Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 58
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Base de dados
Intervalo de ano de publicação
1.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 9(4): e014200, 2020 Feb 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32063126

RESUMO

Background Women have higher utilization of "do not attempt resuscitation" (DNAR) orders during treatment for critical illness. Occurrence of sex differences in the establishment of DNAR orders after resuscitation from in-hospital cardiac arrest is unknown. Whether differences in DNAR use by sex lead to disparities in survival remains unclear. Methods and Results We identified 71 820 patients with return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) after in-hospital cardiac arrest from the Get With The Guidelines-Resuscitation registry. Multivariable models evaluated the association between de novo DNAR (anytime after ROSC, within 12 hours of ROSC, or within 72 hours of ROSC) by sex and the association between sex and survival to discharge accounting for DNAR. All models accounted for clustering of patients within hospital and adjusted for demographic and cardiac arrest characteristics. The cohort included 30 454 (42.4%) women, who were slightly more likely than male participants to establish DNAR orders anytime after ROSC (45.0% versus 43.5%; adjusted relative risk: 1.15 [95% CI, 1.10-1.20]; P<0.0001). Of those with DNAR orders, women were more likely to be DNAR status within the first 12 hours (51.8% versus 46.5%; adjusted relative risk: 1.40 [95% CI, 1.30-1.52]; P<0.0001) and within 72 hours after ROSC (75.9% versus 70.9%; adjusted relative risk: 1.35 [95% CI, 1.26-1.45]; P<0.0001). However, no difference in survival to hospital discharge between women and men (34.5% versus 36.7%; adjusted relative risk: 1.00 [95% CI, 0.99-1.02]; P=0.74) was appreciated. Conclusions In patients successfully resuscitated from in-hospital cardiac arrest, there was no survival difference between men and women while accounting for DNAR. However, women had a higher rate of DNAR status early after resuscitation (<12 and <72 hours) in comparison to men.

3.
Circulation ; 140(9): e517-e542, 2019 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31291775

RESUMO

Significant improvements have been achieved in cardiac arrest resuscitation and postarrest resuscitation care, but mortality remains high. Most of the poor outcomes and deaths of cardiac arrest survivors have been attributed to widespread brain injury. This brain injury, commonly manifested as a comatose state, is a marker of poor outcome and a major basis for unfavorable neurological prognostication. Accurate prognostication is important to avoid pursuing futile treatments when poor outcome is inevitable but also to avoid an inappropriate withdrawal of life-sustaining treatment in patients who may otherwise have a chance of achieving meaningful neurological recovery. Inaccurate neurological prognostication leading to withdrawal of life-sustaining treatment and deaths may significantly bias clinical studies, leading to failure in detecting the true study outcomes. The American Heart Association Emergency Cardiovascular Care Science Subcommittee organized a writing group composed of adult and pediatric experts from neurology, cardiology, emergency medicine, intensive care medicine, and nursing to review existing neurological prognostication studies, the practice of neurological prognostication, and withdrawal of life-sustaining treatment. The writing group determined that the overall quality of existing neurological prognostication studies is low. As a consequence, the degree of confidence in the predictors and the subsequent outcomes is also low. Therefore, the writing group suggests that neurological prognostication parameters need to be approached as index tests based on relevant neurological functions that are directly related to the functional outcome and contribute to the quality of life of cardiac arrest survivors. Suggestions to improve the quality of adult and pediatric neurological prognostication studies are provided.

4.
Clin Ther ; 41(6): 1029-1037, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31047712

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Women who experience out-of-hospital cardiac arrest have similar rates of survival to hospital admission as men; however, women are less likely to survive to hospital discharge. We hypothesized that women would have higher rates of "do not attempt resuscitation" (DNAR) orders and that this order would be associated with lower use of aggressive interventions. METHODS: We identified adult hospital admissions with a diagnosis of cardiac arrest (ICD-9 427.5) from the 2010 California State Inpatient Dataset. Multivariable logistic regression was used to test the association between patient sex and a DNAR order within the first 24 h of admission, adjusting for patient demographic characteristics and comorbid medical conditions. In secondary analysis, procedures performed after establishment of DNAR order and survival to hospital discharge were compared by sex. FINDINGS: We analyzed 6562 patients (44% women, 56% men) who experienced out-of-hospital cardiac arrest and survived to hospital admission. In unadjusted analysis, more women than men had establishment of a DNAR order during the first 24 h of admission (23.4% versus 19.3%; P < 0.01). After adjusting for age, race, and comorbid conditions, women remained significantly more likely to have a DNAR order established during the first 24 h of their hospital admission after cardiac arrest compared with men (odds ratio = 1.23; 95% CI, 1.09-1.40). No sex difference was found in procedures used after DNAR order was established. IMPLICATIONS: Female survivors of cardiac arrest are significantly more likely than men to have a DNAR order established within the first 24 h of in-hospital treatment. The establishment of a DNAR order is associated with patients undergoing fewer procedures than individuals who do not have a DNAR order established. Given that patients who have a DNAR order receive less-aggressive intervention after arrest, it is possible that an early DNAR order may contribute to sex differences in survival to hospital discharge.

