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1.
Diabetes Obes Metab ; 23(2): 382-390, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33043620

RESUMO

AIM: To assess whether the effects of sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitors on cardiovascular, kidney and mortality outcomes are consistent with and without concomitant metformin use. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We conducted a meta-analysis of event-driven, randomized, placebo-controlled SGLT2 inhibitor trials that reported cardiovascular, kidney or mortality outcomes by baseline metformin use. Treatment effects, reported as hazards ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs), were pooled using random-effects meta-analysis. The main outcomes in this analysis were (i) major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) and (ii) hospitalization for heart failure (HHF) or cardiovascular death. RESULTS: We included six trials of four SGLT2 inhibitors that enrolled a total of 51 743 participants. Baseline metformin use varied from 21% in DAPA-HF to 82% in DECLARE-TIMI 58. SGLT2 inhibitors reduced the risk of MACE, with and without concomitant metformin use (HR 0.93, 95% CI 0.87-1.00 and HR 0.82, 95% CI 0.71-0.86, respectively; P-heterogeneity = 0.14). There were also clear and separate reductions in HHF or cardiovascular death with SGLT2 inhibitors, irrespective of metformin use (HR 0.79, 95% CI 0.73-0.86 and HR 0.74, 95% CI 0.63-0.87, respectively; P-heterogeneity = 0.48), as well as for major kidney outcomes and all-cause mortality (all P-heterogeneity > 0.40). CONCLUSION: Treatment with SGLT2 inhibitors results in clear and consistent reductions in cardiovascular, kidney and mortality outcomes regardless of whether patients are receiving or not receiving metformin.

2.
Diabetes Obes Metab ; 23(2): 561-568, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33184931

RESUMO

AIM: To evaluate whether atrasentan plasma exposure explains between-patient variability in urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (UACR) response, a surrogate for kidney protection, and B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) response, a surrogate for fluid expansion. METHODS: Type 2 diabetic patients with chronic kidney disease (n = 4775) received 0.75 mg atrasentan for 6 weeks in the active run-in period. Individual area under the concentration-time-curve (AUC) was estimated using a population pharmacokinetic model. The association between atrasentan AUC, other clinical characteristics, and UACR and BNP response, was estimated using linear regression. RESULTS: The median atrasentan AUC was 43.8 ng.h/mL with a large variation among patients (2.5th-97.5th percentiles [P]: 12.6 to 197.5 ng.h/mL). Median UACR change at the end of enrichment was -36.0% and median BNP change was 8.7%, which also varied among patients (UACR, 2.5th-97.5th P: -76.2% to 44.5%; BNP, 2.5th-97.5th P: -71.5% to 300.0%). In the multivariable analysis, higher atrasentan AUC was associated with greater UACR reduction (4.88% per doubling in ng.h/mL [95% confidence interval {CI}: 6.21% to 3.52%], P < .01) and greater BNP increase (3.08% per doubling in ng.h/mL [95% CI: 1.12% to 4.11%], P < .01) independent of estimated glomerular filtration rate, haemoglobin or BNP. Caucasian patients compared with black patients had greater UACR reduction (7.06% [95% CI: 1.38% to 13.07%]) and also greater BNP increase (8.75% [95% CI: 1.65% to 15.35%]). UACR response was not associated with BNP response (r = 0.06). CONCLUSION: Atrasentan plasma exposure varied among individual patients and partially explained between-patient variability in efficacy and safety response.

3.
Int J Cardiol ; 324: 165-172, 2021 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32979427

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Large-scale outcome trials of sodium glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors in patients with type 2 diabetes have identified consistent effects on major adverse cardiovascular events, heart failure, and progression of kidney disease. However, the magnitude of effects on cardiovascular and all-cause death appeared to vary between some of the studies. METHODS: We explored the impact of differences in trial methodologies, participant characteristics, types of deaths, follow-up duration, effects on intermediate markers of risk, and drug selectivity for SGLT2 on the magnitude of the protective effect against fatal events achieved in the 4 trials. RESULTS: The trial populations differed substantively in the proportions with baseline atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease history (99.2% in EMPA-REG OUTCOME to 40.6% in DECLARE-TIMI 58), and macroalbuminuria (88.0% in CREDENCE to 7.6% in the CANVAS Program). Meta-regression analyses identified no clear effect of these (both P > 0.09) or other participant characteristics on mortality benefits (all P > 0.55). Other differences between the trials (duration, selectivity of the SGLT2 inhibitor, or effects on intermediate markers of risk) also did not explain the heterogeneity in effects on mortality observed (all P > 0.30). CONCLUSION: No clear explanation for the statistical evidence of heterogeneity in effects of SGLT2 inhibition on fatal outcomes between the trials could be identified. While the analyses had limited statistical power, these results raise the possibility that the observed variations in treatment effects on fatal outcomes between trials may be at least partly due to chance.

