procedural Terminology and International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision codes identified possible skull base operations, which were systematically grouped by anatomic location. Meningioma, schwannoma, pituitary adenoma, and trigeminal neuralgia (TN) were included. RESULTS: Of 2918 patients, 84 (2.9%) were readmitted/reoperated on within 30 days for CSF leak. Operations involving the anterior fossa, both middle/posterior fossas in 1 approach, or the orbitocranial zygomatic approach were significantly associated with CSF leak, as were schwannomas and meningiomas in any location (8.5%, 3.1%, 10.2%, 4.1%, and 3.0%; all P < 0.0001). Multivariate analysis of only middle/posterior fossa lesions identified schwannoma (odds ratio [OR], 2.7; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.3-5.6; P = 0.008), TN (OR, 5.4; 95% CI, 2-14.7; P = 0.008), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (OR, 3.9; 95% CI, 1.1-14; P = 0.03), and increased operative time (OR, 4.0; 95% CI, 1.7-9.5; P = 0.009) as significant CSF leak risk factors. CONCLUSIONS: Based on NSQIP data analyzed using a rational skull base/anatomic framework, risk factors for postoperative CSF leak include chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, operative time, anterior fossa meningioma, and middle/posterior fossa schwannoma or TN. Although databases such as NSQIP can be extensively manipulated to generate surrogate results that may provide limited insight, applications beyond their design should be approached carefully.


Assuntos
Vazamento de Líquido Cefalorraquidiano/etiologia , Meningioma/cirurgia , Neoplasias da Base do Crânio/cirurgia , Base do Crânio/cirurgia , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Neoplasias Meníngeas/cirurgia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Procedimentos Neurocirúrgicos/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias Hipofisárias/cirurgia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco
13.
Otol Neurotol ; 40(4): 504-510, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30870367

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Acoustic Neuroma Association (ANA) is a national, nonprofit organization, focused on the education and support of patients with vestibular schwannoma (VS). The aim of the present study is to characterize the profile of ANA survey respondents and compare them with non-ANA patients evaluated at a single tertiary academic referral center to investigate the potential influence of selection bias. METHODS: A prospectively maintained VS quality-of-life (QOL) database, comprised of patients evaluated at the authors' center and members of the ANA, was queried. Demographic variables, patient-reported symptoms and tumor characteristics, as well as patient-reported outcome scores were captured. Health-related QOL was evaluated using the disease-specific Penn Acoustic Neuroma QOL (PANQOL) questionnaire. Multivariable regression models were fitted for PANQOL domain and total scores as well as satisfaction with treatment adjusting for baseline demographics, symptoms, and PANQOL scores. RESULTS: A total of 1,060 patients (802 [76%] ANA respondents) were analyzed. Overall, ANA patients were slightly younger (mean age: 59 vs 60 yr, p = 0.145), more likely to be women (72 vs 55%, p < 0.001), and had a larger tumor size (overall p < 0.001). Furthermore, a significantly higher proportion of ANA patients were more likely to undergo microsurgery (57 vs 21%) or radiation (21 vs 8%) and less likely to be managed with observation (16 vs 65%, overall p < 0.001). A significantly higher proportion of ANA patients reported hearing loss (95 vs 88%, p < 0.001), tinnitus (80 vs 73%, p = 0.034), dizziness (78 vs 64%, p < 0.001), headache (56 vs 45% p = 0.003), and facial paralysis (37 vs 12%, p < 0.001). On multivariable analysis, ANA respondents exhibited significantly lower PANQOL scores for hearing (OR: 0.47, 95% CI: 0.35-0.64, p < 0.001), balance (OR: 0.51, 95% CI: 0.38-0.70, p < 0.001), pain (OR: 0.63, 95% CI: 0.46-0.86, p = 0.004), facial function (OR: 0.58, 95% CI: 0.42-0.80, p = 0.001), energy (OR: 0.44, 95% CI: 0.32-0.59, p < 0.001), anxiety (OR: 0.54, 95% CI: 0.40-0.74, p < 0.001), general (OR: 0.72, 95% CI: 0.53-0.98, p = 0.03), and total QOL (OR: 0.40, 95% CI: 0.30-0.55, p < 0.001). No statistically significant difference was seen with regard to treatment satisfaction.To determine the true clinical relevance of these differences, the two groups were compared using the minimal clinically important difference (MCID) for each domain. MCID is defined as the smallest difference in score in the domain of interest that patients perceive as important, either beneficial or harmful. The domains for hearing, balance, energy, anxiety, and total QOL reached their respective MCID thresholds, indicating that the ANA cohort has QOL scores that are clinically, perceptually worse for these domains compared to the non-ANA group. CONCLUSION: These data help delineate some of the inherent limitations and biases associated with survey studies incorporating data from national patient support organizations. The population profile of ANA survey respondents likely differs significantly from the greater population of patients with VS that may be encountered at a tertiary referral center.