5.
Clin Ther ; 41(6): 1013-1019, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31053294

RESUMO

Sex- and gender-based differences are emerging as clinically significant in the epidemiology and resuscitation of patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA). Female patients tend to be older, experience arrest in private locations, and have fewer initial shockable rhythms (ventricular fibrillation/ventricular tachycardia). Despite standardized algorithms for the management of OHCA, women are less likely to receive evidence-based interventions, including advanced cardiac life support medications, percutaneous coronary intervention, and targeted temperature management. While some data suggest a protective mechanism of estrogen in the heart, brain, and kidney, its role is incompletely understood. Female patients experience higher mortality from OHCA, prompting the need for sex-specific research.

6.
Resuscitation ; 137: 69-77, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30771452

RESUMO

AIM: To determine whether the removal of atropine from the 2010 ACLS guidelines for non-shockable cardiac arrests was associated with a change in survival. METHODS: Using the Get With The Guidelines®-Resuscitation registry, we included adults with an index in-hospital cardiac arrest between 2006 and 2015. The primary outcome was survival to hospital discharge. Secondary outcomes included return of spontaneous circulation and favorable functional outcome. An interrupted time-series analysis was used to compare survival before (pre-guidelines) and after (post-guidelines) introduction of the 2010 guidelines. A difference-in-difference approach was used to compare the interrupted time-series results between the non-shockable and shockable cohorts to account for guideline changes unrelated to atropine. RESULTS: We included 20,499 non-shockable and 3968 shockable cardiac arrests. Patient characteristics were similar between the pre-guidelines and post-guidelines period. Atropine was used for 8653 (87%) non-shockable and 680 (35%) shockable cardiac arrests in the pre-guidelines period and 3643 (35%) non-shockable and 320 (16%) shockable cardiac arrests in the post-guidelines period. The change over time in survival from the pre-guidelines to the post-guidelines period was not significantly different for the non-shockable compared to the shockable cohort (risk difference: 2.0% [95%CI: -0.8, 4.8] per year, p = 0.17). The immediate change in survival after introducing the guidelines was also not different between the cohorts (risk difference: 3.5% [95%CI: -2.6, 9.7], p = 0.26). Results were similar for the secondary outcomes and in multiple sensitivity analyses. CONCLUSIONS: The removal of atropine from the 2010 guidelines was not associated with a significant change in survival.

7.
Circulation ; 139(8): 1060-1068, 2019 02 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30779655

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Women who suffer an out-of-hospital cardiac arrest receive bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) less often than men. Understanding public perceptions of why this occurs is a necessary first step toward equitable application of this potentially life-saving intervention. METHODS: We conducted a national survey of members of the public using Mechanical Turk, Amazon's crowdsourcing platform, to determine reasons why women might receive bystander CPR less often than men. Eligible participants were adults (≥18 years) located in the United States. Responses were excluded if the participant was not able to define CPR correctly. Participants were asked to answer the following free-text question: "Do you have any ideas on why women may be less likely to receive CPR than men when they collapse in public?" Descriptive statistics were used to define the cohort. The free-text response was coded using open coding, and major themes were identified via classical content analysis. RESULTS: In total, 548 subjects were surveyed. Mean age was 38.8 years, and 49.8% were female. Participants were geographically distributed as follows: 18.5% West, 9.2% Southwest, 22.0% Midwest, 27.5% Southeast, and 22.9% Northeast. After analysis, 3 major themes were detected for why the public perceives that women receive less bystander CPR. They include the following: (1) sexualization of women's bodies; (2) women are weak and frail and therefore prone to injury; and (3) misperceptions about women in acute medical distress. Overall, 41.9% (227) were trained in CPR while 4.4% reported having provided CPR in a medical emergency. CONCLUSIONS: Members of the general public perceive fears about inappropriate touching, accusations of sexual assault, and fear of causing injury as inhibiting bystander CPR for women. Educational and policy efforts to address these perceptions may reduce the sex differences in the application of bystander CPR.