4.
Diabetes ; 70(1): 1-16, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33106255

RESUMO

Diabetes is the most frequent cause of chronic kidney disease (CKD), leading to nearly half of all cases of kidney failure requiring replacement therapy. The principal cause of death among patients with diabetes and CKD is cardiovascular disease (CVD). Sodium/glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors were developed to lower blood glucose levels by inhibiting glucose reabsorption in the proximal tubule. In clinical trials designed to demonstrate the CVD safety of SGLT2 inhibitors in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), consistent reductions in risks for secondary kidney disease end points (albuminuria and a composite of serum creatinine doubling or 40% estimated glomerular filtration rate decline, kidney failure, or death), along with reductions in CVD events, were observed. In patients with CKD, the kidney and CVD benefits of canagliflozin were established by the CREDENCE (Canagliflozin and Renal Events in Diabetes With Established Nephropathy Clinical Evaluation) trial in patients with T2DM, urinary albumin-creatinine ratio >300 mg/g, and estimated glomerular filtration rate of 30 to <90 mL/min/1.73 m2 To clarify and support the role of SGLT2 inhibitors for treatment of T2DM and CKD, the National Kidney Foundation convened a scientific workshop with an international panel of more than 80 experts. They discussed the current state of knowledge and unanswered questions in order to propose therapeutic approaches and delineate future research. SGLT2 inhibitors improve glomerular hemodynamic function and are thought to ameliorate other local and systemic mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of CKD and CVD. SGLT2 inhibitors should be used when possible by people with T2DM to reduce risks for CKD and CVD in alignment with the clinical trial entry criteria. Important risks of SGLT2 inhibitors include euglycemic ketoacidosis, genital mycotic infections, and volume depletion. Careful consideration should be given to the balance of benefits and harms of SGLT2 inhibitors and risk mitigation strategies. Effective implementation strategies are needed to achieve widespread use of these life-saving medications.

5.
Diabetes Obes Metab ; 23(1): 252-257, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32954617

RESUMO

Sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitors are effective for the treatment of macrovascular complications and nephropathy in type 2 diabetes, but effects on microvascular eye outcomes are unclear. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized placebo-controlled trials to evaluate the effect of SGLT2 inhibition on total ocular events and retinopathy in patients with type 2 diabetes. We searched MEDLINE and Embase for the period from database inception date to October 11, 2019. Two reviewers working independently extracted relevant data. Random-effects models with inverse variance weighting were selected to estimate summary risk ratios (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). We included nine studies, involving 39 982 patients with a mean follow-up of 2.8 years. There were 1414 total ocular events, of which 624 were retinopathy events. SGLT2 inhibition was not associated with a change in the risk of total ocular events (RR 0.97, 95% CI 0.85, 1.11) or retinopathy (RR 0.98, 95% CI 0.84, 1.16), with consistent effects across studies (P for heterogeneity = 0.35 and 0.45, respectively). The effects of SGLT2 inhibition on eye disease in individuals with type 2 diabetes are probably null, although the available data cannot exclude small to moderate benefits or harms.