Assuntos
Neuroma Acústico/cirurgia , Seleção de Pacientes , Assistência Centrada no Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Viés de Seleção , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Perda Auditiva/cirurgia , Humanos , Masculino , Microcirurgia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Medidas de Resultados Relatados pelo Paciente , Qualidade de Vida , Inquéritos e Questionários , Centros de Atenção Terciária/estatística & dados numéricos
14.
Oper Neurosurg (Hagerstown) ; 17(6): E247, 2019 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30851049

RESUMO

The suprameatal tubercle is a variable prominence of the posterior aspect of the petrous part of the temporal bone located above the internal acoustic meatus. An enlarged suprameatal tubercle (EST) may present an obstacle during posterior fossa operations, including microvascular decompression (MVD). In this video we present the case of a 55-yr-old woman with 2 yr of medically refractory left V2-3 typical trigeminal neuralgia. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was suspicious for a compressive superior cerebellar artery (SCA) loop, and negative for any other pathological findings. A left retrosigmoid craniotomy was performed, and upon initial exploration, only the most proximal, superior aspect of the trigeminal nerve was unobscured by an EST. The EST was subsequently removed using the ultrasonic aspirator with bone cutting attachment, allowing full visualization of the nerve from root entry zone (REZ) to Meckel's cave. Inferiorly, a small EST remnant was left to protect the VII-VIII complex. An MVD was performed using Teflon felt to elevate the SCA loop off the REZ and nerve, which was then fully explored, to ensure complete decompression. The patient recovered well with resolved trigeminal neuralgia and no new deficit. EST is a rare anatomic variant, with potentially significant implications for visualization of structures superior and deep to the internal acoustic canal, including the trigeminal REZ and nerve. Resection of the tubercle is safe, and recommended where it markedly obstructs the operative corridor. Care should be taken to wax the drilled surface of the petrous temporal bone and minimize incumbent risk of cerebrospinal fluid leak. Informed consent was appropriately documented and verified as outlined by our institutional guidelines.

15.
World Neurosurg ; 126: e165-e172, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30794981

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: At our institution, skull base reconstruction using a free mucosal graft from the nasal cavity floor has been the standardized technique after pituitary adenoma resection via transsellar approach. In this study, the expected appearance of the reconstruction on postoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans is described and its integrity and impact on the sinonasal cavity are assessed. METHODS: Fifty patients were selected, and their electronic medical records were reviewed for postoperative course, Sino-Nasal Outcome Test-22 (SNOT-22) scores, and nasal endoscopy reports. A total of 116 postoperative MRI scans were available to evaluate 1) the appearance and thickness of the graft, 2) the enhancement of the graft, and 3) the T2 signal in sphenoid sinus as a potential indication for inflammatory disease. RESULTS: There was no significant change in the thickness of the graft over time. Except for the 7 scans that were obtained without intravenous contrast, all scans showed enhancement of the graft. About half of the patients showed persistent T2 hyperintense signal at 12 and 24 months. However, this finding was not clinically significant, because postoperative SNOT-22 scores showed minimal sinonasal impact. CONCLUSIONS: Postoperative MRI surveillance scans showed a stable appearance of the graft that mimics the native mucosa, with enhancement through time, reflecting its robust vascularization and integration to the skull base. Although persistent T2 hyperintense signal was detected in the sphenoid sinus, clinical evidence based on nasal endoscopy reports and SNOT-22 scores indicated minimal sinonasal morbidity.