Assuntos
Reanimação Cardiopulmonar , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde , Parada Cardíaca Extra-Hospitalar/terapia , Opinião Pública , Adulto , Reanimação Cardiopulmonar/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Pesquisas sobre Serviços de Saúde , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Parada Cardíaca Extra-Hospitalar/diagnóstico , Parada Cardíaca Extra-Hospitalar/fisiopatologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Delitos Sexuais , Sexualidade
8.
Acad Emerg Med ; 26(3): 303-316, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30667132

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Organizations to promote career networking and mentorship among women are recommended as a best practice to support the recruitment and retention of women physicians; however, the impact of such organizations is unknown. Our primary objective is to describe the impact of a national woman-focused organization for academic emergency physicians on retention and advancement. METHODS: We conducted semistructured interviews of past and present organization leaders, as well as members at varying stages in their careers. Physicians with experience in qualitative methods conducted interviews and coded all transcripts using inductive content analysis techniques. Themes were reviewed and discussed to ensure consensus. RESULTS: We performed 17 interviews lasting 20 to 30 minutes each, resulting in 476 total minutes of transcript. Participants represented varying stages of career experience, ranging from 2 to 35 years since residency completion (median = 9.5 years). Median years of participation in the woman-focused organization was 10 years. Over half (53%) of participants were past presidents of the organization. The dominant themes encompassed facilitating academic advancement through scholarly productivity, leadership experiences, awards, and promotions; mentorship and sponsorship; peer support and collaborations; reduced professional isolation; and initiatives to address systemic gender inequities and challenges, including strategies to navigate bias, promote pay equity, and advocate for family-friendly workplace policies. DISCUSSION: Active participation in a woman-focused professional organization enhances members' career retention and advancement by creating opportunities and relationships that facilitate leadership, enabling scholarly work to advance equity and inclusion, and cultivating a sense of belonging. While challenges and barriers persist, the myriad benefits of a women-focused professional organization reported by members and leaders represent important steps toward greater equity for women and other underrepresented groups in academic medicine.


Assuntos
Medicina de Emergência/organização & administração , Liderança , Médicas/organização & administração , Sociedades Médicas/organização & administração , Mobilidade Ocupacional , Docentes de Medicina/organização & administração , Feminino , Humanos , Mentores , Pesquisa Qualitativa
10.
Lancet Public Health ; 3(9): e438-e446, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30143472

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Evidence of the possible health benefits of social connectedness is increasing. We aimed to examine poor social connectedness as a possible barrier to participation in preventive health services among older people (aged 53-69 years). METHODS: We analysed data from a prospective cohort study of 5362 socially stratified births from the Medical Research Council National Survey of Health and Development enrolled in England, Scotland, and Wales in March 1946. At ages 68-69 years, participants reported participation in blood pressure and cholesterol measurement, eyesight and dental check-ups, influenza immunisation, and bowel and breast cancer screening. Our primary outcome measure summed participation across all these tests and services at ages 68-69 years. We tested associations between structural and functional social connectedness from ages 53 years to 69 years and total count of participation in these preventive services in Poisson models controlling for sex, education, occupational class, employment, chronic illnesses, and general practitioner consultations for health problems. FINDINGS: 940 (44%) of 2132 participants attended all preventive services within the recommended timeframes. At ages 68-69 years, being unmarried or not cohabiting (incident rate ratio [IRR] 1·33, 95% CI 1·20-1·47) and small personal social networks (IRR 1·51, 1·32-1·71) were independently associated with non-participation in more services, with associations consistent across most services. High social relationship quality at ages 68-69 years (IRR 0·91, 95% CI 0·87-0·95) and increasing social relationship quality from ages 53 years to 69 years (IRR 0·93, 0·89-0·97) were associated with low risk of non-participation. INTERPRETATION: Individuals with poor social connectedness appear to be at greater risk of not engaging in the full range of preventive services than individuals with good social connectedness. Improvement of access to social contacts and networks in older ages is already recommended for the maintenance of good mental health. This study suggests that social connectedness could also improve participation in a wide range of preventive health services, and hence could improve use of the health-care system and population health. FUNDING: UK Medical Research Council.


