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1.
Mol Psychiatry ; 2021 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33526825

RESUMO

Copy number variants (CNVs) are associated with syndromic and severe neurological and psychiatric disorders (SNPDs), such as intellectual disability, epilepsy, schizophrenia, and bipolar disorder. Although considered high-impact, CNVs are also observed in the general population. This presents a diagnostic challenge in evaluating their clinical significance. To estimate the phenotypic differences between CNV carriers and non-carriers regarding general health and well-being, we compared the impact of SNPD-associated CNVs on health, cognition, and socioeconomic phenotypes to the impact of three genome-wide polygenic risk score (PRS) in two Finnish cohorts (FINRISK, n = 23,053 and NFBC1966, n = 4895). The focus was on CNV carriers and PRS extremes who do not have an SNPD diagnosis. We identified high-risk CNVs (DECIPHER CNVs, risk gene deletions, or large [>1 Mb] CNVs) in 744 study participants (2.66%), 36 (4.8%) of whom had a diagnosed SNPD. In the remaining 708 unaffected carriers, we observed lower educational attainment (EA; OR = 0.77 [95% CI 0.66-0.89]) and lower household income (OR = 0.77 [0.66-0.89]). Income-associated CNVs also lowered household income (OR = 0.50 [0.38-0.66]), and CNVs with medical consequences lowered subjective health (OR = 0.48 [0.32-0.72]). The impact of PRSs was broader. At the lowest extreme of PRS for EA, we observed lower EA (OR = 0.31 [0.26-0.37]), lower-income (OR = 0.66 [0.57-0.77]), lower subjective health (OR = 0.72 [0.61-0.83]), and increased mortality (Cox's HR = 1.55 [1.21-1.98]). PRS for intelligence had a similar impact, whereas PRS for schizophrenia did not affect these traits. We conclude that the majority of working-age individuals carrying high-risk CNVs without SNPD diagnosis have a modest impact on morbidity and mortality, as well as the limited impact on income and educational attainment, compared to individuals at the extreme end of common genetic variation. Our findings highlight that the contribution of traditional high-risk variants such as CNVs should be analyzed in a broader genetic context, rather than evaluated in isolation.

2.
Obesity (Silver Spring) ; 29(2): 428-437, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33491305

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the role of cytokines as intermediates in the pathway from increased adiposity to disease. METHODS: BMI and circulating levels of up to 41 cytokines were measured in individuals from three Finnish cohort studies (n = 8,293). Mendelian randomization (MR) was used to assess the impact of BMI on circulating cytokines and the impact of BMI-driven cytokines on risk of obesity-related diseases. RESULTS: Observationally, BMI was associated with 19 cytokines. For every SD increase in BMI, causal effect estimates were strongest for hepatocyte growth factor, monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1), and tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) and were as ratios of geometric means 1.13 (95% CI: 1.08-1.19), 1.08 (95% CI: 1.04-1.14), and 1.13 (95% CI: 1.04-1.21), respectively. TRAIL was associated with a small increase in the odds of coronary artery disease (odds ratio: 1.03; 95% CI: 1.00-1.06). There was inconsistent evidence for a protective role of MCP-1 against inflammatory bowel diseases. CONCLUSIONS: Observational and MR estimates of the effect of BMI on cytokine levels were generally concordant. There was little evidence for an effect of raised levels of BMI-driven cytokines on disease. These findings illustrate the challenges of MR when applied in the context of molecular mediation.

3.
Scand J Gastroenterol ; : 1-5, 2021 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33478287

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Vitamin D deficiency is a common finding in chronic liver disease. It has also been linked to the pathogenesis of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, hepatic fibrogenesis, decompensation and hepatocellular carcinoma. AIMS: We analyzed whether serum vitamin D is associated with incident advanced liver disease in the general population. METHODS: Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D was measured in 13807 individuals participating in the Finnish population-based health examination surveys FINRISK 1997 and Health 2000. Data were linked with incident advanced liver disease (hospitalization, cancer or death related to liver disease). During a follow-up of 201444 person-years 148 severe liver events occurred. Analyses were performed using multivariable Cox regression analyses. RESULTS: Vitamin D level associated with incident advanced liver disease with the hazard ratio of 0.972 (95% confidence interval 0.943-0.976, p < .001), when adjusted for age, sex, blood sampling season and stratified by cohort.The association remained robust and significant in multiple different adjustment models adjusting sequentially for 22 potential confounders. CONCLUSION: Low vitamin D level is linked to incident advanced liver disease at population level.

4.
Neurology ; 2020 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33268560

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To conduct a comprehensive analysis of circulating metabolites and incident stroke in large prospective population-based settings. METHODS: We investigated the association of metabolites with risk of stroke in seven prospective cohort studies including 1,791 incident stroke events among 38,797 participants in whom circulating metabolites were measured by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (1H-NMR) technology. The relationship between metabolites and stroke was assessed using Cox proportional hazards regression models. The analyses were performed considering all incident stroke events and ischemic and hemorrhagic events separately. RESULTS: The analyses revealed ten significant metabolite associations. Amino acid histidine (hazard ratio (HR) per standard deviation (SD) = 0.90, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.85, 0.94; P = 4.45×10-5), glycolysis-related metabolite pyruvate (HR per SD = 1.09, 95% CI: 1.04, 1.14; P = 7.45×10-4), acute phase reaction marker glycoprotein acetyls (HR per SD = 1.09, 95% CI: 1.03, 1.15; P = 1.27×10-3), cholesterol in high-density lipoprotein (HDL) 2 and several other lipoprotein particles were associated with risk of stroke. When focusing on incident ischemic stroke, a significant association was observed with phenylalanine (HR per SD = 1.12, 95% CI: 1.05, 1.19; P = 4.13×10-4) and total and free cholesterol in large HDL particles. CONCLUSIONS: We found association of amino acids, glycolysis-related metabolites, acute phase reaction markers, and several lipoprotein subfractions with the risk of stroke. These findings support the potential of metabolomics to provide new insights into the metabolic changes preceding stroke.

5.
Eur Heart J ; 2020 Dec 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33351885

RESUMO

AIMS : Angiopoietin-like protein 3 (ANGPTL3) and 4 (ANGPTL4) inhibit lipoprotein lipase (LPL) and represent emerging drug targets to lower circulating triglycerides and reduce cardiovascular risk. To investigate the molecular effects of genetic mimicry of ANGPTL3 and ANGPTL4 inhibition and compare them to the effects of genetic mimicry of LPL enhancement. METHODS AND RESULTS : Associations of genetic variants in ANGPTL3 (rs11207977-T), ANGPTL4 (rs116843064-A), and LPL (rs115849089-A) with an extensive serum lipid and metabolite profile (208 measures) were characterized in six cohorts of up to 61 240 participants. Genetic associations with anthropometric measures, glucose-insulin metabolism, blood pressure, markers of kidney function, and cardiometabolic endpoints via genome-wide summary data were also explored. ANGPTL4 rs116843064-A and LPL rs115849089-A displayed a strikingly similar pattern of associations across the lipoprotein and lipid measures. However, the corresponding associations with ANGPTL3 rs11207977-T differed, including those for low-density lipoprotein and high-density lipoprotein particle concentrations and compositions. All three genotypes associated with lower concentrations of an inflammatory biomarker glycoprotein acetyls and genetic mimicry of ANGPTL3 inhibition and LPL enhancement were also associated with lower C-reactive protein. Genetic mimicry of ANGPTL4 inhibition and LPL enhancement were associated with a lower waist-to-hip ratio, improved insulin-glucose metabolism, and lower risk of coronary heart disease and type 2 diabetes, whilst genetic mimicry of ANGPTL3 was associated with improved kidney function. CONCLUSIONS : Genetic mimicry of ANGPTL4 inhibition and LPL enhancement have very similar systemic metabolic effects, whereas genetic mimicry of ANGPTL3 inhibition showed differing metabolic effects, suggesting potential involvement of pathways independent of LPL. Genetic mimicry of ANGPTL4 inhibition and LPL enhancement were associated with a lower risk of coronary heart disease and type 2 diabetes. These findings reinforce evidence that enhancing LPL activity (either directly or via upstream effects) through pharmacological approaches is likely to yield benefits to human health.

6.
Circ Genom Precis Med ; 13(6): e002769, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33321069

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Coronary artery disease (CAD) is accelerated in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D). METHODS: To test whether this reflects differential genetic influences on CAD risk in subjects with T2D, we performed a systematic assessment of genetic overlap between CAD and T2D in 66 643 subjects (27 708 with CAD and 24 259 with T2D). Variants showing apparent association with CAD in stratified analyses or evidence of interaction were evaluated in a further 117 787 subjects (16 694 with CAD and 11 537 with T2D). RESULTS: None of the previously characterized CAD loci was found to have specific effects on CAD in T2D individuals, and a genome-wide interaction analysis found no new variants for CAD that could be considered T2D specific. When we considered the overall genetic correlations between CAD and its risk factors, we found no substantial differences in these relationships by T2D background. CONCLUSIONS: This study found no evidence that the genetic architecture of CAD differs in those with T2D compared with those without T2D.

7.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 5976, 2020 11 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33239696

RESUMO

Preeclampsia is a serious complication of pregnancy, affecting both maternal and fetal health. In genome-wide association meta-analysis of European and Central Asian mothers, we identify sequence variants that associate with preeclampsia in the maternal genome at ZNF831/20q13 and FTO/16q12. These are previously established variants for blood pressure (BP) and the FTO variant has also been associated with body mass index (BMI). Further analysis of BP variants establishes that variants at MECOM/3q26, FGF5/4q21 and SH2B3/12q24 also associate with preeclampsia through the maternal genome. We further show that a polygenic risk score for hypertension associates with preeclampsia. However, comparison with gestational hypertension indicates that additional factors modify the risk of preeclampsia.

8.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 20567, 2020 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33239708

RESUMO

The role of metabolic syndrome (MetS) as a preceding metabolic state for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease is widely recognised. To accumulate knowledge of the pathological mechanisms behind the condition at the methylation level, we conducted an epigenome-wide association study (EWAS) of MetS and its components, testing 1187 individuals of European ancestry for approximately 470 000 methylation sites throughout the genome. Methylation site cg19693031 in gene TXNIP -previously associated with type 2 diabetes, glucose and lipid metabolism, associated with fasting glucose level (P = 1.80 × 10-8). Cg06500161 in gene ABCG1 associated both with serum triglycerides (P = 5.36 × 10-9) and waist circumference (P = 5.21 × 10-9). The previously identified type 2 diabetes-associated locus cg08309687 in chromosome 21 associated with waist circumference for the first time (P = 2.24 × 10-7). Furthermore, a novel HDL association with cg17901584 in chromosome 1 was identified (P = 7.81 × 10-8). Our study supports previous genetic studies of MetS, finding that lipid metabolism plays a key role in pathology of the syndrome. We provide evidence regarding a close interplay with glucose metabolism. Finally, we suggest that in attempts to identify methylation loci linking separate MetS components, cg19693031 appears to represent a strong candidate.

9.
Fluids Barriers CNS ; 17(1): 57, 2020 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32933532

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The pathophysiological basis of idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) is still unclear. Previous studies have shown a familial aggregation and a potential heritability when it comes to iNPH. Our aim was to conduct a novel case-controlled comparison between familial iNPH (fNPH) patients and their elderly relatives, involving multiple different families. METHODS: Questionnaires and phone interviews were used for collecting the data and categorising the iNPH patients into the familial (fNPH) and the sporadic groups. Identical questionnaires were sent to the relatives of the potential fNPH patients. Venous blood samples were collected for genetic studies. The disease histories of the probable fNPH patients (n = 60) were compared with their ≥ 60-year-old relatives with no iNPH (n = 49). A modified Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI) was used to measure the overall disease burden. Fisher's exact test (two-tailed), the Mann-Whitney U test (two-tailed) and a multivariate binary logistic regression analysis were used to perform the statistical analyses. RESULTS: Diabetes (32% vs. 14%, p = 0.043), arterial hypertension (65.0% vs. 43%, p = 0.033), cardiac insufficiency (16% vs. 2%, p = 0.020) and depressive symptoms (32% vs. 8%, p = 0.004) were overrepresented among the probable fNPH patients compared to their non-iNPH relatives. In the age-adjusted multivariate logistic regression analysis, diabetes remained independently associated with fNPH (OR = 3.8, 95% CI 1.1-12.9, p = 0.030). CONCLUSIONS: Diabetes is associated with fNPH and a possible risk factor for fNPH. Diabetes could contribute to the pathogenesis of iNPH/fNPH, which motivates to further prospective and gene-environmental studies to decipher the disease modelling of iNPH/fNPH.

10.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 15760, 2020 09 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32978407

RESUMO

Health differences among the elderly and the role of medical treatments are topical issues in aging societies. We demonstrate the use of modern statistical learning methods to develop a data-driven health measure based on 21 years of pharmacy purchase and mortality data of 12,047 aging individuals. The resulting score was validated with 33,616 individuals from two fully independent datasets and it is strongly associated with all-cause mortality (HR 1.18 per point increase in score; 95% CI 1.14-1.22; p = 2.25e-16). When combined with Charlson comorbidity index, individuals with elevated medication score and comorbidity index had over six times higher risk (HR 6.30; 95% CI 3.84-10.3; AUC = 0.802) compared to individuals with a protective score profile. Alone, the medication score performs similarly to the Charlson comorbidity index and is associated with polygenic risk for coronary heart disease and type 2 diabetes.

11.
BMC Pulm Med ; 20(1): 193, 2020 Jul 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32677943

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a common lung disorder characterized by persistent and progressive airflow limitation as well as systemic changes. Metabolic changes in blood may help detect COPD in an earlier stage and predict prognosis. METHODS: We conducted a comprehensive study of circulating metabolites, measured by proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy, in relation with COPD and lung function. The discovery sample consisted of 5557 individuals from two large population-based studies in the Netherlands, the Rotterdam Study and the Erasmus Rucphen Family study. Significant findings were replicated in 12,205 individuals from the Lifelines-DEEP study, FINRISK and the Prospective Investigation of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors (PIVUS) studies. For replicated metabolites further investigation of causality was performed, utilizing genetics in the Mendelian randomization approach. RESULTS: There were 602 cases of COPD and 4955 controls used in the discovery meta-analysis. Our logistic regression results showed that higher levels of plasma Glycoprotein acetyls (GlycA) are significantly associated with COPD (OR = 1.16, P = 5.6 × 10- 4 in the discovery and OR = 1.30, P = 1.8 × 10- 6 in the replication sample). A bi-directional two-sample Mendelian randomization analysis suggested that circulating blood GlycA is not causally related to COPD, but that COPD causally increases GlycA levels. Using the prospective data of the same sample of Rotterdam Study in Cox-regression, we show that the circulating GlycA level is a predictive biomarker of COPD incidence (HR = 1.99, 95%CI 1.52-2.60, comparing those in the highest and lowest quartile of GlycA) but is not significantly associated with mortality in COPD patients (HR = 1.07, 95%CI 0.94-1.20). CONCLUSIONS: Our study shows that circulating blood GlycA is a biomarker of early COPD pathology.

12.
Hypertension ; 76(1): 195-205, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32520614

RESUMO

We conducted an epigenome-wide association study meta-analysis on blood pressure (BP) in 4820 individuals of European and African ancestry aged 14 to 69. Genome-wide DNA methylation data from peripheral leukocytes were obtained using the Infinium Human Methylation 450k BeadChip. The epigenome-wide association study meta-analysis identified 39 BP-related CpG sites with P<1×10-5. In silico replication in the CHARGE consortium of 17 010 individuals validated 16 of these CpG sites. Out of the 16 CpG sites, 13 showed novel association with BP. Conversely, out of the 126 CpG sites identified as being associated (P<1×10-7) with BP in the CHARGE consortium, 21 were replicated in the current study. Methylation levels of all the 34 CpG sites that were cross-validated by the current study and the CHARGE consortium were heritable and 6 showed association with gene expression. Furthermore, 9 CpG sites also showed association with BP with P<0.05 and consistent direction of the effect in the meta-analysis of the Finnish Twin Cohort (199 twin pairs and 4 singletons; 61% monozygous) and the Netherlands Twin Register (266 twin pairs and 62 singletons; 84% monozygous). Bivariate quantitative genetic modeling of the twin data showed that a majority of the phenotypic correlations between methylation levels of these CpG sites and BP could be explained by shared unique environmental rather than genetic factors, with 100% of the correlations of systolic BP with cg19693031 (TXNIP) and cg00716257 (JDP2) determined by environmental effects acting on both systolic BP and methylation levels.

13.
PLoS Genet ; 16(5): e1008682, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32369491

RESUMO

Protein-altering variants that are protective against human disease provide in vivo validation of therapeutic targets. Here we use genotyping data from UK Biobank (n = 337,151 unrelated White British individuals) and FinnGen (n = 176,899) to conduct a search for protein-altering variants conferring lower intraocular pressure (IOP) and protection against glaucoma. Through rare protein-altering variant association analysis, we find a missense variant in ANGPTL7 in UK Biobank (rs28991009, p.Gln175His, MAF = 0.8%, genotyped in 82,253 individuals with measured IOP and an independent set of 4,238 glaucoma patients and 250,660 controls) that significantly lowers IOP (ß = -0.53 and -0.67 mmHg for heterozygotes, -3.40 and -2.37 mmHg for homozygotes, P = 5.96 x 10-9 and 1.07 x 10-13 for corneal compensated and Goldman-correlated IOP, respectively) and is associated with 34% reduced risk of glaucoma (P = 0.0062). In FinnGen, we identify an ANGPTL7 missense variant at a greater than 50-fold increased frequency in Finland compared with other populations (rs147660927, p.Arg220Cys, MAF Finland = 4.3%), which was genotyped in 6,537 glaucoma patients and 170,362 controls and is associated with a 29% lower glaucoma risk (P = 1.9 x 10-12 for all glaucoma types and also protection against its subtypes including exfoliation, primary open-angle, and primary angle-closure). We further find three rarer variants in UK Biobank, including a protein-truncating variant, which confer a strong composite lowering of IOP (P = 0.0012 and 0.24 for Goldman-correlated and corneal compensated IOP, respectively), suggesting the protective mechanism likely resides in the loss of interaction or function. Our results support inhibition or down-regulation of ANGPTL7 as a therapeutic strategy for glaucoma.


Assuntos
Proteínas Semelhantes a Angiopoietina/genética , Glaucoma/genética , Glaucoma/prevenção & controle , Pressão Intraocular/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Bancos de Espécimes Biológicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Finlândia/epidemiologia , Frequência do Gene , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Genética Populacional , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Glaucoma/epidemiologia , Humanos , Mutação com Perda de Função/genética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
14.
Atherosclerosis ; 299: 56-63, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32113648

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) infusions represent a potential novel therapeutic approach for the prevention of coronary artery disease (CAD). Although circulating apoA-I concentrations inversely associate with risk of CAD, the evidence base of this representing a causal relationship is lacking. The aim was to assess the causal role of apoA-I using human genetics. METHODS: We identified a variant (rs12225230) in APOA1 locus that associated with circulating apoA-I concentrations (p < 5 × 10-8) in 20,370 Finnish participants, and meta-analyzed our data with a previous GWAS of apoA-I. We obtained genetic estimates of CAD from UK Biobank and CARDIoGRAMplusC4D (totaling 122,733 CAD cases) and conducted a two-sample Mendelian randomization analysis. We compared our genetic findings to observational associations of apoA-I with risk of CAD in 918 incident CAD cases among 11,535 individuals from population-based prospective cohorts. RESULTS: ApoA-I was associated with a lower risk of CAD in observational analyses (HR 0.81; 95%CI: 0.75, 0.88; per 1-SD higher apoA-I), with the association showing a dose-response relationship. Rs12225230 associated with apoA-I concentrations (per-C allele beta 0.076 SD; SE: 0.013; p = 1.5 × 10-9) but not with confounders. In Mendelian randomization analyses, apoA-I was not related to risk of CAD (OR 1.13; 95%CI: 0.98,1.30 per 1-SD higher apoA-I), which was different from the observational association. Similar findings were observed using an independent ABCA1 variant in sensitivity analysis. CONCLUSIONS: Genetic evidence fails to support a cardioprotective role for apoA-I. This is in line with the cumulative evidence showing that HDL-related phenotypes are unlikely to have a protective role in CAD.

16.
Sci Adv ; 6(8): eaax0301, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32128391

RESUMO

Effector functions of immunoglobulin G (IgG) are regulated by the composition of a glycan moiety, thus affecting activity of the immune system. Aberrant glycosylation of IgG has been observed in many diseases, but little is understood about the underlying mechanisms. We performed a genome-wide association study of IgG N-glycosylation (N = 8090) and, using a data-driven network approach, suggested how associated loci form a functional network. We confirmed in vitro that knockdown of IKZF1 decreases the expression of fucosyltransferase FUT8, resulting in increased levels of fucosylated glycans, and suggest that RUNX1 and RUNX3, together with SMARCB1, regulate expression of glycosyltransferase MGAT3. We also show that variants affecting the expression of genes involved in the regulation of glycoenzymes colocalize with variants affecting risk for inflammatory diseases. This study provides new evidence that variation in key transcription factors coupled with regulatory variation in glycogenes modifies IgG glycosylation and has influence on inflammatory diseases.


Assuntos
Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Imunoglobulina G/metabolismo , Inflamação/genética , Inflamação/metabolismo , Algoritmos , Alelos , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Loci Gênicos , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Glicosilação , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/imunologia , Desequilíbrio de Ligação , Modelos Genéticos , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Polissacarídeos/metabolismo
17.
Am J Hum Genet ; 106(3): 389-404, 2020 03 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32109421

RESUMO

Leukocyte telomere length (LTL) is a heritable biomarker of genomic aging. In this study, we perform a genome-wide meta-analysis of LTL by pooling densely genotyped and imputed association results across large-scale European-descent studies including up to 78,592 individuals. We identify 49 genomic regions at a false dicovery rate (FDR) < 0.05 threshold and prioritize genes at 31, with five highlighting nucleotide metabolism as an important regulator of LTL. We report six genome-wide significant loci in or near SENP7, MOB1B, CARMIL1, PRRC2A, TERF2, and RFWD3, and our results support recently identified PARP1, POT1, ATM, and MPHOSPH6 loci. Phenome-wide analyses in >350,000 UK Biobank participants suggest that genetically shorter telomere length increases the risk of hypothyroidism and decreases the risk of thyroid cancer, lymphoma, and a range of proliferative conditions. Our results replicate previously reported associations with increased risk of coronary artery disease and lower risk for multiple cancer types. Our findings substantially expand current knowledge on genes that regulate LTL and their impact on human health and disease.


Assuntos
Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Leucócitos/ultraestrutura , Nucleotídeos/metabolismo , Telômero , Humanos
18.
Atherosclerosis ; 294: 10-15, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31931463

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Population subgrouping has been suggested as means to improve coronary heart disease (CHD) risk assessment. We explored here how unsupervised data-driven metabolic subgrouping, based on comprehensive lipoprotein subclass data, would work in large-scale population cohorts. METHODS: We applied a self-organizing map (SOM) artificial intelligence methodology to define subgroups based on detailed lipoprotein profiles in a population-based cohort (n = 5789) and utilised the trained SOM in an independent cohort (n = 7607). We identified four SOM-based subgroups of individuals with distinct lipoprotein profiles and CHD risk and compared those to univariate subgrouping by apolipoprotein B quartiles. RESULTS: The SOM-based subgroup with highest concentrations for non-HDL measures had the highest, and the subgroup with lowest concentrations, the lowest risk for CHD. However, apolipoprotein B quartiles produced better resolution of risk than the SOM-based subgroups and also striking dose-response behaviour. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that the majority of lipoprotein-mediated CHD risk is explained by apolipoprotein B-containing lipoprotein particles. Therefore, even advanced multivariate subgrouping, with comprehensive data on lipoprotein metabolism, may not advance CHD risk assessment.

19.
Diabetes Care ; 43(3): 661-668, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31915204

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Plasma protein N-glycan profiling integrates information on enzymatic protein glycosylation, which is a highly controlled ubiquitous posttranslational modification. Here we investigate the ability of the plasma N-glycome to predict incidence of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases (CVDs; i.e., myocardial infarction and stroke). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Based on the prospective European Prospective Investigation of Cancer (EPIC)-Potsdam cohort (n = 27,548), we constructed case-cohorts including a random subsample of 2,500 participants and all physician-verified incident cases of type 2 diabetes (n = 820; median follow-up time 6.5 years) and CVD (n = 508; median follow-up time 8.2 years). Information on the relative abundance of 39 N-glycan groups in baseline plasma samples was generated by chromatographic profiling. We selected predictive N-glycans for type 2 diabetes and CVD separately, based on cross-validated machine learning, nonlinear model building, and construction of weighted prediction scores. This workflow for CVD was applied separately in men and women. RESULTS: The N-glycan-based type 2 diabetes score was strongly predictive for diabetes risk in an internal validation cohort (weighted C-index 0.83, 95% CI 0.78-0.88), and this finding was externally validated in the Finland Cardiovascular Risk Study (FINRISK) cohort. N-glycans were moderately predictive for CVD incidence (weighted C-indices 0.66, 95% CI 0.60-0.72, for men; 0.64, 95% CI 0.55-0.73, for women). Information on the selected N-glycans improved the accuracy of established and clinically applied risk prediction scores for type 2 diabetes and CVD. CONCLUSIONS: Selected N-glycans improve type 2 diabetes and CVD prediction beyond established risk markers. Plasma protein N-glycan profiling may thus be useful for risk stratification in the context of precisely targeted primary prevention of cardiometabolic diseases.

20.
Hepatology ; 71(3): 835-848, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31323122

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The effects of alcohol use in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease are unclear. We investigated the impact of alcohol use in fatty liver disease on incident liver, cardiovascular, and malignant disease, as well as death. APPROACH AND RESULTS: Our study comprised 8,345 persons with hepatic steatosis (fatty liver index >60) who participated in health-examination surveys (FINRISK 1992-2012 or Health 2000), with available data on baseline alcohol intake. Main exclusions were baseline clinical liver disease, viral hepatitis, ethanol intake >50 g/day, and current abstainers. Data were linked with national registers for hospital admissions, malignancies, and death regarding liver, cardiovascular, and malignant disease, as well as all-cause death. Adjustment were for multiple confounders. Alcohol consumption showed a dose-dependent risk increase for incident advanced liver disease and malignancies. Consuming 10-19 g/day of alcohol in general or 0-9 g/day as nonwine beverages doubled the risk for advanced liver disease compared to lifetime abstainers. In contrast, alcohol intake up to 49 g/day was associated with a 22%-40% reduction of incident cardiovascular disease (CVD). We observed a J-shaped association between alcohol intake and all-cause death with a maximal risk reduction of 21% (95% confidence interval, 5%-34%) at alcohol intake of 0-9 g/day compared to lifetime abstainers. However, these benefits on CVD and mortality were only observed in never smokers. Alcohol intake >30 g/day yielded increased risk estimates for mortality compared to lifetime abstainers. In a subpopulation with longitudinal data, alcohol intake remained stable over time in >80% of subjects. CONCLUSIONS: Even low alcohol intake in fatty liver disease is associated with increased risks for advanced liver disease and cancer. Low to moderate alcohol use is associated with reduced mortality and CVD risk but only among never smokers.

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