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1.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(11): e2132563, 2021 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34730817

RESUMO

Importance: Although several studies have provided information on short-term clinical outcomes in children with perinatal exposure to SARS-CoV-2, data on the immune response in the first months of life among newborns exposed to the virus in utero are lacking. Objective: To characterize systemic and mucosal antibody production during the first 2 months of life among infants who were born to mothers infected with SARS-CoV-2. Design, Setting, and Participants: This prospective cohort study enrolled 28 pregnant women who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 infection and who gave birth at Policlinico Umberto I in Rome, Italy, from November 2020 to May 2021, and their newborns. Maternal and neonatal systemic immune responses were investigated by detecting spike-specific antibodies in serum, and the mucosal immune response was assessed by measuring specific antibodies in maternal breastmilk and infant saliva 48 hours after delivery and 2 months later. Exposures: Maternal infection with SARS-CoV-2 in late pregnancy. Main Outcomes and Measures: The systemic immune response was evaluated by the detection of SARS-CoV-2 IgG and IgA antibodies and receptor binding domain-specific IgM antibodies in maternal and neonatal serum. The mucosal immune response was assessed by measuring spike-specific antibodies in breastmilk and in infant saliva, and the presence of antigen-antibody spike IgA immune complexes was investigated in breastmilk samples. All antibodies were detected using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results: In total, 28 mother-infant dyads (mean [SD] maternal age, 31.8 [6.4] years; mean [SD] gestational age, 38.1 [2.3] weeks; 18 [60%] male infants) were enrolled at delivery, and 21 dyads completed the study at 2 months' follow-up. Because maternal infection was recent in all cases, transplacental transfer of virus spike-specific IgG antibodies occurred in only 1 infant. One case of potential vertical transmission and 1 case of horizontal infection were observed. Virus spike protein-specific salivary IgA antibodies were significantly increased (P = .01) in infants fed breastmilk (0.99 arbitrary units [AU]; IQR, 0.39-1.68 AU) vs infants fed an exclusive formula diet (0.16 AU; IQR, 0.02-0.83 AU). Maternal milk contained IgA spike immune complexes at 48 hours (0.53 AU; IQR, 0.25-0.39 AU) and at 2 months (0.09 AU; IQR, 0.03-0.17 AU) and may have functioned as specific stimuli for the infant mucosal immune response. Conclusions and Relevance: In this cohort study, SARS-CoV-2 spike-specific IgA antibodies were detected in infant saliva, which may partly explain why newborns are resistant to SARS-CoV-2 infection. Mothers infected in the peripartum period appear to not only passively protect the newborn via breastmilk secretory IgA but also actively stimulate and train the neonatal immune system via breastmilk immune complexes.


Assuntos
COVID-19/imunologia , Imunoglobulina A/imunologia , Leite Humano/imunologia , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/imunologia , Adulto , COVID-19/sangue , COVID-19/transmissão , Teste Sorológico para COVID-19 , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoglobulina A/isolamento & purificação , Imunoglobulina G/imunologia , Imunoglobulina G/isolamento & purificação , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Transmissão Vertical de Doenças Infecciosas/prevenção & controle , Masculino , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/sangue , Estudos Prospectivos , SARS-CoV-2 , Saliva/imunologia , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/imunologia
2.
J Clin Immunol ; 41(8): 1709-1722, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34669144

