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Nat Commun ; 12(1): 5056, 2021 08 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34417458


Melanoma cells rely on developmental programs during tumor initiation and progression. Here we show that the embryonic stem cell (ESC) factor Sall4 is re-expressed in the Tyr::NrasQ61K; Cdkn2a-/- melanoma model and that its expression is necessary for primary melanoma formation. Surprisingly, while Sall4 loss prevents tumor formation, it promotes micrometastases to distant organs in this melanoma-prone mouse model. Transcriptional profiling and in vitro assays using human melanoma cells demonstrate that SALL4 loss induces a phenotype switch and the acquisition of an invasive phenotype. We show that SALL4 negatively regulates invasiveness through interaction with the histone deacetylase (HDAC) 2 and direct co-binding to a set of invasiveness genes. Consequently, SALL4 knock down, as well as HDAC inhibition, promote the expression of an invasive signature, while inhibition of histone acetylation partially reverts the invasiveness program induced by SALL4 loss. Thus, SALL4 appears to regulate phenotype switching in melanoma through an HDAC2-mediated mechanism.

Epigênese Genética , Melanoma/genética , Melanoma/patologia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/genética , Neoplasias Cutâneas/patologia , Fator de Células-Tronco/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Acetilação , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Carcinogênese/genética , Carcinogênese/patologia , Adesão Celular/genética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Linhagem da Célula , Proliferação de Células , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Histona Desacetilase 2/metabolismo , Histonas/metabolismo , Humanos , Melanócitos/metabolismo , Melanócitos/patologia , Camundongos Nus , Camundongos Transgênicos , Invasividade Neoplásica , Micrometástase de Neoplasia , Ligação Proteica , Carga Tumoral
Cells ; 10(7)2021 07 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34359927


The transcription factor SOX2 is important for brain development and for neural stem cells (NSC) maintenance. Sox2-deleted (Sox2-del) NSC from neonatal mouse brain are lost after few passages in culture. Two highly expressed genes, Fos and Socs3, are strongly downregulated in Sox2-del NSC; we previously showed that Fos or Socs3 overexpression by lentiviral transduction fully rescues NSC's long-term maintenance in culture. Sox2-del NSC are severely defective in neuronal production when induced to differentiate. NSC rescued by Sox2 reintroduction correctly differentiate into neurons. Similarly, Fos transduction rescues normal or even increased numbers of immature neurons expressing beta-tubulinIII, but not more differentiated markers (MAP2). Additionally, many cells with both beta-tubulinIII and GFAP expression appear, indicating that FOS stimulates the initial differentiation of a "mixed" neuronal/glial progenitor. The unexpected rescue by FOS suggested that FOS, a SOX2 transcriptional target, might act on neuronal genes, together with SOX2. CUT&RUN analysis to detect genome-wide binding of SOX2, FOS, and JUN (the AP1 complex) revealed that a high proportion of genes expressed in NSC are bound by both SOX2 and AP1. Downregulated genes in Sox2-del NSC are highly enriched in genes that are also expressed in neurons, and a high proportion of the "neuronal" genes are bound by both SOX2 and AP1.

Stem Cells ; 39(8): 1107-1119, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33739574


The Sox2 transcription factor is necessary for the long-term self-renewal of neural stem cells (NSCs). Its mechanism of action is still poorly defined. To identify molecules regulated by Sox2, and acting in mouse NSC maintenance, we transduced, into Sox2-deleted NSC, genes whose expression is strongly downregulated following Sox2 loss (Fos, Jun, Egr2), individually or in combination. Fos alone rescued long-term proliferation, as shown by in vitro cell growth and clonal analysis. Furthermore, pharmacological inhibition by T-5224 of FOS/JUN AP1 complex binding to its targets decreased cell proliferation and expression of the putative target Suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (Socs3). Additionally, Fos requirement for efficient long-term proliferation was demonstrated by the reduction of NSC clones capable of long-term expansion following CRISPR/Cas9-mediated Fos inactivation. Previous work showed that the Socs3 gene is strongly downregulated following Sox2 deletion, and its re-expression by lentiviral transduction rescues long-term NSC proliferation. Fos appears to be an upstream regulator of Socs3, possibly together with Jun and Egr2; indeed, Sox2 re-expression in Sox2-deleted NSC progressively activates both Fos and Socs3 expression; in turn, Fos transduction activates Socs3 expression. Based on available SOX2 ChIPseq and ChIA-PET data, we propose a model whereby Sox2 is a direct activator of both Socs3 and Fos, as well as possibly Jun and Egr2; furthermore, we provide direct evidence for FOS and JUN binding on Socs3 promoter, suggesting direct transcriptional regulation. These results provide the basis for developing a model of a network of interactions, regulating critical effectors of NSC proliferation and long-term maintenance.