Assuntos
Relações Interpessoais , Serviços Preventivos de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Inglaterra , Feminino , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Escócia , País de Gales
12.
Crit Care Med ; 46(7): 1133-1138, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29620555

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Assess if amount of heat generated by postcardiac arrest patients to reach target temperature (Ttarget) during targeted temperature management is associated with outcomes by serving as a proxy for thermoregulatory ability, and whether it modifies the relationship between time to Ttarget and outcomes. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: Urban tertiary-care hospital. PATIENTS: Successfully resuscitated targeted temperature management-treated adult postarrest patients between 2008 and 2015 with serial temperature data and Ttarget less than or equal to 34°C. INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Time to Ttarget was defined as time from targeted temperature management initiation to first recorded patient temperature less than or equal to 34°C. Patient heat generation ("heat units") was calculated as inverse of average water temperature × hours between initiation and Ttarget × 100. Primary outcome was neurologic status measured by Cerebral Performance Category score; secondary outcome was survival, both at hospital discharge. Univariate analyses were performed using Wilcoxon rank-sum tests; multivariate analyses used logistic regression. Of 203 patients included, those with Cerebral Performance Category score 3-5 generated less heat before reaching Ttarget (median, 8.1 heat units [interquartile range, 3.6-21.6 heat units] vs median, 20.0 heat units [interquartile range, 9.0-33.5 heat units]; p = 0.001) and reached Ttarget quicker (median, 2.3 hr [interquartile range, 1.5-4.0 hr] vs median, 3.6 hr [interquartile range, 2.0-5.0 hr]; p = 0.01) than patients with Cerebral Performance Category score 1-2. Nonsurvivors generated less heat than survivors (median, 8.1 heat units [interquartile range, 3.6-20.8 heat units] vs median, 19.0 heat units [interquartile range, 6.5-33.5 heat units]; p = 0.001) and reached Ttarget quicker (median, 2.2 hr [interquartile range, 1.5-3.8 hr] vs median, 3.6 hr [interquartile range, 2.0-5.0 hr]; p = 0.01). Controlling for average water temperature between initiation and Ttarget, the relationship between outcomes and time to Ttarget was no longer significant. Controlling for location, witnessed arrest, age, initial rhythm, and neuromuscular blockade use, increased heat generation was associated with better neurologic (adjusted odds ratio, 1.01 [95% CI, 1.00-1.03]; p = 0.039) and survival (adjusted odds ratio, 1.01 [95% CI, 1.00-1.03]; p = 0.045) outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: Increased heat generation during targeted temperature management initiation is associated with better outcomes at hospital discharge and may affect the relationship between time to Ttarget and outcomes.


Assuntos
Parada Cardíaca/terapia , Hipotermia Induzida/métodos , Idoso , Temperatura Corporal , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
13.
J Public Health (Oxf) ; 40(4): e545-e551, 2018 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29635521

RESUMO

Background: UK hospitals have been criticized for fuelling obesity by allowing contracts with food retailers selling high fat and high-sugar products on hospital premises. Methods: We assessed the impact for a major retailer of increasing healthy food choices at their Royal Free London NHS Foundation Trust outlet. To assess the impact on sales, profit and acceptability to customers, a multi-component intervention based on behavioural insights theory was enacted over 2 months (November-December 2014) at the Royal Free site WHSmith. Sales data on all food and drink were assessed over three time periods: (i) 2 months immediately prior to, and (ii) immediately after the intervention, and (iii) the equivalent period 10 months later. Acceptability to customers was assessed via questionnaires, and profit assessed as a proxy for retailer satisfaction. Results: Compared to the pre-intervention period, total sales increased immediately after the intervention, and again 10 months after the intervention. Sales of healthier options increased as a proportion of total sales following the intervention, sales of sweets and chocolates decreased, while the relative sales of other items remained similar. Conclusions: We demonstrated that healthier alternatives could be provided in a hospital retail premises without negatively affecting total sales, retailer or customer satisfaction.