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Data on immune responses to SARS-CoV-2 in patients with Primary Antibody Deficiencies (PAD) are limited to infected patients and to heterogeneous cohorts after immunization. METHODS: Forty-one patients with Common Variable Immune Deficiencies (CVID), six patients with X-linked Agammaglobulinemia (XLA), and 28 healthy age-matched controls (HD) were analyzed for anti-Spike and anti-receptor binding domain (RBD) antibody production, generation of Spike-specific memory B-cells, and Spike-specific T-cells before vaccination and one week after the second dose of BNT162b2 vaccine. RESULTS: The vaccine induced Spike-specific IgG and IgA antibody responses in all HD and in 20% of SARS-CoV-2 naive CVID patients. Anti-Spike IgG were detectable before vaccination in 4 out 7 CVID previously infected with SARS-CoV-2 and were boosted in six out of seven patients by the subsequent immunization raising higher levels than patients naïve to infection. While HD generated Spike-specific memory B-cells, and RBD-specific B-cells, CVID generated Spike-specific atypical B-cells, while RBD-specific B-cells were undetectable in all patients, indicating the incapability to generate this new specificity. Specific T-cell responses were evident in all HD and defective in 30% of CVID. All but one patient with XLA responded by specific T-cell only. CONCLUSION: In PAD patients, early atypical immune responses after BNT162b2 immunization occurred, possibly by extra-follicular or incomplete germinal center reactions. If these responses to vaccination might result in a partial protection from infection or reinfection is now unknown. Our data suggests that SARS-CoV-2 infection more effectively primes the immune response than the immunization alone, possibly suggesting the need for a third vaccine dose for patients not previously infected.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Vacinas contra COVID-19/imunologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/imunologia , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Memória Imunológica , Linfócitos/imunologia , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/imunologia
3.
Cells ; 10(10)2021 09 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34685521

RESUMO

Specific memory B cells and antibodies are a reliable read-out of vaccine efficacy. We analysed these biomarkers after one and two doses of BNT162b2 vaccine. The second dose significantly increases the level of highly specific memory B cells and antibodies. Two months after the second dose, specific antibody levels decline, but highly specific memory B cells continue to increase, thus predicting a sustained protection from COVID-19. We show that although mucosal IgA is not induced by the vaccination, memory B cells migrate in response to inflammation and secrete IgA at mucosal sites. We show that the first vaccine dose may lead to an insufficient number of highly specific memory B cells and low concentration of serum antibodies, thus leaving vaccinees without the immune robustness needed to ensure viral elimination and herd immunity. We also clarify that the reduction of serum antibodies does not diminish the force and duration of the immune protection induced by vaccination. The vaccine does not induce sterilizing immunity. Infection after vaccination may be caused by the lack of local preventive immunity because of the absence of mucosal IgA.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Linfócitos B/citologia , Vacinas contra COVID-19/uso terapêutico , COVID-19/imunologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Imunoglobulina A/imunologia , Memória Imunológica , Adulto , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/sangue , Antígenos Virais/imunologia , Linfócitos B/imunologia , Criopreservação , Feminino , Pessoal de Saúde , Voluntários Saudáveis , Hospitais Pediátricos , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G , Imunoglobulina M/imunologia , Lactação , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Membrana Mucosa/imunologia , Segurança do Paciente , SARS-CoV-2 , Vacinação
4.
Front Immunol ; 12: 727850, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34671350

RESUMO

Mass SARS-Cov-2 vaccination campaign represents the only strategy to defeat the global pandemic we are facing. Immunocompromised patients represent a vulnerable population at high risk of developing severe COVID-19 and thus should be prioritized in the vaccination programs and in the study of the vaccine efficacy. Nevertheless, most data on efficacy and safety of the available vaccines derive from trials conducted on healthy individuals; hence, studies on immunogenicity of SARS-CoV2 vaccines in such populations are deeply needed. Here, we perform an observational longitudinal study analyzing the humoral and cellular response following the BNT162b2 mRNA COVID-19 vaccine in a cohort of patients affected by inborn errors of immunity (IEI) compared to healthy controls (HC). We show that both IEI and HC groups experienced a significant increase in anti-SARS-CoV-2 Abs 1 week after the second scheduled dose as well as an overall statistically significant expansion of the Ag-specific CD4+CD40L+ T cells in both HC and IEI. Five IEI patients did not develop any specific CD4+CD40L+ T cellular response, with one of these patients unable to also mount any humoral response. These data raise immunologic concerns about using Ab response as a sole metric of protective immunity following vaccination for SARS-CoV-2. Taken together, these findings suggest that evaluation of vaccine-induced immunity in this subpopulation should also include quantification of Ag-specific T cells.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Vacinas contra COVID-19/imunologia , Imunogenicidade da Vacina/imunologia , Doenças da Imunodeficiência Primária/imunologia , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/sangue , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Contagem de Linfócito CD4 , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Imunidade Celular/imunologia , Imunidade Humoral/imunologia , Hospedeiro Imunocomprometido/imunologia , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Vacinação , Adulto Jovem
6.
J Antimicrob Chemother ; 76(12): 3272-3279, 2021 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34529797