Assuntos
Endoscopia/métodos , Cavidade Nasal/cirurgia , Mucosa Nasal/transplante , Procedimentos Neurocirúrgicos/métodos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Reconstrutivos/métodos , Base do Crânio/diagnóstico por imagem , Base do Crânio/cirurgia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Base do Crânio/anormalidades , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
16.
Otol Neurotol ; 2019 Feb 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30807524

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Acoustic Neuroma Association (ANA) is a national, nonprofit organization, focused on the education and support of patients with vestibular schwannoma (VS). The aim of the present study is to characterize the profile of ANA survey respondents and compare them with non-ANA patients evaluated at a single tertiary academic referral center to investigate the potential influence of selection bias. METHODS: A prospectively maintained VS quality-of-life (QOL) database, comprised of patients evaluated at the authors' center and members of the ANA, was queried. Demographic variables, patient-reported symptoms and tumor characteristics, as well as patient-reported outcome scores were captured. Health-related QOL was evaluated using the disease-specific Penn Acoustic Neuroma QOL (PANQOL) questionnaire. Multivariable regression models were fitted for PANQOL domain and total scores as well as satisfaction with treatment adjusting for baseline demographics, symptoms, and PANQOL scores. RESULTS: A total of 1,060 patients (802 [76%] ANA respondents) were analyzed. Overall, ANA patients were slightly younger (mean age: 59 vs 60 yr, p = 0.145), more likely to be women (72 vs 55%, p < 0.001), and had a larger tumor size (overall p < 0.001). Furthermore, a significantly higher proportion of ANA patients were more likely to undergo microsurgery (57 vs 21%) or radiation (21 vs 8%) and less likely to be managed with observation (16 vs 65%, overall p < 0.001). A significantly higher proportion of ANA patients reported hearing loss (95 vs 88%, p < 0.001), tinnitus (80 vs 73%, p = 0.034), dizziness (78 vs 64%, p < 0.001), headache (56 vs 45% p = 0.003), and facial paralysis (37 vs 12%, p < 0.001). On multivariable analysis, ANA respondents exhibited significantly lower PANQOL scores for hearing (OR: 0.47, 95% CI: 0.35-0.64, p < 0.001), balance (OR: 0.51, 95% CI: 0.38-0.70, p < 0.001), pain (OR: 0.63, 95% CI: 0.46-0.86, p = 0.004), facial function (OR: 0.58, 95% CI: 0.42-0.80, p = 0.001), energy (OR: 0.44, 95% CI: 0.32-0.59, p < 0.001), anxiety (OR: 0.54, 95% CI: 0.40-0.74, p < 0.001), general (OR: 0.72, 95% CI: 0.53-0.98, p = 0.03), and total QOL (OR: 0.40, 95% CI: 0.30-0.55, p < 0.001). No statistically significant difference was seen with regard to treatment satisfaction.To determine the true clinical relevance of these differences, the two groups were compared using the minimal clinically important difference (MCID) for each domain. MCID is defined as the smallest difference in score in the domain of interest that patients perceive as important, either beneficial or harmful. The domains for hearing, balance, energy, anxiety, and total QOL reached their respective MCID thresholds, indicating that the ANA cohort has QOL scores that are clinically, perceptually worse for these domains compared to the non-ANA group. CONCLUSION: These data help delineate some of the inherent limitations and biases associated with survey studies incorporating data from national patient support organizations. The population profile of ANA survey respondents likely differs significantly from the greater population of patients with VS that may be encountered at a tertiary referral center.