Assuntos
Alimentos , Lojas no Hospital , Obesidade/prevenção & controle , Comportamento do Consumidor , Alimentos/efeitos adversos , Alimentos/economia , Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Lojas no Hospital/economia , Lojas no Hospital/métodos , Humanos , Londres , Lanches
14.
J Trauma Acute Care Surg ; 85(1): 37-47, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29677083

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We sought to determine the outcome of suicidal hanging and the impact of targeted temperature management (TTM) on hanging-induced cardiac arrest (CA) through an Eastern Association for the Surgery of Trauma (EAST) multicenter retrospective study. METHODS: We analyzed hanging patient data and TTM variables from January 1992 to December 2015. Cerebral performance category score of 1 or 2 was considered good neurologic outcome, while cerebral performance category score of 3 or 4 was considered poor outcome. Classification and Regression Trees recursive partitioning was used to develop multivariate predictive models for survival and neurologic outcome. RESULTS: A total of 692 hanging patients from 17 centers were analyzed for this study. Their overall survival rate was 77%, and the CA survival rate was 28.6%. The CA patients had significantly higher severity of illness and worse outcome than the non-CA patients. Of the 175 CA patients who survived to hospital admission, 81 patients (46.3%) received post-CA TTM. The unadjusted survival of TTM CA patients (24.7% vs 39.4%, p < 0.05) and good neurologic outcome (19.8% vs 37.2%, p < 0.05) were worse than non-TTM CA patients. However, when subgroup analyses were performed between those with an admission Glasgow Coma Scale score of 3 to 8, the differences between TTM and non-TTM CA survival (23.8% vs 30.0%, p = 0.37) and good neurologic outcome (18.8% vs 28.7%, p = 0.14) were not significant. Targeted temperature management implementation and post-CA management varied between the participating centers. Classification and Regression Trees models identified variables predictive of favorable and poor outcome for hanging and TTM patients with excellent accuracy. CONCLUSION: Cardiac arrest hanging patients had worse outcome than non-CA patients. Targeted temperature management CA patients had worse unadjusted survival and neurologic outcome than non-TTM patients. These findings may be explained by their higher severity of illness, variable TTM implementation, and differences in post-CA management. Future prospective studies are necessary to ascertain the effect of TTM on hanging outcome and to validate our Classification and Regression Trees models. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Therapeutic study, level IV; prognostic study, level III.


Assuntos
Parada Cardíaca Induzida/mortalidade , Hipotermia Induzida/métodos , Suicídio/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Feminino , Parada Cardíaca Induzida/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Taxa de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
15.
Resuscitation ; 125: 8-11, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29341874

RESUMO

AIM: International classification of disease (ICD-9) code 427.5 (cardiac arrest) is utilized to identify cohorts of patients who suffer out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA), though the use of ICD codes for this purpose has never been formally validated. We sought to validate the utility of ICD-9 code 427.5 by identifying patients admitted from the emergency department (ED) after OHCA. METHODS: Adult visits to a single ED between January 2007 and July 2012 were retrospectively examined and a keyword search of the electronic medical record (EMR) was used to identify patients. Cardiac arrest was confirmed; and ICD-9 information and location of return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) were collected. Separately, the EMR was searched for patients who received ICD-9 code 427.5. The kappa coefficient (κ) was calculated, as was the sensitivity and specificity of the code for identifying OHCA. RESULTS: The keyword search identified 1717 patients, of which 385 suffered OHCA and 333 were assigned the code 427.5. The agreement between ICD-9 code and cardiac arrest was excellent (κ = 0.895). The ICD-9 code 427.5 was both specific (99.4%) and sensitive (86.5%). Of the 52 cardiac arrests that were not identified by ICD-9 code, 33% had ROSC before arrival to the ED. When searching independently on ICD-9 code, 347 patients with ICD-9 code 427.5 were found, of which 320 were "true" arrests. This yielded a positive predictive value of 92% for ICD-9 code 427.5 in predicting OHCA. CONCLUSIONS: ICD-9 code 427.5 is sensitive and specific for identifying ED patients who suffer OHCA with a positive predictive value of 92%.


Assuntos
Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Classificação Internacional de Doenças , Parada Cardíaca Extra-Hospitalar/diagnóstico , Humanos , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
16.
Resuscitation ; 123: 58-64, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29102470