6.
Am J Kidney Dis ; 77(1): 23-34.e1, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32971190

RESUMO

RATIONALE & OBJECTIVE: Canagliflozin reduces the risk for cardiovascular and kidney outcomes in type 2 diabetes. This study aimed to assess the relative and absolute effects of canagliflozin on clinical outcomes across different KDIGO (Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes) risk categories based on estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and urinary albumin-creatinine ratio. STUDY DESIGN: Post hoc analysis of the CANagliflozin cardioVascular Assessment Study (CANVAS) Program. SETTINGS & PARTICIPANTS: The CANVAS Program randomly assigned 10,142 participants with type 2 diabetes at high cardiovascular risk and with eGFR≥30mL/min/1.73m2 to treatment with canagliflozin or placebo. INTERVENTION(S): Canagliflozin or matching placebo. OUTCOMES: The primary outcome was a composite of cardiovascular death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, or nonfatal stroke, with a set of other cardiovascular and kidney prespecified outcomes. RESULTS: Of 10,142 participants, 10,031 (98.9%) had available baseline eGFR and urinary albumin-creatinine ratio data. The proportion of participants in low-, moderate-, high-, and very high-risk KDIGO categories was 58.6%, 25.8%, 10.6%, and 5.0%, respectively. The relative effect of canagliflozin on the primary outcome (HR, 0.86; 95% CI, 0.75-0.97) was consistent across KDIGO risk categories (P trend=0.2), with similar results for other cardiovascular and kidney outcomes. Absolute reductions in the primary outcome were greater within higher KDIGO risk categories (P trend=0.03) with a similar pattern of effect for the composite of cardiovascular death or hospitalization for heart failure (P trend=0.06) and for chronic eGFR slope (P trend = 0.04). LIMITATIONS: Predominantly a low kidney risk population, relatively few participants in higher KDIGO risk categories, and exclusion of individuals with eGFR<30mL/min/1.73m2. CONCLUSIONS: Although the relative effects of canagliflozin are similar across KDIGO risk categories, absolute risk reductions are likely greater for individuals at higher KDIGO risk. The KDIGO classification system may be able to identify individuals who might derive greater benefits for end-organ protection from treatment with canagliflozin. FUNDING: This post hoc analysis was not specifically funded. The original CANVAS Program trials were funded by Janssen Research & Development, LLC and were conducted as a collaboration between the funder, an academic steering committee, and an academic research organization, George Clinical. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The original trials of the CANVAS Program were registered at ClinicalTrials.gov with study numbers NCT01032629 and NCT01989754.

7.
Am J Kidney Dis ; 77(1): 94-109, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33121838

RESUMO

Diabetes is the most frequent cause of chronic kidney disease (CKD), leading to nearly half of all cases of kidney failure requiring replacement therapy. The principal cause of death among patients with diabetes and CKD is cardiovascular disease (CVD). Sodium/glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors were developed to lower blood glucose levels by inhibiting glucose reabsorption in the proximal tubule. In clinical trials designed to demonstrate the CVD safety of SGLT2 inhibitors in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), consistent reductions in risks for secondary kidney disease end points (albuminuria and a composite of serum creatinine doubling or 40% estimated glomerular filtration rate decline, kidney failure, or death), along with reductions in CVD events, were observed. In patients with CKD, the kidney and CVD benefits of canagliflozin were established by the CREDENCE (Canagliflozin and Renal Events in Diabetes With Established Nephropathy Clinical Evaluation) trial in patients with T2DM, urinary albumin-creatinine ratio>300mg/g, and estimated glomerular filtration rate of 30 to<90mL/min/1.73m2. To clarify and support the role of SGLT2 inhibitors for treatment of T2DM and CKD, the National Kidney Foundation convened a scientific workshop with an international panel of more than 80 experts. They discussed the current state of knowledge and unanswered questions to propose therapeutic approaches and delineate future research. SGLT2 inhibitors improve glomerular hemodynamic function and are thought to ameliorate other local and systemic mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of CKD and CVD. SGLT2 inhibitors should be used when possible by people with T2DM to reduce risks for CKD and CVD in alignment with the clinical trial entry criteria. Important risks of SGLT2 inhibitors include euglycemic ketoacidosis, genital mycotic infections, and volume depletion. Careful consideration should be given to the balance of benefits and harms of SGLT2 inhibitors and risk mitigation strategies. Effective implementation strategies are needed to achieve widespread use of these life-saving medications.

8.
Clin Pharmacol Ther ; 2020 Dec 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33338269

RESUMO

Atrasentan, an endothelin receptor antagonist, showed clinically significant albuminuria reduction with minimal signs of fluid retention in phase II trials. We evaluated whether plasma exposure was associated with long-term outcomes for kidney protection and heart failure in the phase III SONAR trial (n = 3668) in type 2 diabetics with chronic kidney disease. A population pharmacokinetic model was used to estimate plasma exposure of atrasentan 0.75 mg/day. Parametric time-to-event models were used to quantify the association between plasma exposure and long-term outcomes. Mean atrasentan plasma exposure was 41.4 ng.h/mL (2.5th to 97.5th P: 14.2 to 139.9). Compared with placebo, a mean atrasentan exposure translated in a hazard ratio of 0.76 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.28-0.85) for kidney events and 1.13 (95% CI: 1.03-2.20) for heart failure events. At the mean atrasentan exposure, the kidney protective effect was larger than the increase in heart failure supporting the atrasentan 0.75 mg/day dose in this population.

