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1.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 2069, 2020 Feb 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32034202

RESUMO

Inhaled milrinone administered before cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) reduces the severity of pulmonary hypertension during cardiac surgery. However, milrinone pharmacokinetics has not been determined for this route of administration. The objective of this study was to investigate inhaled milrinone dosing in vitro and early plasma concentrations in vivo after jet and mesh nebulization. Twelve pulmonary hypertensive patients scheduled for cardiac surgery were randomized to receive milrinone (5 mg) by inhalation before CPB using a jet or mesh nebulizer. In vitro experiments were conducted to determine the inhaled dose delivered with either jet or mesh nebulization. In vivo experiments involved hemodynamic monitoring and blood samples drawn from patients for the first 15 min after the end of inhalation to determine early plasma concentrations. After mesh nebulization, the mean in vitro inhaled dose was almost 3-fold higher compared to jet nebulization (46.4% vs 16.6% for mesh and jet, respectively; mean difference, 29.8%; 95% CI, 14.1 to 45.5; P = 0.006). Consistent with this, the early plasma concentrations in vivo were also 2-3 fold higher after mesh nebulization (P = 0.002-0.005). After inhalation (jet or mesh nebulization), milrinone early plasma concentrations remained within the therapeutic range. No systemic hypotension was reported in our patients.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31866081

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To assess the effect of DuraGraft (Somahlution Inc, Jupiter, Fla), an intraoperative graft treatment, on saphenous vein grafts in patients undergoing isolated coronary artery bypass grafting. METHODS: Within patients, 2 saphenous vein grafts were randomized to DuraGraft or heparinized saline. Multidetector computed tomography angiography at 1, 3, and 12 months assessed change in wall thickness (primary end point at 3 months), lumen diameter, and maximum narrowing for the whole graft and the proximal 5-cm segment. Safety end points included graft occlusion, death, myocardial infarction, and repeat revascularization. RESULTS: At 3 months, no significant changes were observed between DuraGraft- and saline-treated grafts (125 each) for wall thickness, lumen diameter, and maximum narrowing. At 12 months, DuraGraft-treated grafts demonstrated smaller mean wall thickness, overall (0.12 ± 0.06 vs 0.20 ± 0.31 mm; P = .02) and in the proximal segment (0.11 ± 0.03 vs 0.21 ± 0.33 mm; P = .01). Changes in wall thickness were greater in the proximal segment of saline-treated grafts (0.09 ± 0.29 vs 0.00 ± 0.03 mm; P = .04). Increase in maximum graft narrowing was larger in the proximal segment in the saline-treated grafts (4.7% ± 12.7% vs 0.2% ± 3.8%; P = .01). Nine DuraGraft and 11 saline grafts had occluded or thrombosed. One myocardial infarction was associated with a saline graft occlusion. No deaths or revascularizations were observed. CONCLUSIONS: DuraGraft demonstrated a favorable effect on wall thickness at 12 months, particularly in the proximal segment. Longer-term follow-up in larger studies is needed to evaluate the effect on clinical outcomes.

3.
Can J Surg ; 62(6): 488-498, 2019 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31782647

RESUMO

Summary: The Canadian Association of Chairs of Surgical Research was created in 2014, with representation from every departmental surgical research committee across Canada, to establish Canadian surgical research as a beacon for health care innovation and to propose solutions for the daily challenges facing surgeon-researchers. Our key mandate has been to identify challenges for surgeons and scientists performing research to prevent further erosion of this vital area of activity that benefits patients, health care service providers and Canadian society. This article outlines the findings of a nationwide survey sent to all members of departments of surgery across Canada, seeking input on current threats and potential solutions. The results suggest that surgical research in Canada is experiencing a decline in funding and an increase in challenges affecting research productivity of academic surgeons, such as pressures to be clinically active, unpredictable surgical schedules, growing administrative demands, and increasing complexity of patient populations. Although surgeons are productive in their research endeavours, institutional changes and sharing of best practices are needed to ensure sustainable growth of research programs.