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate HIV-1 tropism in 1382 combined antiretroviral therapy (cART)-experienced patients failing therapy to characterize those with exhausted therapeutic options. METHODS: HIV-1 genotypic tropism was inferred through Geno2Pheno by estimating the false-positive-rate (FPR) values. Cumulative resistance and drug activity were evaluated by Stanford algorithm. RESULTS: Overall, median (IQR) CD4 count (cells/mm3) nadir and at last genotypic resistance test (GRT) available were 98 (33-211) and 312 (155-517), respectively. Considering HIV-1 tropism, 30.5% had X4/dual-mixed strains (FPR ≤5%: 22.2%; FPR 5%-10%: 8.3%). By stratifying according to tropism, by decreasing FPR, a significant decrease of CD4 nadir and at last GRT was observed. The proportion of individuals with CD4 count <200 cells/mm3, who were perinatally infected and with a long treatment history significantly increased as FPR levels decreased. Regarding resistance, 933 (67.5%) individuals accumulated at least one class resistance, with 52.7%, 48.2%, 23.5% and 13.2% of individuals showing resistance to NRTIs, NNRTIs, PIs and INIs; while 23.2%, 27.2%, 14.3% and 2.8% harboured resistance to 1, 2, 3 and 4 classes, respectively. Individuals with FPR ≤5% showed a significantly higher level of resistance to PIs, NRTIs and INIs compared with others. The proportion of individuals harbouring strains susceptible to ≤2 active drugs was only about 2%; nonetheless, this proportion doubled (4.6%) in patients infected with FPR ≤5%. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings showed that a small proportion of cART failing individuals have limited therapeutic options. However, tropism determination might help to identify people who have accumulated a high level of resistance and have a greater risk of advanced disease.

7.
Front Microbiol ; 12: 727774, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34589075

RESUMO

Background: Rapid and reliable diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) represents a diagnostic challenge in compartmentalized extrapulmonary TB infection because of the small number of mycobacteria (MTB) and the frequent lack of fresh samples to perform culture. Here, we estimate the performances of homemade droplet digital PCR (ddPCR)-based assays against culture in 89 biopsies, for those fresh and formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded (FFPE) subsamples were available. Methods: MTB diagnosis in fresh subsamples was performed by culture. Fresh subsamples were also analyzed for acid-fast bacilli smear-microscopy (AFB) and Xpert® MTB/RIF (Xpert). MTB examination was repeated in blind in the 89 FFPE subsamples by in-house ddPCR assays targeting the IS6110 and rpoB. Analytical sensitivity of ddPCR assays was evaluated using serial dilution of H37Rv strain. Limit of detection (LOD) was calculated by probit analysis. Results were expressed in copies/106 cells. Results: IS6110 and rpoB ddPCR assays showed a good linear correlation between expected and observed values (R 2: 0.9907 and 0.9743, respectively). Probit analyses predicted a LOD of 17 and 40 copies/106 cells of MTB DNA for IS6110 and rpoB, respectively. Of the 89 biopsies, 68 were culture positive and 21 were culture negative. Considering mycobacterial culture as reference method, IS6110 assay yielded positive results in 67/68 culture-positive samples with a median interquartile range (IQR) of 1,680 (550-8,444) copies/106 cells (sensitivity: 98.5%; accuracy: 98.9). These performances were superior to those reported by the rpoB assay in FFPE subsamples (sensitivity: 66.20%; accuracy: 74.1) and even superior to those reported by Xpert and AFB in fresh subsamples (sensitivity: 79.4 and 33.8%, respectively; accuracy: 84.3 and 49.4, respectively). When Xpert and AFB results were stratified according to mycobacterial load detected by rpoB and IS6110 ddPCR, bacterial load was lower in Xpert and AFB negative with respect to Xpert and AFB-positive samples (p = 0.003 and 0.01 for rpoB and p = 0.01 and 0.11 for IS6110), confirming the poor sensitivity of these methods in paucibacillary disease. Conclusion: ddPCR provides highly sensitive, accurate, and rapid MTB diagnosis in FFPE samples, as defined by the high concordance between IS6110 assay and culture results. This approach can be safely introduced in clinical routine to accelerate MTB diagnosis mainly when culture results remain unavailable.