9.
Diabetes Obes Metab ; 2020 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33269512

RESUMO

AIMS: To summarize evidence from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) concerning the effects of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors on kidney outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). METHODS: The Medline, EMBASE and Cochrane databases were searched for RCTs comparing DPP-4 inhibitors with a placebo, active comparator or standard care, with at least 500 person-years follow-up in patients with T2DM and with reporting of kidney outcomes. Treatment effects were summarized using random-effects meta-analysis. RESULTS: Ten trials including 47 955 patients (mean estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR] 71 mL/min/1.73m2 , mean follow-up 10 762 patient-years per trial) were eligible for inclusion. DPP-4 inhibitors were compared with placebo (five trials), active comparator (three trials), and standard care (two trials). Overall, treatment with DPP-4 inhibitors was associated with a greater decline in eGFR than treatment with the comparators (weighted mean difference -1.12 mL/min/1.73m2 , 95% confidence interval [CI] -1.61, -0.62; high-certainty evidence). There were no detectable effects of DPP-4 inhibitors on rates of doubling serum creatinine (risk ratio [RR] 1.10, 95% CI 0.90, 1.34; high-certainty evidence), end-stage kidney disease (RR 0.97, 95% CI 0.77, 1.23; high-certainty evidence), death from kidney causes (RR 1.81, 95% CI 0.67, 4.93; low-certainty evidence), or all-cause mortality (RR 1.01, 95% CI 0.95, 1.09; high-certainty evidence). DPP-4 inhibitors significantly reduced the risks of the surrogate kidney outcome of new albuminuria (RR 0.88, 95% CI 0.8, 0.98; moderate-certainty evidence) and worsening albuminuria (RR 0.88, 95% CI 0.82, 0.94; moderate-certainty evidence). There was no difference in the safety outcome of acute kidney injury (RR 1.04, 95% CI 0.57, 1.87; high-certainty evidence). CONCLUSIONS: Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors are associated with a greater decline in eGFR, despite reducing the development and progression of albuminuria, and have no clear effect on other key kidney outcomes.

11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33351951

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Health information systems (HIS) are fundamental tools for the surveillance of health services, estimation of disease burden and prioritization of health resources. Several gaps in the availability of HIS for kidney disease were highlighted by the first iteration of the Global Kidney Health Atlas. METHODS: As part of its second iteration, the International Society of Nephrology conducted a cross-sectional global survey between July and October 2018 to explore the coverage and scope of HIS for kidney disease, with a focus on kidney replacement therapy (KRT). RESULTS: Out of a total of 182 invited countries, 154 countries responded to questions on HIS (85% response rate). KRT registries were available in almost all high-income countries, but few low-income countries, while registries for non-dialysis chronic kidney disease (CKD) or acute kidney injury (AKI) were rare. Registries in high-income countries tended to be national, in contrast to registries in low-income countries, which often operated at local or regional levels. Although cause of end-stage kidney disease, modality of KRT and source of kidney transplant donors were frequently reported, few countries collected data on patient-reported outcome measures and only half of low-income countries recorded process-based measures. Almost no countries had programs to detect AKI and practices to identify CKD-targeted individuals with diabetes, hypertension and cardiovascular disease, rather than members of high-risk ethnic groups. CONCLUSIONS: These findings confirm significant heterogeneity in the global availability of HIS for kidney disease and highlight important gaps in their coverage and scope, especially in low-income countries and across the domains of AKI, non-dialysis CKD, patient-reported outcomes, process-based measures and quality indicators for KRT service delivery.