4.
J Cardiothorac Surg ; 14(1): 192, 2019 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31703606

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chest tubes are routinely used to evacuate shed mediastinal blood in the critical care setting in the early hours after heart surgery. Inadequate evacuation of shed mediastinal blood due to chest tube clogging may result in retained blood around the heart and lungs after cardiac surgery. The objective of this study was to compare if active chest tube clearance reduces the incidence of retained blood complications and associated hospital resource utilization after cardiac surgery. METHODS: Propensity matched analysis of 697 consecutive patients who underwent cardiac surgery at a single center. 302 patients served as a baseline control (Phase 0), 58 patients in a training and compliance verification period (Phase 1) and 337 were treated prospectively using active tube clearance (Phase 2). The need to drain retained blood, pleural effusions, postoperative atrial fibrillation, ICU resource utilization and hospital costs were assessed. RESULTS: Propensity matched patients in Phase 2 had a reduced need for drainage procedures for pleural effusions (22% vs. 8.1%, p < 0.001) and reduced postoperative atrial fibrillation (37 to 25%, P = 0.011). This corresponded with fewer hours in the ICU (43.5 [24-79] vs 30 [24-49], p = < 0.001), reduced median postoperative length of stay (6 [4-8] vs 5 [4-6.25], p < 0.001) median costs reduced by $1831.45 (- 3580.52;82.38, p = 0.04) and the mean costs reduced by an average of $2696 (- 6027.59;880.93, 0.116). CONCLUSIONS: This evidence supports the concept that efforts to actively maintain chest tube patency in early recovery is useful in improving outcomes and reducing resource utilization and costs after cardiac surgery. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinicaltrial.gov, NCT02145858, Registered: May 23, 2014.


Assuntos
Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos , Tubos Torácicos , Drenagem/métodos , Custos Hospitalares/estatística & dados numéricos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/prevenção & controle , Idoso , Drenagem/economia , Drenagem/instrumentação , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , New Hampshire , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/economia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Pontuação de Propensão , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
5.
J Cardiothorac Surg ; 14(1): 174, 2019 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31615560

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Vein graft disease (VGD) impairs graft patency rates and long-term outcomes after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). DuraGraft is a novel endothelial-damage inhibitor developed to efficiently protect the structural and functional integrity of the vascular endothelium. The DuraGraft registry will evaluate the long-term clinical outcomes of DuraGraft in patients undergoing CABG procedures. METHODS: This ongoing multicentre, prospective observational registry will enrol 3000 patients undergoing an isolated CABG procedure or a combined procedure (ie, CABG plus valve surgery or other surgery) with at least one saphenous vein grafts or one free arterial graft (ie, radial artery or mammary artery). If a patient is enrolled, all free grafts (SVG and arterial will be treated with DuraGraft. Data on baseline, clinical, and angiographic characteristics as well as procedural and clinical events will be collected. The primary outcome measure is the occurrence of a major adverse cardiac event (MACE; defined as death, non-fatal myocardial-infarction, or need for repeat-revascularisation). Secondary outcome measures are the occurrence of major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events (MACCE; defined as death, non-fatal myocardial-infarction, repeat-revascularisation, or stroke), patient-reported quality of life, and health-economic data. Patient assessments will be performed during hospitalisation, at 1-month, 1-year, and annually thereafter to 5 years post-CABG. Events will be adjudicated by an independent clinical events committee. This European, multi-institutional registry will provide detailed insights into clinical outcome associated with DuraGraft. DISCUSSION: This European, multi-institutional registry will provide detailed insights into clinical outcome associated with the use of DuraGraft. Beyond that, and given the comprehensive data sets comprising of patient, procedural, and graft parameters that are being collected, the registry will enable for multiple subgroup analyses targeting focus groups or specific clinical questions. These may include analysis of subpopulations such as patients with diabetes or multimorbid high-risk patients (patient level), evaluation of relevance of harvesting technique including endoscopic versus open conduit harvesting (procedural level), or particular graft-specific aspects (conduit level). TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02922088 . Registered October 3, 2016. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The regional ethics committees have approved the registry. Results will be submitted for publication.


Assuntos
Ponte de Artéria Coronária/métodos , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/cirurgia , Artéria Torácica Interna/transplante , Soluções para Preservação de Órgãos/uso terapêutico , Artéria Radial/transplante , Veia Safena/transplante , Grau de Desobstrução Vascular , Idoso , Endoscopia , Endotélio Vascular , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mortalidade , Infarto do Miocárdio/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Qualidade de Vida , Sistema de Registros , Reoperação/estatística & dados numéricos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Resultado do Tratamento
7.
Nat Rev Cardiol ; 2019 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31455868

RESUMO

Myocardial ischaemia resulting from obstructive coronary artery disease is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the developed world. Coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery is the gold-standard treatment in many patients with complex multivessel coronary artery disease or left main disease. Despite substantial improvements in the outcome of patients undergoing CABG surgery in the past decade, graft patency remains the 'Achilles' heel' of this procedure. Whereas the use of the left internal mammary artery as a conduit is associated with the highest 10-year patency rate (>90%), saphenous vein grafts - the most commonly used conduit in CABG surgery - fail in 40-50% of treated patients by 10 years after surgery. Vein graft disease (VGD) and failure result from complex pathophysiological processes that can lead to complete occlusion of the graft, affecting long-term clinical outcomes. Optimal harvesting techniques, intraoperative preservation strategies and intraoperative patency control have important roles in the prevention of VGD. In addition, several studies published in the past decade have reported similar mid-term patency rates between vein grafts and arterial grafts when veins are used as a composite graft based on the internal mammary artery. In this Review, we present the latest evidence on the utilization of saphenous vein grafts for CABG surgery and provide an overview of the current practices for the prevention of VGD and vein graft failure.

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31375378

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The Cardiothoracic Surgical Trials Network reported that left ventricular reverse remodeling at 2 years did not differ between patients with moderate ischemic mitral regurgitation randomized to coronary artery bypass grafting plus mitral valve repair (n = 150) or coronary artery bypass grafting alone (n = 151). To address health resource use implications, we compared costs and quality-adjusted survival. METHODS: We used individual patient data from the Cardiothoracic Surgical Trials Network trial on survival, hospitalizations, quality of life, and US hospitalization costs to estimate cumulative costs and quality-adjusted life years. A microsimulation model was developed to extrapolate to 10 years. Bootstrap and deterministic sensitivity analyses were performed to address uncertainty. RESULTS: In-hospital costs were $59,745 for coronary artery bypass grafting plus mitral valve repair versus $51,326 for coronary artery bypass grafting alone (difference $8419; 95% uncertainty interval, 2259-18,757). Two-year costs were $81,263 versus $67,341 (difference 13,922 [2370 to 28,888]), and quality-adjusted life years were 1.35 versus 1.30 (difference 0.05; -0.04 to 0.14), resulting in an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of $308,343/quality-adjusted life year for coronary artery bypass grafting plus mitral valve repair. At 10 years, its costs remained higher ($107,733 vs $88,583, difference 19,150 [-3866 to 56,826]) and quality-adjusted life years showed no difference (-0.92 to 0.87), with 5.08 versus 5.08. The likelihood that coronary artery bypass grafting plus mitral valve repair would be considered cost-effective at 10 years based on a cost-effectiveness threshold of $100K/quality-adjusted life year did not exceed 37%. Only when this procedure reduces the death rate by a relative 5% will the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio fall below $100K/quality-adjusted life year. CONCLUSIONS: The addition of mitral valve repair to coronary artery bypass grafting for patients with moderate ischemic mitral regurgitation is unlikely to be cost-effective. Only if late mortality benefits can be demonstrated will it meet commonly used cost-effectiveness criteria.

9.
JAMA Surg ; 2019 May 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31054241

RESUMO

Enhanced Recovery After Surgery (ERAS) evidence-based protocols for perioperative care can lead to improvements in clinical outcomes and cost savings. This article aims to present consensus recommendations for the optimal perioperative management of patients undergoing cardiac surgery. A review of meta-analyses, randomized clinical trials, large nonrandomized studies, and reviews was conducted for each protocol element. The quality of the evidence was graded and used to form consensus recommendations for each topic. Development of these recommendations was endorsed by the Enhanced Recovery After Surgery Society.

10.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 73(19): 2427-2435, 2019 May 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31097163

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The incidence of permanent pacemaker (PPM) implantation is higher following mitral valve surgery (MVS) with ablation for atrial fibrillation (AF) compared with MVS alone. OBJECTIVES: This study identified risk factors and outcomes associated with PPM implantation in a randomized trial that evaluated ablation for AF in patients who underwent MVS. METHODS: A total of 243 patients with AF and without previous PPM placement were randomly assigned to MVS alone (n = 117) or MVS + ablation (n = 126). Patients in the ablation group were further randomized to pulmonary vein isolation (PVI) (n = 62) or the biatrial maze procedure (n = 64). Using competing risk models, this study examined the association among PPM and baseline and operative risk factors, and the effect of PPM on time to discharge, readmissions, and 1-year mortality. RESULTS: Thirty-five patients received a PPM within the first year (14.4%), 29 (83%) underwent implantation during the index hospitalization. The frequency of PPM implantation was 7.7% in patients randomized to MVS alone, 16.1% in MVS + PVI, and 25% in MVS + biatrial maze. The indications for PPM were similar among patients who underwent MVS with and without ablation. Ablation, multivalve surgery, and New York Heart Association functional (NYHA) functional class III/IV were independent risk factors for PPM implantation. Length of stay post-surgery was longer in patients who received PPMs, but it was not significant when adjusted for randomization assignment (MVS vs. ablation) and age (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.81; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.61 to 1.08; p = 0.14). PPM implantation did not increase 30-day readmission rate (HR: 1.43; 95% CI: 0.50 to 4.05; p = 0.50). The need for PPM was associated with a higher risk of 1-year mortality (HR: 3.21; 95% CI: 1.01 to 10.17; p = 0.05) after adjustment for randomization assignment, age, and NYHA functional class. CONCLUSIONS: AF ablation, multivalve surgery, and NYHA functional class III/IV were associated with an increased risk for permanent pacing. PPM implantation following MVS was associated with a significant increase in 1-year mortality. (Surgical Ablation Versus No Surgical Ablation for Patients With Atrial Fibrillation Undergoing Mitral Valve Surgery; NCT00903370).

11.
JACC Cardiovasc Interv ; 12(8): 781-789, 2019 Apr 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31000014

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The authors sought to assess the distribution and prognostic significance of habitual physical activity (HPA) in older adults undergoing transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR). BACKGROUND: Low HPA is associated with mortality and disability in community-dwelling older adults. In the setting of TAVR, it is unclear whether low HPA is a risk factor for downstream morbidity or a byproduct of severe aortic stenosis that improves following its correction. METHODS: Older adults undergoing TAVR in the prospective multicentre FRAILTY-AVR (Frailty in Aortic Valve Replacement) study were interviewed to quantify their HPA in kilocalories/week using a validated questionnaire at baseline and follow-up. The primary endpoint was all-cause mortality at 12 months. RESULTS: The cohort consisted of 755 patients with a median age of 84.0 years (interquartile range [IQR]: 80.0 to 87.0 years). At baseline, median HPA was 1,116 kcal/week (IQR: 227 to 2,715 kcal/week) with 73% of patients performing <150 min/week of moderate or vigorous HPA. Sedentary patients were more likely to be older, female, frail, cognitively impaired, depressed, and have multimorbidity, although they had similar left ventricular function and aortic stenosis severity. In the logistic regression model adjusting for these covariates, HPA was found to be associated with mortality at 12 months (odds ratio: 0.84/100 kcal; 95% confidence interval: 0.73 to 0.98). HPA was associated with longer length of stay, discharge to health care facilities, and disability. At 12 months, median HPA among survivors was 933 kcal/week (IQR: 0 to 2,334 kcal/week) with pre-existing frailty being independently predictive of worsening HPA following TAVR. CONCLUSIONS: Sedentary patients have a higher risk of mortality and functional decline following TAVR.

13.
Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes ; 12(3): e005363, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30879326

RESUMO

Background Women account for a large proportion of patients treated with transcatheter aortic valve replacement, yet there remain conflicting reports about the effect of sex on outcomes. Moreover, the sex-specific prevalence and prognostic impact of frailty has not been systematically studied in the context of transcatheter aortic valve replacement. Methods and Results A preplanned analysis of the FRAILTY-AVR study (Frailty Aortic Valve Replacement) was performed to analyze the determinants of outcomes in older women and men undergoing transcatheter aortic valve replacement. FRAILTY-AVR was a multinational, prospective, observational cohort assembled at 14 institutions in North America and Europe from 2012 to 2017. Multivariable logistic regression models were stratified by sex and adjusted for covariates. Interaction between sex and each of these covariates was assessed. The primary outcome was 12-month mortality, and the secondary outcome was 1-month composite mortality or major morbidity. The cohort consisted of 340 women and 419 men. Women were older and had higher predicted risk of mortality. Women were more likely to have physical frailty traits, but not cognitive or psychosocial frailty traits, and global indices of frailty were similarly associated with adverse events regardless of sex. Women were more likely to require discharge to a rehabilitation facility, particularly those with physical frailty at baseline, although their functional status was similar to men at 12 months. The risk of 1-month mortality or major morbidity was greater in women, particularly those treated with larger prostheses. The risk of 12-month mortality was not greater in women, with the exception of those with pulmonary hypertension, in whom, there was a significant interaction for increased mortality. Conclusions The present study highlights sex-specific differences in older adults undergoing transcatheter aortic valve replacement and draws attention to the impact of physical frailty in women and their potential risk associated with oversized prostheses and pulmonary hypertension.

14.
Circulation ; 138(20): 2202-2211, 2018 11 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29976568

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Older adults undergoing aortic valve replacement (AVR) are at risk for malnutrition. The association between preprocedural nutritional status and midterm mortality has yet to be determined. METHODS: The FRAILTY-AVR (Frailty in Aortic Valve Replacement) prospective multicenter cohort study was conducted between 2012 and 2017 in 14 centers in 3 countries. Patients ≥70 years of age who underwent transcatheter or surgical AVR were eligible. The Mini Nutritional Assessment-Short Form was assessed by trained observers preprocedure, with scores ≤7 of 14 considered malnourished and 8 to 11 of 14 considered at risk for malnutrition. The Short Performance Physical Battery was simultaneously assessed to measure physical frailty, with scores ≤5 of 12 considered severely frail and 6 to 8 of 12 considered mildly frail. The primary outcome was 1-year all-cause mortality, and the secondary outcome was 30-day composite mortality or major morbidity. Multivariable regression models were used to adjust for potential confounders. RESULTS: There were 1158 patients (727 transcatheter AVR and 431 surgical AVR), with 41.5% females, a mean age of 81.3 years, a mean body mass index of 27.5 kg/m2, and a mean Society of Thoracic Surgeons-Predicted Risk of Mortality of 5.1%. Overall, 8.7% of patients were classified as malnourished and 32.8% were at risk for malnutrition. Mini Nutritional Assessment-Short Form scores were modestly correlated with Short Performance Physical Battery scores (Spearman R=0.31, P<0.001). There were 126 deaths in the transcatheter AVR group (19.1 per 100 patient-years) and 30 deaths in the surgical AVR group (7.5 per 100 patient-years). Malnourished patients had a nearly 3-fold higher crude risk of 1-year mortality compared with those with normal nutritional status (28% versus 10%, P<0.001). After adjustment for frailty, Society of Thoracic Surgeons-Predicted Risk of Mortality, and procedure type, preprocedural nutritional status was a significant predictor of 1-year mortality (odds ratio, 1.08 per Mini Nutritional Assessment-Short Form point; 95% CI, 1.01-1.16) and of the 30-day composite safety end point (odds ratio, 1.06 per Mini Nutritional Assessment-Short Form point; 95% CI, 1.001-1.12). CONCLUSIONS: Preprocedural nutritional status is associated with mortality in older adults undergoing AVR. Clinical trials are needed to determine whether pre- and postprocedural nutritional interventions can improve clinical outcomes in these vulnerable patients.


Assuntos
Estenose da Valva Aórtica/patologia , Desnutrição/patologia , Substituição da Valva Aórtica Transcateter , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/complicações , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/mortalidade , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Idoso Fragilizado , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Desnutrição/complicações , Estado Nutricional , Razão de Chances , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
15.
J Card Surg ; 33(5): 235-242, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29687489

RESUMO

Vein graft failure remains a major concern after coronary artery bypass graft operations, and is initiated by loss of endothelial cell integrity. Preservation of saphenous vein grafts in the optimal solution after meticulous harvesting can limit the endothelial damage. Despite both experimental and clinical results in favor of buffered solutions, normal saline is still the most widely used solution. This review examines the literature to identify the most optimal storage solutions currently available for vein graft preservation.


Assuntos
Ponte de Artéria Coronária , Células Endoteliais/fisiologia , Terapia Genética , Sobrevivência de Enxerto , Soluções para Preservação de Órgãos , Preservação de Órgãos/métodos , Veia Safena/transplante , Grau de Desobstrução Vascular , Tampões (Química) , Proliferação de Células , Rejeição de Enxerto/etiologia , Rejeição de Enxerto/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Cloreto de Sódio , Soluções
16.
Open Heart ; 5(1): e000780, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29682294

RESUMO

Introduction: Saphenous vein grafts (SVGs) remain the most often used conduits in coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). However, they are prone to vein graft disease (VGD) during follow-up, which may compromise clinical outcomes. Injury to the SVG endothelium during harvesting and storage promotes neointimal hyperplasia that can advance to atherosclerosis characterised by SVG failure. This trial investigates the potential benefit of DuraGraft, a novel, one-time intraoperative graft treatment developed to efficiently protect the structural and functional integrity of the vascular endothelium, on the development and progression of VGD in CABG patients. Methods and analysis: This ongoing prospective randomised, double-blinded multicentre trial (NCT02272582/NCT02774824) includes patients undergoing isolated CABG requiring at least two SVGs. It compares the impact of DuraGraft, a novel treatment against VGD versus the standard-of-care (SOC; heparinised saline) using a within-patient randomisation (with one SVG treated with DuraGraft and the other treated with SOC). Besides clinical assessments, patients undergo longitudinal 64-slice or better multidetector CT (MDCT) angiography of paired grafts (within each patient) at 4-6 weeks, 3 months and 12 months. Primary endpoints will be the magnitude of change in mean wall thickness and lumen diameter (stenosis) of paired grafts, at 3 and 12 months, respectively. Besides the evaluation of overall safety, longitudinal assessment of each graft (secondary endpoint) is performed in order to obtain insight into graft behaviour after CABG. Enrolment of 119 patients was successfully completed, and analysis of MDCT angiography follow-up is ongoing with the completed analysis becoming available by end of first quarter of 2018. Ethics and dissemination: The regional ethics committees have approved the trial. Results will be submitted for publication. Clinical trial identifier: NCT02272582 and NCT02774824.

17.
J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth ; 32(5): 2130-2138, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29525196

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Milrinone pulmonary administration is used currently for the treatment of pulmonary hypertension. Several methods are available: simple jet nebulization, vibrating mesh nebulization, intratracheal instillation, and intratracheal atomization. The aim of this study was to explore the concentration-effect relationship of milrinone for each of these methods. DESIGN: Observational open-label pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamics cohort study. SETTING: Single-center, hospital animal laboratory. PARTICIPANTS: Twelve swine. INTERVENTIONS: After hypercapnia pulmonary hypertension, swine were administered equivalent inhaled milrinone doses of 15 or 50 µg/kg through simple jet nebulization, vibrating mesh nebulization, intratracheal instillation, and intratracheal atomization. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Blood and urine samples were taken up to 360 minutes postadministration. The ratio of mean systemic arterial pressure to mean pulmonary arterial pressure was monitored continuously. Right heart echographies were taken before and after hypercapnia and after drug administration. Mean elimination half-lives were similar for the 4 administrations. Mean percent changes in the ratio were of 37 (60%), 18 (31%), 17 (36%), and 20 (20%), for simple jet nebulization, vibrating mesh nebulization, intratracheal instillation, and intratracheal atomization, respectively. Mean maximum plasma concentrations for intratracheal administrations were reached at 8 and 45 min for atomization and instillation, respectively. Significant increases in right atrial diameter and right ventricular end-diastolic area were witnessed during pulmonary hypertension as well as a return to baseline values after milrinone administration. CONCLUSIONS: The intratracheal methods, particularly intratracheal atomization, showed less hemodynamic effect than nebulizations and, in the case of intratracheal instillation, unpredictable drug exposure. Nebulization methods on the other hand, especially simple jet nebulization, suggest better efficacy and sensitivity but are less fit for emergency situations.


Assuntos
Hipercapnia/tratamento farmacológico , Hipertensão Pulmonar/tratamento farmacológico , Milrinona/farmacocinética , Pressão Propulsora Pulmonar/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Feminino , Hipercapnia/etiologia , Hipercapnia/metabolismo , Hipertensão Pulmonar/metabolismo , Hipertensão Pulmonar/fisiopatologia , Instilação de Medicamentos , Masculino , Milrinona/administração & dosagem , Nebulizadores e Vaporizadores , Suínos , Traqueia
18.
Interact Cardiovasc Thorac Surg ; 27(2): 310-311, 2018 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29546374

RESUMO

This case report presents a manual decompression technique used to decompress a postoperative tamponade compressing right chambers. It consists of lateral movements following subxiphoid finger insertion. This is an accessible procedure to rapidly stabilize the haemodynamics of the patient in the intensive care unit to buy time before operating room (OR) revision.


Assuntos
Tamponamento Cardíaco/cirurgia , Ponte de Artéria Coronária/efeitos adversos , Descompressão Cirúrgica/métodos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/cirurgia , Esternotomia/métodos , Tamponamento Cardíaco/diagnóstico , Tamponamento Cardíaco/etiologia , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/cirurgia , Ecocardiografia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/diagnóstico , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Reoperação , Processo Xifoide
19.
JAMA Cardiol ; 3(3): 191-197, 2018 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29344620

RESUMO

Importance: Depression is increasingly recognized as a risk factor for adverse outcomes in cardiovascular disease. However, little is known about depression in older adults undergoing transcatheter (TAVR) or surgical (SAVR) aortic valve replacement. Objective: To determine the prevalence of depression and its association with all-cause mortality in older adults undergoing TAVR or SAVR. Design, Setting, and Participants: This preplanned analysis of the Frailty Aortic Valve Replacement (FRAILTY-AVR) prospective cohort study included 14 centers in 3 countries from November 15, 2011, through April 7, 2016. Individuals 70 years or older who underwent TAVR or SAVR were enrolled. Depressive symptoms were evaluated using the Geriatric Depression Scale Short Form at baseline and follow-up. Main Outcomes and Measures: All-cause mortality at 1 and 12 months after TAVR or SAVR. Logistic regression was used to determine the association of depression with mortality after adjusting for confounders such as frailty and cognitive impairment. Results: Among 1035 older adults (427 men [41.3%] and 608 women [58.7%]) with a mean (SD) age of 81.4 (6.1) years, 326 (31.5%) had a positive result of screening for depression, whereas only 89 (8.6%) had depression documented in their clinical record. After adjusting for clinical and geriatric confounders, baseline depression was found to be associated with mortality at 1 month (odds ratio [OR], 2.20; 95% CI, 1.18-4.10) and at 12 months (OR, 1.532; 95% CI, 1.03-2.24). Persistent depression, defined as baseline depression that was still present 6 months after the procedure, was associated with a 3-fold increase in mortality at 12 months (OR, 2.98; 95% CI, 1.08-8.20). Conclusions and Relevance: One in 3 older adults undergoing TAVR or SAVR had depressive symptoms at baseline and a higher risk of short-term and midterm mortality. Patients with persistent depressive symptoms at follow-up had the highest risk of mortality.


Assuntos
Estenose da Valva Aórtica/psicologia , Depressão/etiologia , Implante de Prótese de Valva Cardíaca/psicologia , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/mortalidade , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Depressão/mortalidade , Feminino , Implante de Prótese de Valva Cardíaca/mortalidade , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Substituição da Valva Aórtica Transcateter/mortalidade , Substituição da Valva Aórtica Transcateter/psicologia
20.
Semin Thorac Cardiovasc Surg ; 30(1): 16-23, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29031706

RESUMO

Rapid-deployment valves could potentially reduce cross-clamping time and cardiopulmonary bypass time in complex combined procedures and facilitate minimally invasive surgery. This propensity-matched study compared clinical and echographic outcomes between patients undergoing rapid-deployment aortic valve replacement (RDAVR) compared with stented biological aortic valve replacement (SAVR), with or without concomitant procedures. Between 2012 and 2015, 61 consecutive patients (age 70 ± 7 years, European System for Cardiac Operative Risk Evaluation [EuroSCORE] II 2.1%) underwent aortic valve replacement with Intuity prosthesis (Edwards, Irvine, CA) at the Montreal Heart Institute. This group was compared to 1496 consecutive patients (age 74 ± 8 years, logistic EuroSCORE II 2.8%) who underwent SAVR in the same period. After propensity score matching (1:3), 59 patients in the RDAVR group were matched to 177 patients in the SAVR group. Preoperative characteristics and risk scores were similar in matched groups. Cardiopulmonary bypass, cross-clamp, and total surgical times were lower in the RDAVR group compared with the SAVR group (P < 0.001). Within 30 days, 1 patient died in the SAVR group and none died in the RDAVR group (P = 0.31). The need for pacemaker implantation was higher in the RDAVR group, although the difference was not significant (12% vs 5%, P = 0.13). RDAVR patients less frequently required transfusions (P = 0.025) and had a shorter intubation time (P = 0.002). RDAVR facilitates minimally invasive aortic valve replacement and is associated with shorter bypass and cross-clamp times. Moreover, RDAVR compares favorably with SAVR in terms of mortality and outcome variables.


Assuntos
Estenose da Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Bioprótese , Implante de Prótese de Valva Cardíaca/instrumentação , Próteses Valvulares Cardíacas , Idoso , Valva Aórtica/fisiopatologia , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/diagnóstico , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/mortalidade , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/fisiopatologia , Ponte Cardiopulmonar , Feminino , Implante de Prótese de Valva Cardíaca/efeitos adversos , Implante de Prótese de Valva Cardíaca/mortalidade , Hemodinâmica , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Duração da Cirurgia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/mortalidade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/terapia , Pontuação de Propensão , Desenho de Prótese , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica , Fatores de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
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