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34574472

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Social distancing measures are used to reduce the spreading of COVID-19. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of local restrictions on the transmission of respiratory virus infections. METHODS: we retrospectively analyzed the nasopharyngeal samples of all patients (0-18 years old) admitted with respiratory symptoms in a large Italian tertiary hospital during the last three seasons from 2018 to 2021. RESULTS: A strong reduction in all viral respiratory infections was observed in the last season (2020-2021) compared to the two previous seasons (-79.69% and -80.66%, respectively). In particular, we found that during the epidemic period 2018-2019 and 2019-2020, the total number of Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) cases was, respectively 726 and 689, while in the last season a total of five cases was detected. In the first months of 2018-2019 and 2019-2020, the total flu infections were 240 and 354, respectively, while in the last season we did not detect any influenza virus. As other viruses, the presence of Rhinovirus declined, but to a lesser extent: a total of 488 cases were assessed compared to the 1030 and 1165 cases of the two previous respective epidemic seasons. CONCLUSIONS: Public health interventions and distancing (including continuous use of face masks) settled to counter the pandemic spread of COVID-19 had a macroscopic impact on all respiratory virus transmission and related diseases, with a partial exception of Rhinovirus. The absence of viruses' circulation could result in a lack of immunity and increased susceptibility to serious infections in the next seasons.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Influenza Humana , Infecções por Vírus Respiratório Sincicial , Infecções Respiratórias , Vírus , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Infecções por Vírus Respiratório Sincicial/epidemiologia , Infecções Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2 , Estações do Ano
9.
Viruses ; 13(7)2021 07 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34372609

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: If analytical antiretroviral-treatment (ART) interruption (ATI) might significantly impact quantitative or qualitative peripheral-total HIV-DNA is still debated. METHODS: Six chronically HIV-1 infected patients enrolled in APACHE-study were analysed for peripheral-total HIV-DNA and residual viremia, major-resistance-mutations (MRMs) and C2-V3-C3 evolution at pre-ATI (T1), during ATI (T2) and at achievement of virological success after ART-resumption (post-ATI, T3). These data were obtained at three comparable time-points in five chronically HIV-1 infected patients on suppressive ART for ≥1 year, enrolled in MODAt-study. RESULTS: At T1, APACHE and MODAt individuals had similar peripheral-total HIV-DNA and residual viremia (p = 0.792 and 0.662, respectively), and no significant changes for these parameters were observed between T1 and T3 in both groups. At T1, 4/6 APACHE and 2/5 MODAt carried HIV-DNA MRMs. MRMs disappeared at T3 in 3/4 APACHE. All disappearing MRMs were characterized by T1 intra-patient prevalence <80%, and mainly occurred in APOBEC3-related sites. All MRMs persisted over-time in the 2 MODAt. C2-V3-C3 genetic-distance significantly changed from T1 to T3 in APACHE individuals (+0.36[0.11-0.41], p = 0.04), while no significant changes were found in MODAt. Accordingly, maximum likelihood trees (bootstrap > 70%) and genealogical sorting indices (GSI > 0.50 with p-value < 0.05) showed that T1 C2-V3-C3 DNA sequences were distinct from T2 and T3 viruses in 4/6 APACHE. Virus populations at all three time-points were highly interspersed in MODAt. CONCLUSIONS: This pilot study indicates that short ATI does not alter peripheral-total HIV-DNA burden and residual viremia, but in some cases could cause a genetic diversification of peripheral viral reservoir in term of both MRMs rearrangement and viral evolution.