12.
Am Heart J ; 2020 Dec 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33358942

RESUMO

We aimed to assess the efficacy and safety of canagliflozin in patients with type 2 diabetes and nephropathy according to prior history of heart failure in the Canagliflozin and Renal Events in Diabetes With Established Nephropathy Clinical Evaluation (CREDENCE) trial. We found that participants with a prior history of heart failure at baseline (15%) were more likely to be older, female, white, have a history of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, and use diuretics and beta blockers (all P<0.001), and that, compared with placebo, canagliflozin safely reduced renal and cardiovascular events with consistent effects in patients with and without a prior history of heart failure (all efficacy P interaction >0.150). These results support the efficacy and safety of canagliflozin in patients with type 2 diabetes and nephropathy regardless of prior history of heart failure.

13.
Kidney Int ; 2020 Dec 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33316282

RESUMO

Canagliflozin slows the progression of chronic kidney disease in patients with type 2 diabetes and induces a reversible acute drop in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), believed to be a hemodynamic effect. Predictors of the initial drop and its association with long-term eGFR trajectories and safety outcomes are unknown. To assess this, we performed a post-hoc analysis of 4289 participants in the CREDENCE trial with type 2 diabetes and chronic kidney disease equally split into treatment and placebo groups who had eGFR measured at both baseline and week three. The eGFR was categorized at week three as greater than a 10% decline; between 0 and 10% decline; and no decline. Long-term eGFR trajectories and safety outcomes were estimated in each category of acute eGFR change by linear mixed effects models and Cox regression after adjustment for baseline characteristics and medications use. Significantly more participants in the canagliflozin (45%) compared to the placebo (21%) group experienced an acute drop in eGFR over 10%. An over 30% drop occurred infrequently (4% of participants with canagliflozin and 2% with placebo). The odds ratio for a drop in eGFR over 10% with canagliflozin compared to placebo was significant at 3.03 (95% confidence interval 2.65, 3.47). Following the initial drop in eGFR, multivariable adjusted long-term eGFR trajectories, as well as overall and kidney safety profiles, in those treated with canagliflozin were similar across eGFR decline categories. Thus, although acute drops in eGFR over 10% occurred in nearly half of all participants following initiation of canagliflozin, the clinical benefit of canagliflozin was observed regardless. Additionally, safety outcomes were similar among subgroups of acute eGFR drop.

15.
Clin J Am Soc Nephrol ; 15(12): 1705-1714, 2020 Dec 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33214158

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The Canagliflozin and Renal Events in Diabetes with Established Nephropathy Clinical Evaluation (CREDENCE) trial demonstrated that the sodium glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor canagliflozin reduced the risk of kidney failure and cardiovascular events in participants with type 2 diabetes mellitus and CKD. Little is known about the use of SGLT2 inhibitors in patients with eGFR <30 ml/min per 1.73 m2. The participants in the CREDENCE study had type 2 diabetes mellitus, a urinary albumin-creatinine ratio >300-5000 mg/g, and an eGFR of 30 to <90 ml/min per 1.73 m2 at screening. This post hoc analysis evaluated participants with eGFR <30 ml/min per 1.73 m2 at randomization. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, & MEASUREMENTS: Effects of eGFR slope through week 130 were analyzed using a piecewise, linear, mixed-effects model. Efficacy was analyzed in the intention-to-treat population, on the basis of Cox proportional hazard models, and safety was analyzed in the on-treatment population. At randomization (an average of 29 days after screening), 174 of 4401 (4%) participants had an eGFR <30 ml/min per 1.73 m2 (mean [SD] eGFR, 26 [3] ml/min per 1.73 m2). RESULTS: From weeks 3 to 130, there was a 66% difference in the mean rate of eGFR decline with canagliflozin versus placebo (mean slopes, -1.30 versus -3.83 ml/min per 1.73 m2 per year; difference, -2.54 ml/min per 1.73 m2 per year; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.90 to 4.17). Effects of canagliflozin on kidney, cardiovascular, and mortality outcomes were consistent for those with eGFR <30 and ≥30 ml/min per 1.73 m2 (all P interaction >0.20). The estimate for kidney failure in participants with eGFR <30 ml/min per 1.73 m2 (hazard ratio, 0.67; 95% CI, 0.35 to 1.27) was similar to those with eGFR ≥30 ml/min per 1.73 m2 (hazard ratio, 0.70; 95% CI, 0.54 to 0.91; P interaction=0.80). There was no imbalance in the rate of kidney-related adverse events or AKI associated with canagliflozin between participants with eGFR <30 and ≥30 ml/min per 1.73 m2 (all P interaction >0.12). CONCLUSIONS: This post hoc analysis suggests canagliflozin slowed progression of kidney disease, without increasing AKI, even in participants with eGFR <30 ml/min per 1.73 m2.

16.
Clin J Am Soc Nephrol ; 15(12): 1728-1739, 2020 Dec 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33239410

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Sitagliptin, a dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor, is commonly prescribed to patients with type 2 diabetes. As this drug is primarily eliminated by the kidney, a reduced dose is recommended for patients with CKD. Some evidence suggests that sitagliptin is associated with a higher risk of congestive heart failure, particularly at higher doses. We compare the 1-year risk of death or hospitalization with congestive heart failure in patients with CKD newly prescribed sitagliptin at >50 versus ≤50 mg/d. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, & MEASUREMENTS: This population-based cohort study included older adults (>66 years) with type 2 diabetes and an eGFR<45 ml/min per 1.73 m2 (but not receiving dialysis) who were newly prescribed sitagliptin between 2010 and 2017 in Ontario, Canada. We used inverse probability of treatment weighting on the basis of propensity scores to balance baseline characteristics. The primary composite outcome was death or hospitalization with congestive heart failure. Secondary outcomes included hospitalization with pancreatitis or hypoglycemia, all-cause hospitalization, and glycemic control. Weighted hazard ratios were obtained using Cox proportional hazards regression, and 95% confidence intervals were obtained using bootstrap variance estimators. RESULTS: Of 9215 patients, 6518 started sitagliptin at >50 mg/d, and 2697 started sitagliptin at ≤50 mg/d. The 1-year risk of death or hospitalization with congestive heart failure did not differ significantly between groups (79 versus 126 events per 1000 person-years; weighted hazard ratio, 0.88; 95% confidence interval, 0.67 to 1.14); hospitalization with pancreatitis (weighted hazard ratio, 0.98; 95% confidence interval, 0.32 to 3.03) and hypoglycemia (weighted hazard ratio, 1.10; 95% confidence interval, 0.64 to 1.90) also did not differ significantly between groups. Patients starting sitagliptin at >50 mg/d had lower mean glycated hemoglobin concentrations (weighted between-group difference, -0.12%; 95% confidence interval, -0.19 to -0.06) and a lower risk of all-cause hospitalization (weighted hazard ratio, 0.81; 95% confidence interval, 0.66 to 0.98). CONCLUSIONS: The risk of death or congestive heart failure was not higher in older adults with CKD starting sitagliptin at >50 versus ≤50 mg/d. PODCAST: This article contains a podcast at https://www.asn-online.org/media/podcast/CJASN/2020_11_25_CJN08310520_final.mp3.

17.
Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol ; 8(11): 903-914, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33065060

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitors might enhance erythropoiesis and increase red blood cell mass. We assessed the long-term effects of canagliflozin on anaemia-related outcomes. METHODS: In a post-hoc analysis of the Canagliflozin and Renal Events in Diabetes with Established Nephropathy Clinical Evaluation (CREDENCE) trial, we included patients with type 2 diabetes and chronic kidney disease who were randomly assigned to treatment with canagliflozin or placebo at 690 sites in 34 countries. We assessed the effects of canagliflozin versus matched placebo on haemoglobin and haematocrit using linear mixed-effects models. The primary outcome of this post-hoc analysis was a composite outcome of investigator-reported anaemia or treatment for anaemia, which was assessed using Kaplan-Meier analysis and Cox regression models. All analyses were done by intention to treat. FINDINGS: Between March 24, 2014, and May 5, 2017, 4401 participants were randomly assigned to receive canagliflozin (100 mg; n=2202) or placebo (n=2199). At baseline, mean haemoglobin concentration was 132·0 g/L (SD 17·7), 1599 (36%) of 4401 participants had anaemia (defined as haemoglobin <130 g/L in men or <120 g/L in women), and 33 (<1%) of 4401 participants used erythropoiesis-stimulating agents. During a median follow-up period of 2·6 years (IQR 2·1-3·1), mean haemoglobin concentration was 7·1 g/L (95% CI 6·4-7·8) higher and haematocrit was 2·4% (2·2-2·6) higher in the canagliflozin group than the placebo group. Overall, 573 of 4401 participants had either an investigator-reported anaemia event or initiation of treatment for anaemia: 358 (8%) of 4401 participants reported anaemia events, 343 (8%) initiated iron preparations, 141 (3%) initiated erythropoiesis-stimulating agents, and 114 (2%) received blood transfusion. The risk of the composite outcome of anaemia events or initiation of treatment for anaemia was lower in the canagliflozin group than the placebo group (hazard ratio 0·65, 95% CI 0·55-0·77; p<0·0001). Compared with the placebo group, participants in the canagliflozin group also had lower risks of anaemia events alone (0·58, 0·47-0·72; p<0·0001), initiation of iron preparations (0·64, 0·52-0·80; p<0·0001), and need for erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (0·65, 0·46-0·91; p=0·012). INTERPRETATION: These data suggest that canagliflozin reduces the risk of anaemia-associated outcomes, including the need for erythropoiesis-stimulating agents, among patients with type 2 diabetes and chronic kidney disease. FUNDING: Janssen Research and Development.