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although rates of survival to hospital discharge after in-hospital cardiac arrest (IHCA) have improved over the last decade, it is unknown if these survival gains are sustained after hospital discharge. OBJECTIVE: To examine 1-year survival trends overall and by rhythm after IHCA. METHODS: Using Medicare beneficiaries (age≥65years) with IHCA occurring between 2000 and 2011 at Get With The Guidelines®-Resuscitation Registry participating hospitals we used multivariable regression, to examine temporal trends in risk-adjusted rates of 1-year survival. RESULTS: Among 45,567 patients with IHCA, the unadjusted 1-year survival was 9.4%. Unadjusted 1-year survival was 21.8% among the 9,223 (20.2%) of patients with Ventricular Fibrillation or Pulseless Ventricular Tachycardia (VF/VT) and 6.2% among the 36,344 (79.8%) of patients with Pulseless Electrical Activity or asystole (PEA/asystole). After adjustment for patient and arrest characteristics, 1-year survival increased over time for all IHCA from 8.9% in 2000-2001 to 15.2% in 2011 (adjusted rate ratio [RR] per year, 1.05; 95% CI, 1.03-1.06; P<0.001 for trend). Improvements in 1-year risk adjusted survival were also observed for VF/VT (19.4% in 2000-2001 to 25.6% in 2011 [RR per year, 1.02; 95% CI, 1.01-1.04; P 0.004 for trend]) and PEA/asystole arrests (4.7% in 2000-2001 to 10.2% in 2011 [RR per year, 1.07; 95% CI, 1.05-1.08; P<0.001 for trend]). CONCLUSION: Among Medicare beneficiaries in the GWTG-Resuscitation registry, 1-year survival after IHCA has increased for over the past decade. Temporal improvements in survival were noted for both shockable and non-shockable presenting arrest rhythms.


Assuntos
Parada Cardíaca/mortalidade , Idoso , Reanimação Cardiopulmonar/mortalidade , Feminino , Mortalidade Hospitalar/tendências , Humanos , Masculino , Medicare , Alta do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Prospectivos , Sistema de Registros , Risco Ajustado , Análise de Sobrevida , Fatores de Tempo , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
17.
Intern Emerg Med ; 13(5): 765-772, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28983759

RESUMO

We aim to determine the incidence of early myocardial dysfunction after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest, risk factors associated with its development, and association with outcome. A retrospective chart review was performed among consecutive out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) patients who underwent echocardiography within 24 h of return of spontaneous circulation at three urban teaching hospitals. Our primary outcome is early myocardial dysfunction, defined as a left ventricular ejection fraction < 40% on initial echocardiogram. We also determine risk factors associated with myocardial dysfunction using multivariate analysis, and examine its association with survival and neurologic outcome. A total of 190 patients achieved ROSC and underwent echocardiography within 24 h. Of these, 83 (44%) patients had myocardial dysfunction. A total of 37 (45%) patients with myocardial dysfunction survived to discharge, 39% with intact neurologic status. History of congestive heart failure (OR 6.21; 95% CI 2.54-15.19), male gender (OR 2.27; 95% CI 1.08-4.78), witnessed arrest (OR 4.20; 95% CI 1.78-9.93), more than three doses of epinephrine (OR 6.10; 95% CI 1.12-33.14), more than four defibrillations (OR 4.7; 95% CI 1.35-16.43), longer duration of resuscitation (OR 1.06; 95% CI 1.01-1.10), and therapeutic hypothermia (OR 3.93; 95% CI 1.32-11.75) were associated with myocardial dysfunction. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation immediately initiated by healthcare personnel was associated with lower odds of myocardial dysfunction (OR 0.40; 95% CI 0.17-0.97). There was no association between early myocardial dysfunction and mortality or neurological outcome. Nearly half of OHCA patients have myocardial dysfunction. A number of clinical factors are associated with myocardial dysfunction, and may aid providers in anticipating which patients need early diagnostic evaluation and specific treatments. Early myocardial dysfunction is not associated with neurologically intact survival.


Assuntos
Parada Cardíaca Extra-Hospitalar/diagnóstico por imagem , Parada Cardíaca Extra-Hospitalar/fisiopatologia , Idoso , Reanimação Cardiopulmonar , Ecocardiografia , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Feminino , Testes de Função Cardíaca , Hospitais de Ensino , Hospitais Urbanos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Parada Cardíaca Extra-Hospitalar/terapia , Pennsylvania , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco
18.
West J Emerg Med ; 18(6): 1079-1090, 2017 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29085541

RESUMO

The National Institutes of Health recently highlighted the significant role of sex as a biological variable (SABV) in research design, outcome and reproducibility, mandating that this variable be accounted for in all its funded research studies. This move has resulted in a rapidly increasing body of literature on SABV with important implications for changing the clinical practice of emergency medicine (EM). Translation of this new knowledge to the bedside requires an understanding of how sex-based research will ultimately impact patient care. We use three case-based scenarios in acute myocardial infarction, acute ischemic stroke and important considerations in pharmacologic therapy administration to highlight available data on SABV in evidence-based research to provide the EM community with an important foundation for future integration of patient sex in the delivery of emergency care as gaps in research are filled.