Assuntos
Antirretrovirais/uso terapêutico , DNA Viral/análise , Reservatórios de Doenças/virologia , HIV-1/efeitos dos fármacos , Carga Viral/efeitos dos fármacos , Viremia/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade , DNA Viral/genética , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/virologia , Humanos , Masculino , Adesão à Medicação , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Projetos Piloto
10.
Clin Chim Acta ; 522: 144-151, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34425105

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Vaccines, to limit SARS-CoV-2 infection, were produced and reliable assays are needed for their evaluation. The WHO produced an International-Standard (WHO-IS) to facilitate the standardization/comparison of serological methods. The WHO-IS, produced in limited amount, was never tested for reproducibility. This study aims at developing a reproducible and accessible working standard (WS) to complement the WHO-IS. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sera from vaccinated individuals were used to produce the WSs. The WHO-IS, the WSs and single serum samples (n = 48) were tested on 6 quantitative serological devices. Neutralization assays were performed for the 48 samples and compared with their antibody titers. RESULTS: The WS carry an antibody titer 20-fold higher than the WHO-IS. It was reproducible, showed both good linearity and insignificant intra- and inter-laboratory variability. However, the WSs behave differently from the WHO-IS. Analysis of the 48 samples showed that single correlation factors are not sufficient to harmonize results from different assays. Yet, all the devices predict neutralization activity based on the antibody titer. CONCLUSIONS: A reproducible and highly concentrated WS, specific for IgG against SARS-CoV-2 Spike-glycoprotein was produced. Such characteristics make it particularly suited for the harmonization of commercially available assays and the consequent evaluation of post-vaccinated individuals.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Anticorpos Neutralizantes , Anticorpos Antivirais , Humanos , Testes de Neutralização , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
11.
PLoS One ; 16(7): e0253587, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34197501

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Some mutations in the HIV-1 Gag gene are known to confer resistance to ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitors (PI/r), but their clinical implications remain controversial. This review aims at summarizing current knowledge on HIV-1 Gag gene mutations that are selected under PI/r pressure and their distribution according to viral subtypes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Randomized and non-randomized trials, cohort and cross-sectional studies evaluating HIV-1 Gag gene mutations and protease resistance associated mutations, will all be included. Searches will be conducted (from January 2000 onwards) in PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature (LILAC), Web of Science, African Journals Online, and Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) databases. Hand searching of the reference lists of relevant reviews and trials will be conducted and we will also look for conference abstracts. Genotypic profiles of both Gag gene and the protease region as well as viral subtypes (especially B vs. non B) will all serve as comparators. Primary outcomes will be the "prevalence of Gag mutations" and the "prevalence of PI/r resistance associated mutations". Secondary outcomes will be the "rate of treatment failure" and the distribution of Gag mutations according to subtypes. Two reviewers will independently screen titles and abstracts, assess the full texts for eligibility, and extract data. If data permits, random effects models will be used where appropriate. This study will be reported according to the guidelines of the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta Analyses. DISCUSSION: This systematic review will help identify HIV-1 Gag gene mutations associated to PI/r-based regimen according to viral subtypes. Findings of this review will help to better understand the implications of the Gag gene mutations in PI/r treatment failure. This may later justify considerations of Gag-genotyping within HIV drug resistance interpretation algorithms in the clinical management of patients receiving PI/r regimens. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: PROSPERO: CRD42019114851.


Assuntos
Farmacorresistência Viral/genética , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores da Protease de HIV/farmacologia , HIV-1/genética , Precursores de Proteínas/genética , Infecções por HIV/virologia , Inibidores da Protease de HIV/uso terapêutico , HIV-1/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Mutação
12.
Hematol., Transfus. Cell Ther. (Impr.) ; 43(2): 147-155, Apr.-June 2021. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1286683

RESUMO

ABSTRACT Objectives The purpose of this study was to compare data obtained from the reticulocyte channel (RET channel) heated to 41 °C with those obtained from impedance channel (I-Channel) at room temperature in the samples with the mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) < 370 g/L and in samples with the MCHC > 370 g/L, in the presence of cold agglutinins. Methods In this study, 60 blood samples (group 1) with the MCHC < 370 g/L (without cold agglutinins) and 78 blood samples (group 2) with the MCHC > 370 g/L (with cold agglutinins) were used to compare the two analytical channels of the XN-9000 analyzer in different preanalytical conditions. The parameters evaluated in both groups were the following: red blood cell (RBC), hemoglobin (HGB), hematocrit (HCT), mean cell volume (MCV), RBC-most frequent volume (R-MFV), mean hemoglobin concentration (MCH) and mean cellular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC). Results The results of this study showed an excellent correlation with both channels of the XN-9000 analyzer in samples with and without cold agglutinins, except for the MCHC. The bias between the values obtained in the I-channel and those obtained in the RET channel of both groups was insignificant and remained within the limits of acceptability, as reported by Ricos et al. for all considered parameters, except for MCHC. Conclusions The presence of cold agglutinins in blood samples can be detected by a spurious lowering of the RBC count and by a spurious increase in the MCHC. The RET channel represents a great opportunity to correct the RBC count in a rapid manner without preheating. However, neither methodology can completely solve the residual presence of cold agglutinins in all samples, despite the MCHC values being < 370 g/L.

13.
Pediatr Res ; 2021 Jun 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34117360

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The objective of this study is to test how certain signs and symptoms related to COVID-19 in children predict the positivity or negativity of the SARS-CoV-2 nasopharyngeal swab in children. METHODS: We review the data of children who were tested for SARS-CoV-2 for a suspected infection. We compared the clinical characteristics of the subjects who tested positive and negative, including the sensibility, positive and negative predictive value of different combination of signs and symptoms. RESULTS: Of all the suspected infected, 2596 tested negative (96.2%) and 103 tested positive (3.8%). The median age was 7.0 and 5.3 years for the positive and negative ones, respectively. The female to male ratio was ~1:1.3. Fever and respiratory symptoms were mostly reported. Most positive children had a prior exposure to SARS-CoV-2-infected subjects (59.2%). A total of 99.3% of patients without fever nor exposure to the virus proved negative to the SARS-CoV-2 test. CONCLUSIONS: Our study suggests that a child without fever or contact with infected subjects is SARS-CoV-2 negative. If this were to be confirmed, many resources would be spared, with improved care of both COVID-19 and not COVID-19-affected children. IMPACT: Key message: lack of fever and exposure to SARS-CoV-2-infected people highly predicts a negative results of the SARS-CoV-2 nasopharyngeal swab in the paediatric population. Added value to the current literature: this is the first article to prove this point. IMPACT: reduction of emergency department accesses of children with suspected SARS-CoV-2 infection; increased outpatient management of children with cough or other common respiratory symptoms of infancy; sparing of many human and material health resources.

14.
Viruses ; 13(5)2021 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34062916

RESUMO

To complement RT-qPCR testing for diagnosis of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infections, many countries have introduced the use of rapid antigen tests. As they generally display lower real-life performances than expected, their correct positioning as frontline screening is still controversial. Despite the lack of data from daily clinical use, third generation microfluidic assays (such as the LumiraDx SARS-CoV-2 Ag test) have recently been suggested to have similar performances to RT-qPCR and have been proposed as alternative diagnostic tools. By analyzing 960 nasopharyngeal swabs from 960 subjects at the emergency department admissions of a tertiary COVID-19 hospital, LumiraDx assay demonstrated a specificity of 97% (95% CI: 96-98), and a sensitivity of 85% (95% CI: 82-89) in comparison with RT-qPCR, which increases to 91% (95% CI: 86-95) for samples with a cycle threshold ≤ 29. Fifty false-negative LumiraDx-results were confirmed by direct quantification of genomic SARS-CoV-2 RNA through droplet-digital PCR (median (IQR) load = 5880 (1657-41,440) copies/mL). Subgenomic N and E RNAs were detected in 52% (n = 26) and 56% (n = 28) of them, respectively, supporting the presence of active viral replication. Overall, the LumiraDx test complies with the minimum performance requirements of the WHO. Yet, the risk of a misrecognition of patients with active COVID-19 persists, and the need for confirmatory RT-qPCR should not be amended.


Assuntos
Teste para COVID-19/métodos , COVID-19/diagnóstico , SARS-CoV-2/genética , Idoso , Antígenos Virais/análise , COVID-19/genética , COVID-19/imunologia , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Feminino , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Técnicas Analíticas Microfluídicas/métodos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nasofaringe/virologia , RNA Viral/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/métodos , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , SARS-CoV-2/patogenicidade , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
16.
Trends Microbiol ; 2021 May 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34052095

RESUMO

A comprehensive understanding of the microbiome-host relationship in respiratory diseases can be elucidated by exploring the landscape of virome-bacteriome-host metabolome data through unsupervised 'multi-omics' approaches. Here, we describe how the composition and function of airway and gut virome and bacteriome may contribute to pathogen establishment and propagation in airway districts and how the virome-bacteriome communities may react to respiratory diseases. A new systems medicine approach, including the characterization of respiratory and gut microbiome, may be crucial to demonstrate the likelihood and odds of respiratory disease pathophysiology, opening new avenues to the discovery of a chain of causation for key bacteria and viruses in disease severity.

17.
Diagnostics (Basel) ; 11(5)2021 Apr 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33947009

RESUMO

The diagnostic and therapeutic management of the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic in the HIV population brought some known criticalities (and opportunities) to the forefront, for both those who are facing their first therapeutic line today, and for those already well viro-suppressed. The clinical, socioeconomic, and psychological impact of the COVID-19 pandemic should not affect the long-term care of people living with HIV, which creates an urgent need to optimize the diagnostic and treatment approach to the first-line or switch regimens. The use of dolutegravir plus a lamivudine two-drug regimen is one of the most promising solutions to ease the management of HIV treatment in this difficult period. In this review, we report the most salient features related to the use of this regimen from real-life cohorts, meta-analyses, randomized clinical trials, and studies presented at international conferences up to March 2021. We focused on the diagnostic and clinical-management implications of its use in real life, and how these comply with the contingent historical situation. The issue of the timing and type of diagnostic procedures and the relevance of classical diagnostic tests (such as genotype for resistance detection) is also discussed. According to the currently available results, dolutegravir plus a lamivudine two-drug regimen represents an outstanding tool, whose expected advantages fulfill the current requirements for optimal daily care of our HIV patients.

18.
Microorganisms ; 9(4)2021 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33918474

RESUMO

Hepatitis B virus (HBV) contains three surface glycoproteins-Large-HBs (L-HBs), Middle-HBs (M-HBs), and Small-HBs (S-HBs), known to contribute to HBV-driven pro-oncogenic properties. Here, we examined the kinetics of HBs-isoforms in virologically-suppressed patients who developed or did not develop hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). This study enrolled 30 chronically HBV-infected cirrhotic patients under fully-suppressive anti-HBV treatment. Among them, 13 patients developed HCC. Serum samples were collected at enrolment (T0) and at HCC diagnosis or at the last control for non-HCC patients (median (range) follow-up: 38 (12-48) months). Ad-hoc ELISAs were designed to quantify L-HBs, M-HBs and S-HBs (Beacle). At T0, median (IQR) levels of S-HBs, M-HBs and L-HBs were 3140 (457-6995), 220 (31-433) and 0.2 (0-1.7) ng/mL. No significant differences in the fraction of the three HBs-isoforms were noticed between patients who developed or did not develop HCC at T0. On treatment, S-HBs showed a >25% decline or remained stable in a similar proportion of HCC and non-HCC patients (58.3% of HCC- vs. 47.1% of non-HCC patients, p = 0.6; 25% of HCC vs. 29.4% of non-HCC, p = 0.8, respectively). Conversely, M-HBs showed a >25% increase in a higher proportion of HCC compared to non-HCC patients (50% vs. 11.8%, p = 0.02), in line with M-HBs pro-oncogenic role reported in in vitro studies. No difference in L-HBs kinetics was observed in HCC and non-HCC patients. In conclusion, an increase in M-HBs levels characterizes a significant fraction of HCC-patients while under prolonged HBV suppression and stable/reduced total-HBs. The role of M-HBs kinetics in identifying patients at higher HCC risk deserves further investigation.

19.
Viruses ; 13(5)2021 04 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33922732

RESUMO

HCV is an important cause of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). HCV NS5A domain-1 interacts with cellular proteins inducing pro-oncogenic pathways. Thus, we explore genetic variations in NS5A domain-1 and their association with HCC, by analyzing 188 NS5A sequences from HCV genotype-1b infected DAA-naïve cirrhotic patients: 34 with HCC and 154 without HCC. Specific NS5A mutations significantly correlate with HCC: S3T (8.8% vs. 1.3%, p = 0.01), T122M (8.8% vs. 0.0%, p < 0.001), M133I (20.6% vs. 3.9%, p < 0.001), and Q181E (11.8% vs. 0.6%, p < 0.001). By multivariable analysis, the presence of >1 of them independently correlates with HCC (OR (95%CI): 21.8 (5.7-82.3); p < 0.001). Focusing on HCC-group, the presence of these mutations correlates with higher viremia (median (IQR): 5.7 (5.4-6.2) log IU/mL vs. 5.3 (4.4-5.6) log IU/mL, p = 0.02) and lower ALT (35 (30-71) vs. 83 (48-108) U/L, p = 0.004), suggesting a role in enhancing viral fitness without affecting necroinflammation. Notably, these mutations reside in NS5A regions known to interact with cellular proteins crucial for cell-cycle regulation (p53, p85-PIK3, and ß-catenin), and introduce additional phosphorylation sites, a phenomenon known to ameliorate NS5A interaction with cellular proteins. Overall, these results provide a focus for further investigations on molecular bases of HCV-mediated oncogenesis. The role of theseNS5A domain-1 mutations in triggering pro-oncogenic stimuli that can persist also despite achievement of sustained virological response deserves further investigation.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular/etiologia , Genótipo , Hepacivirus/genética , Hepatite C/complicações , Hepatite C/virologia , Cirrose Hepática/etiologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/etiologia , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/genética , Idoso , Biomarcadores , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/diagnóstico , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Feminino , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Humanos , Cirrose Hepática/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Hepáticas/diagnóstico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/química , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/metabolismo
20.
Diagnostics (Basel) ; 11(2)2021 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33673365

RESUMO

Accurate measurement of the hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA is important for the management of patients with chronic HBV infection. Here, the performance of the Xpert® HBV Viral Load test (Xpert HBV Viral Load) versus the Roche COBAS® Ampliprep/COBAS® TaqMan® system (CAP/CTM HBV) HBV test v2.0 was evaluated. From September 2017 to December 2017, a total of 876 prospectively collected or archived serum or EDTA plasma specimens from subjects chronically infected with HBV were tested using the Xpert HBV Viral Load and the CAP/CTM HBV v2.0 assays. Of the 876 specimens tested, 560 were within the quantitative range of both assays. The agreement between the two methods was 90.0%. No difference in plasma or serum samples was observed. Deming regression analysis showed a good correlation of the Xpert HBV Viral Load assay with the CAP/CTM HBV v2.0 assay. The Bland-Altman analysis showed a good agreement between the results of the Xpert HBV Viral Load assay and the CAP/CTM HBV assay, with a mean difference (±1.96 standard deviation) of 0.0091 ± 0.3852 Log IU/mL. Comparing the two assays, only nineteen specimens (2.1%) had a difference greater than 1.96 times the standard deviation. The Xpert® HBV Viral Load test is suitable for monitoring patients with HBV infection and is useful in diagnostic settings.

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