Assuntos
Anemia/tratamento farmacológico , Canagliflozina/uso terapêutico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores do Transportador 2 de Sódio-Glicose/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Anemia/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/epidemiologia , Resultado do Tratamento
18.
J Am Soc Nephrol ; 31(12): 2925-2936, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32998938

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The association between early changes in albuminuria and kidney and cardiovascular events is primarily based on trials of renin-angiotensin system blockade. It is unclear whether this association occurs with sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibition. METHODS: The Canagliflozin and Renal Events in Diabetes with Established Nephropathy Clinical Evaluation (CREDENCE) trial enrolled 4401 patients with type 2 diabetes and CKD (urinary albumin-creatinine ratio [UACR] >300 mg/g). This post hoc analysis assessed canagliflozin's effect on albuminuria and how early change in albuminuria (baseline to week 26) is associated with the primary kidney outcome (ESKD, doubling of serum creatinine, or kidney death), major adverse cardiovascular events, and hospitalization for heart failure or cardiovascular death. RESULTS: Complete data for early change in albuminuria and other covariates were available for 3836 (87.2%) participants in the CREDENCE trial. Compared with placebo, canagliflozin lowered UACR by 31% (95% confidence interval [95% CI], 27% to 36%) at week 26, and significantly increased the likelihood of achieving a 30% reduction in UACR (odds ratio, 2.69; 95% CI, 2.35 to 3.07). Each 30% decrease in UACR over the first 26 weeks was independently associated with a lower hazard for the primary kidney outcome (hazard ratio [HR], 0.71; 95% CI, 0.67 to 0.76; P<0.001), major adverse cardiovascular events (HR, 0.92; 95% CI, 0.88 to 0.96; P<0.001), and hospitalization for heart failure or cardiovascular death (HR, 0.86; 95% CI, 0.81 to 0.90; P<0.001). Residual albuminuria levels at week 26 remained a strong independent risk factor for kidney and cardiovascular events, overall and in each treatment arm. CONCLUSIONS: In people with type 2 diabetes and CKD, use of canagliflozin results in early, sustained reductions in albuminuria, which were independently associated with long-term kidney and cardiovascular outcomes.

19.
Kidney Int ; 98(4): 849-859, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32998816

RESUMO

Kidney failure is an important outcome for patients, clinicians, researchers, healthcare systems, payers, and regulators. However, no harmonized international consensus definitions of kidney failure and key surrogates of progression to kidney failure exist specifically for clinical trials. The International Society of Nephrology convened an international multi-stakeholder meeting to develop consensus on this topic. A core group, experienced in design, conduct, and outcome adjudication of clinical trials, developed a database of 64 randomized trials and the 163 included definitions relevant to kidney failure. Using an iterative process, a set of proposed consensus definitions were developed and subsequently vetted by the larger multi-stakeholder group of 83 participants representing 18 different countries. The consensus of the meeting participants was that clinical trial kidney failure outcomes should be comprised of a composite that includes receipt of a kidney transplant, initiation of maintenance dialysis, and death from kidney failure; it may also include outcomes based solely on laboratory measurements of glomerular filtration rate: a sustained low glomerular filtration rate and a sustained percent decline in glomerular filtration rate. Discussion included important considerations, such as (i) recognition of existing nomenclature for kidney failure; (ii) applicability across resource settings; (iii) ease of understanding for all stakeholders; and (iv) avoidance of inappropriate complexity so that the definitions can be used across ranges of populations and trial methodologies. The final definitions reflect the consensus for use in clinical trials.

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