Assuntos
Medicina de Emergência , Fatores Sexuais , Pesquisa Biomédica , Diagnóstico , Serviços Médicos de Emergência/métodos , Medicina de Emergência/normas , Projetos de Pesquisa Epidemiológica , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Infarto do Miocárdio/terapia , National Institutes of Health (U.S.) , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/terapia , Estados Unidos , Ferimentos e Lesões/terapia
19.
BMC Public Health ; 17(1): 252, 2017 03 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28288597

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Many countries have recently expanded their childhood immunisation programmes. Schools are an increasingly attractive setting for delivery of these new immunisations because of their ability to reach large numbers of children in a short period of time. However, there are organisational challenges to delivery of large-scale vaccination programmes in schools. Understanding the facilitators and barriers is important for improving the delivery of future school-based vaccination programmes. METHODS: We undertook a systematic review of evidence on school-based vaccination programmes in order to understand the influence of organisational factors on the delivery of programmes. Our eligibility criteria were studies that (1) focused on childhood or adolescent vaccination programmes delivered in schools; (2) considered organisational factors that influenced the preparation or delivery of programmes; (3) were conducted in a developed or high-income country; and (4) had been peer reviewed. We searched for articles published in English between 2000 and 2015 using MEDLINE and HMIC electronic databases. Additional studies were identified by searching the Cochrane Library and bibliographies. We extracted data from the studies, assessed quality and the risk of bias, and categorised findings using a thematic framework of eight organisational factors. RESULTS: We found that most of the recent published literature is from the United States and is concerned with the delivery of pandemic or seasonal flu vaccination programmes at a regional (state) or local level. We found that the literature is largely descriptive and not informed by the use of theory. Despite this, we identified common factors that influence the implementation of programmes. These factors included programme leadership and governance, organisational models and institutional relationships, workforce capacity and roles particularly concerning the school nurse, communication with parents and students, including methods for obtaining consent, and clinic organisation and delivery. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first time that information has been brought together on the organisational factors influencing the delivery of vaccination programmes in school-based settings. An understanding of these factors, underpinned by robust theory-informed research, may help policy-makers and managers design and deliver better programmes. We identified several gaps in the research literature to propose a future research agenda, informed by theories of implementation and organisational change.


Assuntos
Países Desenvolvidos , Programas de Imunização/organização & administração , Serviços de Saúde Escolar , Instituições Acadêmicas , Vacinação , Comunicação , Humanos , Programas de Imunização/normas , Vacinas contra Influenza , Pais
20.
Acad Emerg Med ; 24(10): 1204-1211, 2017 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28323374

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Critical care is an expensive and limited resource, and short-stay critical care admissions may be treated in alternate, less costly settings. This study objective was to determine the proportion of critical care admissions with a short critical care length of stay (LOS) and identify the clinical characteristics and diagnoses associated with high and low rates of short-stay critical care admissions. METHODS: This study was a secondary analysis of the 2011 Maryland State Inpatient Database. The study included adult emergency department (ED) visits admitted to a critical care unit. We compared clinical data and discharge diagnoses for short- (≤1 day) versus longer- (≥2 days) stay critical care admissions. RESULTS: A total of 30,212 critical care admissions were eligible, of which 11,494 (38.0%) were short stay. There were significant differences in age, insurance, and comorbidities between the short-stay and the longer-stay critical care admissions. Of short-stay critical care admissions, 3,404 (29.6%) also had a 1-day overall hospital LOS. The diagnoses with the highest proportion of short-stay critical care admissions were nonspecific chest pain (87.9%), syncope (70.6%), and transient cerebral ischemia (67.6%) and the lowest proportion were respiratory failure (17.9%), sepsis (19.4%), and aspiration pneumonitis (19.8%). CONCLUSIONS: Over one-third of critical care admissions were short stay. Alternate strategies to manage these patients, including ED-based critical care units or other venues of inpatient care, may be more cost-efficient for selected patients.


Assuntos
Cuidados Críticos/estatística & dados numéricos , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/estatística & dados numéricos , Tempo de Internação/estatística & dados numéricos , Admissão do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Análise Custo-Benefício , Cuidados Críticos/economia , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Maryland , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA