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1.
Food Sci Nutr ; 6(6): 1410-1421, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30258583

RESUMO

The French Observatory of Food Quality (Oqali) aims to collect all nutrition data provided on processed food labels, at the level of brand products, in order to monitor reformulation and nutrition labeling changes over time. This work aimed to make a cross-sectional comparison of the nutrition content of processed foods on the French market, according to their type of brand (national brands, retailer brands, entry-level retailer brands, hard discount, and specialized retailer brands), and to study the potential impact of the differences observed on simulated nutrient intakes. A total of 16,453 branded processed foodstuffs were considered, collected between 2008 and 2011 and divided into 24 food sectors. Labeled nutrition values were compared between types of brands by family of products. Nutrition values were matched with consumption data from the French Individual and National Study on Food Consumption (INCA 2) (Afssa, 2006-2007) to determine whether the nutrition differences underlined were magnified or diminished when crossing them with consumption data. Only isolated differences in nutrient contents between types of brands could be highlighted. In the case of a theoretical and exclusive consumption of processed foodstuffs from one specific type of brand, protein intakes from first-price products (entry-level retailer brands and hard discount) appeared to be significantly lower than the ones from national or retailer brand products. The absence of systematic differences in the nutrition contents of processed foods from various types of brands is an encouraging result when considering social inequalities and nutrition. As protein intakes in France are currently above recommended levels (Afssa, 2007), consumption of first-price foodstuffs does not imply any risk of deficiency for French consumers.

2.
Food Sci Nutr ; 5(4): 881-888, 2017 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28748076

RESUMO

The French Observatory of Food Quality (Oqali) aims at collecting all nutritional data provided on labels of processed foods (nutritional information and composition), at branded products level, in order to follow nutritional labeling changes over time. This study carries out an overview of allergens labeling frequencies by distinguishing allergens used in recipes from those listed on precautionary statements, for the fourteen allergen categories for which labeling is mandatory according to European legislation. 17,309 products were collected, between 2008 and 2012, from 26 food categories. Products were classified per family and type of brand (national brands, retailer brands, entry-level retailer brands, hard discount, and specialized retailer brands). Allergenic ingredients were identified from ingredients lists and precautionary statements. 73% of the 17,309 products studied contained at least one allergen in their ingredients list and 39% had a precautionary statement for one or more allergens. Milk (53%), gluten (41%), and egg (22%) were the most commonly used allergens in ingredients lists. For precautionary statement, nuts (20%), egg (14%), peanut (13%), soybean (12%), and milk (11%) were the most common allergens listed. Precautionary statement was most frequently found among first-price products (hard discount and entry-level retailer brands). National brands seemed to use it less frequently. For all these results, differences depended both on food categories and allergen categories. This study will enable to follow allergens labeling and their use as ingredients over time, particularly by assessing an hypothetical increase in allergens presence in processed food.

3.
Pathogens ; 5(1)2016 Feb 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26861403

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to investigate the epidemiological situation of the caprine herpesvirus 1 (CpHV-1) infection in nine districts in mainland France, mostly in the south, near Italy or Spain, where high seroprevalence has been observed. Two more central areas were also included in the study. The serosurvey was carried out in 9564 goats (275 herds) using bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1) glycoprotein B and E ELISAs. To confirm the presence of specific CpHV-1 antibodies, some of the samples were tested in neutralization assay. Results demonstrate, for the first time, CpHV-1 infection in goat herds on the French mainland. The analysis found cases of alphaherpesviruses infection in each district studied, with different levels of seroprevalence observed within each district (ranging from 0.2% to 31.56% at an individual level and from 9% to 46.2% for herd seroprevalence). Moreover, in the Alpes-Maritimes district, the seroprevalence seemed to be higher in older goats (79.45% of animals 6 years old or more) than in younger animals (40.99% of one-year-olds). This result suggests frequent virus re-excretion and circulation in herds. Results analysis also shows that the seroprevalence was higher when the herd size increased. In addition, the first French CpHV-1 strain was isolated from nasal swabs taken on an infected goat. The data reported herein demonstrate that CpHV-1 circulates in mainland France, which should henceforth be taken into consideration in cases of unexplained abortion in goats.

4.
PLoS Pathog ; 9(8): e1003571, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24009504

RESUMO

The digenetic trematode Schistosoma mansoni is a human parasite that uses the mollusc Biomphalaria glabrata as intermediate host. Specific S. mansoni strains can infect efficiently only certain B. glabrata strains (compatible strain) while others are incompatible. Strain-specific differences in transcription of a conserved family of polymorphic mucins (SmPoMucs) in S. mansoni are the principle determinants for this compatibility. In the present study, we investigated the bases of the control of SmPoMuc expression that evolved to evade B. glabrata diversified antigen recognition molecules. We compared the DNA sequences and chromatin structure of SmPoMuc promoters of two S. mansoni strains that are either compatible (C) or incompatible (IC) with a reference snail host. We reveal that although sequence differences are observed between active promoter regions of SmPoMuc genes, the sequences of the promoters are not diverse and are conserved between IC and C strains, suggesting that genetics alone cannot explain the evolution of compatibility polymorphism. In contrast, promoters carry epigenetic marks that are significantly different between the C and IC strains. Moreover, we show that modifications of the structure of the chromatin of the parasite modify transcription of SmPoMuc in the IC strain compared to the C strain and correlate with the presence of additional combinations of SmPoMuc transcripts only observed in the IC phenotype. Our results indicate that transcription polymorphism of a gene family that is responsible for an important adaptive trait of the parasite is epigenetically encoded. These strain-specific epigenetic marks are heritable, but can change while the underlying genetic information remains stable. This suggests that epigenetic changes may be important for the early steps in the adaptation of pathogens to new hosts, and might be an initial step in adaptive evolution in general.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica/fisiologia , Epigênese Genética/fisiologia , Mucinas/biossíntese , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas/fisiologia , Schistosoma mansoni/metabolismo , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Biomphalaria/parasitologia , Células HeLa , Humanos , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Mucinas/genética , Schistosoma mansoni/genética
5.
PLoS One ; 8(1): e54911, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23372789

RESUMO

Small ruminant post-mortem testing programs were initially designed for monitoring the prevalence of prion disease. They are now considered as a potential alternative to genetic selection for eradicating/controlling classical scrapie at population level. If such policy should be implemented, its success would be crucially dependent on the efficiency of the surveillance system used to identify infected flocks. In this study, we first determined the performance of post-mortem classical scrapie detection in eight naturally affected goat herds (total n = 1961 animals) according to the age at culling. These results provided us with necessary parameters to estimate, through a Monte Carlo simulation model, the performance of scrapie detection in a commercial population. According to this model, whatever the number of tests performed, post mortem surveillance will have limited success in identifying infected herds. These data support the contention that scrapie eradication programs relying solely on post mortem testing in goats will probably fail. Considering the epidemiological and pathological similarities of scrapie in sheep and goats, the efficiency of scrapie surveillance in both species is likely to be similar.


Assuntos
Doenças das Cabras/epidemiologia , Scrapie/epidemiologia , Animais , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Feminino , Doenças das Cabras/diagnóstico , Cabras , Imuno-Histoquímica , Vigilância da População , Prevalência , Príons , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Scrapie/diagnóstico , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
6.
Evolution ; 66(8): 2475-83, 2012 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22834746

RESUMO

A decade ahead of their time, von Schantz et al. united sexual selection and free radical biology by identifying causal links between deep-rooted physiological processes that dictate resistance to toxic waste from oxidative metabolism (reactive oxygen species, ROS), and phenotypic traits, such as ornaments. Ten years later, these ideas have still only been tested with indirect estimates of free radical levels (oxidative stress) subsequent to the action of innate and dietary antioxidants. Here, we measure net superoxide (a selection pressure for antioxidant production) and experimentally manipulate superoxide antioxidation using a synthetic mimetic of superoxide dismutase (SOD), Eukarion 134 (EUK). We then measure the toxic effect of superoxide in terms of DNA erosion and concomitant loss of male breeding coloration in the lizard, Ctenophorus pictus. Control males suffered more DNA damage than EUK males. Spectroradiometry showed that male coloration is lost in relation to superoxide and covaries with DNA erosion; in control males, these variables explained loss of color, whereas in EUK males, the fading of coloration was unaffected by superoxide and unrelated to DNA damage. Thus, EUK's powerful antioxidation removes the erosion effect of superoxide on coloration and experimentally verifies the prediction that colors reflect innate capacity for antioxidation.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento , Dano ao DNA , Lagartos/anatomia & histologia , Lagartos/genética , 8-Hidroxi-2'-Desoxiguanosina , Animais , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Catalase/metabolismo , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Cor , Desoxiguanosina/análogos & derivados , Desoxiguanosina/química , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Lagartos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Lagartos/metabolismo , Masculino , New South Wales , Compostos Organometálicos/farmacologia , Distribuição Aleatória , Reprodução , Salicilatos/farmacologia , Caracteres Sexuais , Análise Espectral , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Superóxidos/metabolismo
7.
Oecologia ; 170(4): 917-24, 2012 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22700064

RESUMO

When groups of individuals differ in activities that may influence the production of reactive molecules, such as superoxide, we expect selection to result in congruent upregulation of antioxidant production in the group(s) most at risk of suffering concomitant erosion of essential tissue and biomolecules, such as DNA. We investigate this in a (near) annual lizard species, the Australian painted dragon (Ctenophorus pictus), in which males and females have fundamentally different lifestyles, with males being overtly conspicuous and aggressive, whereas females are placid and camouflaged. When kept in identical conditions to females in captivity, males had higher levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD) through the activity season, which is consistent with selection for a higher capacity of superoxide antioxidation and a lower level of DNA damage than females. Males, however, lacked the clear negative, linear relationship between SOD and DNA erosion observed in females, suggesting that female upregulation of SOD results in a more predictable antioxidation and a more immediate target for selection. Lastly, we analysed aspects of female reproduction from a DNA erosion perspective. Females closer to ovulation, hence with less remaining, circulating vitellogenin, had higher superoxide levels. Furthermore, a multiple regression analysis showed that females that produced more clutches over time suffered more DNA erosion, whereas females with higher SOD levels suffered less DNA erosion.


Assuntos
Dano ao DNA , Lagartos/metabolismo , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Feminino , Lagartos/genética , Masculino , Ovulação , Estações do Ano , Seleção Genética , Fatores Sexuais , Regulação para Cima
8.
Genome Biol ; 13(2): R14, 2012 Feb 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22377319

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the leuphotrochozoan parasitic platyhelminth Schistosoma mansoni, male individuals are homogametic (ZZ) whereas females are heterogametic (ZW). To elucidate the mechanisms that led to the emergence of sex chromosomes, we compared the genomic sequence and the chromatin structure of male and female individuals. As for many eukaryotes, the lower estimate for the repeat content is 40%, with an unknown proportion of domesticated repeats. We used massive sequencing to de novo assemble all repeats, and identify unambiguously Z-specific, W-specific and pseudoautosomal regions of the S. mansoni sex chromosomes. RESULTS: We show that 70 to 90% of S. mansoni W and Z are pseudoautosomal. No female-specific gene could be identified. Instead, the W-specific region is composed almost entirely of 36 satellite repeat families, of which 33 were previously unknown. Transcription and chromatin status of female-specific repeats are stage-specific: for those repeats that are transcribed, transcription is restricted to the larval stages lacking sexual dimorphism. In contrast, in the sexually dimorphic adult stage of the life cycle, no transcription occurs. In addition, the euchromatic character of histone modifications around the W-specific repeats decreases during the life cycle. Recombination repression occurs in this region even if homologous sequences are present on both the Z and W chromosomes. CONCLUSION: Our study provides for the first time evidence for the hypothesis that, at least in organisms with a ZW type of sex chromosomes, repeat-induced chromatin structure changes could indeed be the initial event in sex chromosome emergence.


Assuntos
Cromatina , DNA Satélite/genética , Schistosoma mansoni/genética , Cromossomos Sexuais/genética , Animais , Cromatina/química , Cromatina/genética , Evolução Molecular , Feminino , Larva/genética , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Masculino , Recombinação Genética , Schistosoma mansoni/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Processos de Determinação Sexual/genética , Transcrição Genética
9.
BMC Evol Biol ; 11: 33, 2011 Jan 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21281515

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hybridization or divergence between sympatric sister species provides a natural laboratory to study speciation processes. The shared polymorphism in sister species may either be ancestral or derive from hybridization, and the accuracy of analytic methods used thus far to derive convincing evidence for the occurrence of present day hybridization is largely debated. RESULTS: Here we propose the application of network analysis to test for the occurrence of present day hybridization between the two species of brown algae Fucus spiralis and F. vesiculosus. Individual-centered networks were analyzed on the basis of microsatellite genotypes from North Africa to the Pacific American coast, through the North Atlantic. Two genetic distances integrating different time steps were used, the Rozenfeld (RD; based on alleles divergence) and the Shared Allele (SAD; based on alleles identity) distances. A diagnostic level of genotype divergence and clustering of individuals from each species was obtained through RD while screening for exchanges through putative hybridization was facilitated using SAD. Intermediate individuals linking both clusters on the RD network were those sampled at the limits of the sympatric zone in Northwest Iberia. CONCLUSION: These results suggesting rare hybridization were confirmed by simulation of hybrids and F2 with directed backcrosses. Comparison with the Bayesian method STRUCTURE confirmed the usefulness of both approaches and emphasized the reliability of network analysis to unravel and study hybridization.


Assuntos
Fucus/genética , Hibridização Genética , Polimorfismo Genético , Evolução Molecular , Genótipo , Repetições de Microssatélites
10.
Clin Vaccine Immunol ; 18(3): 513-7, 2011 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21228143

RESUMO

The effects of the recent vaccinations against bluetongue virus serotype 1 (BTV-1) and BTV-8 in Europe on the reliability of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) currently used for diagnosis of small-ruminant lentivirus (SRLV) infection were examined. Primary vaccination against BTV-8 in goats induced an increase in reactivity that did not exceed 3 months in a whole-virus indirect ELISA and a competitive ELISA based on the gp135 glycoprotein. Subsequent BTV-1/8 vaccination extended the time scale of false-positive reactivity for up to 6 months. These results are of relevance for SRLV-monitoring programs.


Assuntos
Vírus Bluetongue/imunologia , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/métodos , Doenças das Cabras/diagnóstico , Doenças das Cabras/virologia , Infecções por Lentivirus/veterinária , Lentivirus/isolamento & purificação , Vacinas Virais/imunologia , Animais , Reações Falso-Positivas , Cabras , Infecções por Lentivirus/diagnóstico , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Fatores de Tempo
11.
Retrovirology ; 5: 22, 2008 Feb 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18312636

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lentiviral genomes encode multiple structural and regulatory proteins. Expression of the full complement of viral proteins is accomplished in part by alternative splicing of the genomic RNA. Caprine arthritis encephalitis virus (CAEV) and maedi-visna virus (MVV) are two highly related small-ruminant lentiviruses (SRLVs) that infect goats and sheep. Their genome seems to be less complex than those of primate lentiviruses since SRLVs encode only three auxiliary proteins, namely, Tat, Rev, and Vif, in addition to the products of gag, pol, and env genes common to all retroviruses. Here, we investigated the central part of the SRLV genome to identify new splice elements and their relevance in viral mRNA and protein expression. RESULTS: We demonstrated the existence of a new 5' splice (SD) site located within the central part of CAEV genome, 17 nucleotides downstream from the SD site used for the rev mRNA synthesis, and perfectly conserved among SRLV strains. This new SD site was found to be functional in both transfected and infected cells, leading to the production of a transcript containing an open reading frame generated by the splice junction with the 3' splice site used for the rev mRNA synthesis. This open reading frame encodes two major protein isoforms of 18- and 17-kDa, named Rtm, in which the N-terminal domain shared by the Env precursor and Rev proteins is fused to the entire cytoplasmic tail of the transmembrane glycoprotein. Immunoprecipitations using monospecific antibodies provided evidence for the expression of the Rtm isoforms in infected cells. The Rtm protein interacts specifically with the cytoplasmic domain of the transmembrane glycoprotein in vitro, and its expression impairs the fusion activity of the Env protein. CONCLUSION: The characterization of a novel CAEV protein, named Rtm, which is produced by an additional multiply-spliced mRNA, indicated that the splicing pattern of CAEV genome is more complex than previously reported, generating greater protein diversity. The high conservation of the SD site used for the rtm mRNA synthesis among CAEV and MVV strains strongly suggests that the Rtm protein plays a role in SRLV propagation in vivo, likely by competing with Env protein functions.


Assuntos
Vírus da Artrite-Encefalite Caprina/fisiologia , Genoma Viral , Proteínas Virais/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Vírus da Artrite-Encefalite Caprina/genética , Sequência de Bases , Células Cultivadas , Clonagem Molecular , Cabras , Humanos , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Peso Molecular , Fases de Leitura Aberta/genética , Isoformas de Proteínas/química , Isoformas de Proteínas/genética , Isoformas de Proteínas/metabolismo , Sítios de Splice de RNA/genética , Proteínas do Envelope Viral/fisiologia , Proteínas Virais/química , Proteínas Virais/metabolismo
12.
Mol Ecol ; 13(8): 2183-95, 2004 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15245393

RESUMO

New Zealand's 14 deep-water fiords possess persistent salinity stratification and mean estuarine circulation that may serve to isolate populations of marine organisms that have a dispersal larval phase. In order to investigate this idea, we analysed the population structure of the sea star Coscinasterias muricata using a mitochondrial DNA marker. Genetic differentiation among populations of C. muricata was analysed using 366 base pairs of mtDNA D-loop. We compared populations from the fiords with several others sampled from around New Zealand. At a macro-geographical scale (> 1000 km), restricted gene flow between the North and South Islands was observed. At a meso-geographical scale (10-200 km), significant population structure was found among fiords and between fiords and open coast. The pattern of population genetic structure among the fiords suggests a secondary contact between a northern population and a southern one, separated by a contact or mixing zone. These populations may have diverged by the effects of random genetic drift and population isolation as a consequence of the influence of estuarine circulation on dispersal. In northern Fiordland, genetic structure approximated an isolation by distance model. However, the pattern in genetic differences suggests that distance alone cannot explain the most divergent populations and that fiord hydrography may increase the effect of genetic drift within populations in the fiords. Finally, our study indicates that populations within the fiords underwent recent rapid expansion, followed most probably by genetic drift due to a lack of gene flow among the fiords.


Assuntos
Variação Genética , Genética Populacional , Estrelas-do-Mar/genética , Movimentos da Água , Animais , Autorradiografia , Sequência de Bases , Primers do DNA , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Água Doce , Geografia , Haplótipos/genética , Modelos Lineares , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Nova Zelândia , Polimorfismo Conformacional de Fita Simples , Dinâmica Populacional , Água do Mar , Análise de Sequência de DNA
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