17.
Oper Neurosurg (Hagerstown) ; 16(1): 37-44, 2019 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29688445

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The nasoseptal flap is the main pedicled flap used for endoscopic cranial base reconstruction. For large anterior cranial base defects, the anterior edge is a concern for the nasoseptal flap reach. OBJECTIVE: To present a surgical technique that completely releases the vascular pedicle of the nasoseptal flap from the sphenopalatine artery (SPA) foramen improving considerably the reach of the flap. METHODS: A patient with left anterior cranial base fracture involving the posterior table of the frontal sinus, who presented with cerebrospinal fluid leak and contused brain herniation to the ethmoid and frontal sinuses. Unilateral endoscopic endonasal anterior cranial base reconstruction was performed with left sided nasoseptal flap. The nasoseptal flap pedicle was dissected and completely released from the SPA foramen. The flap was left attached only to the internal maxillary artery (IMAX) vascular bundle. RESULTS: The flap covered the entire left anterior cranial base, from the planum sphenoidale to the posterior table of the frontal sinus. There was complete obliteration of the cerebrospinal fluid fistula postoperatively with resolution of the radiographic pneumocephalus and the patient's rhinorrhea. CONCLUSION: The complete release of the nasoseptal flap pedicle from the SPA foramen is feasible and remarkably improves the reach of the flap. It also increases the reconstructive area of the flap since the entire septal mucosa can be used for reconstruction and the pedicle length is based exclusively upon the SPA/IMAX.


Assuntos
Vazamento de Líquido Cefalorraquidiano/cirurgia , Artéria Maxilar/cirurgia , Septo Nasal/cirurgia , Procedimentos Ortopédicos/métodos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Reconstrutivos/métodos , Fraturas Cranianas/cirurgia , Retalhos Cirúrgicos , Acidentes de Trânsito , Vazamento de Líquido Cefalorraquidiano/etiologia , Dissecação , Humanos , Masculino , Base do Crânio/cirurgia , Fraturas Cranianas/complicações , Adulto Jovem
18.
Oper Neurosurg (Hagerstown) ; 16(5): E144-E145, 2019 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30085112

RESUMO

A 52-yr-old woman was referred to a tertiary medical center for evaluation of 2 yr of progressive visual symptoms and 1 yr of retro-orbital pressure. Her ophthalmologic exam was unrevealing except for mild asymmetrical impairment in color perception. A gadolinium contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance image of the head showed a left extraconal orbital apex lesion consistent with cavernous hemangioma. Computed tomography reveled bony remodeling of the medial-inferior orbital walls with superior orbital fissure expansion. The lesion was endoscopically resected and confirmed by pathological analysis. The endoscopic approach is demonstrated in detail, including correlation with cadaveric anatomic specimens‡. During the approach, a rescue nasoseptal flap was raised in case the orbit required further support after tumor resection, but was replaced as this was not needed. This patient had a brief period of postoperative diplopia, which resolved 1 wk after surgery. Her subjective visual deficits and pressure have also resolved. Advantages of the endoscopic approach include improved direct visualization of the lesion, lack of external skin incisions, avoidance of significant neurovascular retraction, and shorter hospital stays than alternative orbitotomy or craniotomy approaches. This 4-handed approach demands endoscopic expertise of 2 surgeons, and is often performed by rhinology-neurosurgery or rhinology-ophthalmology surgical teams. The risk of postoperative diplopia should be discussed with the patient during informed consent. ‡ Anatomic specimen photography courtesy Dr Peris-Celda.

19.
World Neurosurg ; 122: e506-e511, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30368014

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leak is a common complication after surgeries involving sellar reconstruction. Various techniques, including the nasoseptal flap, have been developed to limit postoperative CSF leak. However, the nasoseptal flap causes complications owing to donor site morbidity. A free mucosal graft may be just as effective in reducing CSF leaks as well as reducing postoperative nasal discomfort. This study aimed to assess operative outcomes of free mucosal graft after pituitary resection. METHODS: A retrospective chart review was performed for patients who underwent endoscopic endonasal resection of pituitary adenomas. The following data were collected: demographic data, intraoperative CSF leak, postoperative CSF leak, other complications, and mucosal graft healing at 1 month. Also, the Sinonasal Outcome Test-22 was administered preoperatively and 1 month and 3 months postoperatively. RESULTS: Charts of 158 patients were reviewed, including patients who underwent no mucosal reconstruction, free mucosal graft reconstruction, and nasoseptal flap reconstruction. There was a 7.4% postoperative CSF leak rate in patients who underwent no reconstruction (n = 27), whereas postoperative CSF leak rate was 0.82% in patients undergoing free mucosal graft reconstruction (n = 122) (P < 0.05). Sinonasal Outcome Test-22 scores for patients with free mucosal graft reconstruction showed no significant worsening postoperatively. CONCLUSIONS: The free mucosal graft is a simple and effective means of sellar reconstruction in patients undergoing endonasal endoscopic pituitary resection, and its efficacy is similar to nasoseptal flaps. The free mucosal graft technique does not worsen sinonasal morbidity postoperatively.


Assuntos
Adenoma/cirurgia , Mucosa Nasal/transplante , Neoplasias Hipofisárias/cirurgia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Reconstrutivos/métodos , Retalhos Cirúrgicos , Adenoma/diagnóstico por imagem , Vazamento de Líquido Cefalorraquidiano/diagnóstico por imagem , Vazamento de Líquido Cefalorraquidiano/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mucosa Nasal/diagnóstico por imagem , Septo Nasal/diagnóstico por imagem , Septo Nasal/cirurgia , Neoplasias Hipofisárias/diagnóstico por imagem , Estudos Retrospectivos , Transplante de Tecidos/métodos , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
J Neurosurg ; 131(6): 1835-1839, 2018 Dec 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30579279

RESUMO

Glioblastoma (GBM) of the internal auditory canal (IAC) is exceedingly rare, with only 3 prior cases reported in the literature. The authors present the fourth case of cerebellopontine angle (CPA) and IAC GBM, and the first in which the lesion mimicked a vestibular schwannoma (VS) early in its natural history. A 55-year-old man presented with tinnitus, hearing loss, and imbalance. MRI identified a left IAC/CPA lesion measuring 8 mm, most consistent with a benign VS. Over the subsequent 4 months he developed facial weakness. The tumor grew remarkably to 24 mm and surgery was recommended; the main preoperative diagnosis was malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (MPNST). Resection proceeded via a translabyrinthine approach with resection of cranial nerves VII and VIII, followed by facial-hypoglossal nerve anastomosis. Intraoperative frozen section suggested malignant spindle cell neoplasm, but final histopathological and molecular testing confirmed the lesion to be a GBM. The authors report the first case in which absence of any brainstem interface effectively excluded a primary parenchymal tumor, in particular GBM, from the differential diagnosis. Given the dramatic differences in treatment and prognoses between malignant glioma and MPNST, this case emphasizes the importance of surgical intervention on an aggressively growing lesion, which provides both the best probability of local control and the critical tissue diagnosis.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Cerebelares/cirurgia , Ângulo Cerebelopontino/cirurgia , Neoplasias da Orelha/cirurgia , Orelha Interna/cirurgia , Glioblastoma/cirurgia , Neoplasias da Bainha Neural/cirurgia , Neoplasias Cerebelares/diagnóstico por imagem , Ângulo Cerebelopontino/diagnóstico por imagem , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Neoplasias da Orelha/diagnóstico por imagem , Orelha Interna/diagnóstico por imagem , Glioblastoma/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias da Bainha Neural/diagnóstico por imagem
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