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1.
Eur J Sport Sci ; 17(1): 30-41, 2017 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27557397

RESUMO

Interdisciplinarity is often presented as a significant element of sport science. We present here the results of an investigation conducted in four European Sport Science Research Centres applying interdisciplinarity. Four main dimensions, that we have called "forms", have been investigated. The "scientific", "organisational", "academic" and "societal" forms cover a wide range of activities run by these Centres. We have compared their situations using indicators. Globally they present quite similar combinations of forms, with dominant roles in the construction of interdisciplinarity played by the organisational and societal forms. The scientific form is never quite supported by an epistemological setting and the academic form, mostly characterised by the position of the university, plays an influential role when it is hostile to that kind of research. Following Klein classification, all of them remain at a multidisciplinary stage, one of them exploring interdisciplinary tracks in some research projects. The development of a common culture and a curiosity regarding disciplines other than its own is a key factor for a sustainable situation, as is the capacity to secure long-term financial resources, often linked to a high academic recognition for the director(s).


Assuntos
Pesquisa Biomédica/organização & administração , Ciência/organização & administração , Medicina Esportiva/organização & administração , Esportes , Europa (Continente) , Humanos , Universidades
3.
Appl Environ Microbiol ; 75(6): 1723-33, 2009 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19168650

RESUMO

The survival of bacteria exposed to toxic compounds is a multifactorial phenomenon, involving well-known molecular mechanisms of resistance but also less-well-understood mechanisms of tolerance that need to be clarified. In particular, the contribution of biofilm formation to survival in the presence of toxic compounds, such as nickel, was investigated in this study. We found that a subinhibitory concentration of nickel leads Escherichia coli bacteria to change their lifestyle, developing biofilm structures rather than growing as free-floating cells. Interestingly, whereas nickel and magnesium both alter the global cell surface charge, only nickel promotes biofilm formation in our system. Genetic evidence indicates that biofilm formation induced by nickel is mediated by the transcriptional induction of the adhesive curli-encoding genes. Biofilm formation induced by nickel does not rely on efflux mechanisms using the RcnA pump, as these require a higher concentration of nickel to be activated. Our results demonstrate that the nickel-induced biofilm formation in E. coli is an adaptational process, occurring through a transcriptional effect on genes coding for adherence structures. The biofilm lifestyle is obviously a selective advantage in the presence of nickel, but the means by which it improves bacterial survival needs to be investigated.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/biossíntese , Biofilmes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Escherichia coli K12/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/biossíntese , Regulação Bacteriana da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Níquel/toxicidade , Adaptação Fisiológica , Escherichia coli K12/fisiologia , Magnésio/toxicidade
4.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 63(4): 297-304, 2009 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18824323

RESUMO

It has been reported in a few studies that alexithymia is associated with impaired immune response but results are still contradictory. The present study investigates whether alexithymia is associated with lower cell-mediated (Th-1) immune response. Fifty-one healthy 18-27-year-old women were selected from healthy subjects on the basis of high or low cut-off scores on the 20-item Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20). They were evaluated using standardized psychiatric rating scales notably the Hospital Anxiety Depressive Scale (HAD) and the Mini Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI). None of the subjects were suffering from psychiatric disorders. Twenty-seven were classified as alexithymics and 24 as non-alexithymics according to the TAS-20. Blood was drawn for lymphocyte subset counts (CD4, CD8), in vitro production of interleukin 1 (IL-1beta), IL-2, IL-4, and IL-10 by phytohaemagglutinin stimulated peripheral lymphocytes, and cortisol. Women with alexithymia exhibited decreased interleukin 1beta, IL-2 and IL-4 production with reduced ratios of Th1/Th2 (IL-2/IL-10) and of CD4/CD8, as well as reduced CD4 percentages. IL-2 and IL-4 production remained significantly diminished in the alexithymic group, even after adjusting for between-group differences in anxiety and depression levels on the HAD. This study further demonstrates that alexithymic women have altered immune function, with a predominance of depressed cell-mediated immunity and a skewed Th1/Th2 ratio towards Th2 response.


Assuntos
Sintomas Afetivos/imunologia , Hidrocortisona/sangue , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/imunologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Sintomas Afetivos/sangue , Ansiedade/sangue , Ansiedade/imunologia , Relação CD4-CD8 , Células Cultivadas/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Cultivadas/metabolismo , Estudos Transversais , Citocinas/biossíntese , Depressão/sangue , Depressão/imunologia , Emoções Manifestas , Feminino , Humanos , Imunidade Celular , Interleucinas/sangue , Ativação Linfocitária/efeitos dos fármacos , Contagem de Linfócitos , Fito-Hemaglutininas/farmacologia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Fumar/sangue , Fumar/imunologia , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Adulto Jovem
5.
Sante Publique ; 20(3): 213-23, 2008.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18700613

RESUMO

A thorough questionnaire-based survey of French diabetes networks depicts an accurate description of the services they offer, in particular concerning physical activity. Often considered as less important than medicinal monitoring and dietetics, physical activity is at the core of a new professional dynamic. Practical sessions of adapted physical activity are presently offered in half the networks, as either one-time awareness-raising sessions or a complete series of sessions. Sports medicine educators seem to constitute an emerging professional group within a framework which aims to complement information provided to patients by skills-building through group sessions. Two distinct perspectives emerge as being linked to intervention methods: the first one aims to educate about physical activity, while the second aims to educate through physical activity.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus/terapia , Atividade Motora , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto , Redes Comunitárias , França , Humanos , Inquéritos e Questionários
6.
Health Soc Care Community ; 16(5): 511-20, 2008 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18355245

RESUMO

Patients' associations are an integral but often overlooked component of the French healthcare system dominated by the medical profession. Very few patients' associations exist to enable patients to self-manage into physical activity programmes. The aim of this qualitative study was to examine perceived motives for regular physical activity in male and female individuals, with type 2 diabetes involved in one French patients' association, called 'Move for Health'. Twenty-three adults (14 women and 9 men) with type 2 diabetes ranging in age from 35 to 78 volunteered to participate. The participants undertook regular physical activities autonomously with some medico-sporting educators' help. Results showed that participants reported intrinsic motives such as enjoyment, interest, fun, stimulation and highlighted gender differences. Female participants were more likely than male participants to emphasise the importance of emotional support obtained from the group meetings, and the pleasure of doing something together, and male participants emphasised the knowledge acquisition and skill development for disease control. Moreover, female participants indicated the importance of the sense of well-being and the positive body image related to regular physical activity, and male participants underlined the strength of the relationship between physical activity and health-promoting behaviours. This study provides insights into how gender motives are related to the interest and usefulness of physical activities in the management of diabetes. Findings lend support to the setting up of this type of patients' association in the French healthcare system and underline its contribution to self-determination and the behaviour change process in people with diabetes.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/prevenção & controle , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/psicologia , Exercício , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Motivação , Autocuidado/psicologia , Grupos de Autoajuda , Adulto , Idoso , Imagem Corporal , Feminino , França , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Atividade Motora , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Fatores Sexuais
7.
Scand J Med Sci Sports ; 15(3): 188-97, 2005 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15885041

RESUMO

This investigation prospectively predicted dropout among young soccer players, using the theory of planned behavior (TPB). First, behavioral beliefs required to develop a TPB-questionnaire were elicited from 53 male soccer players, aged 13-15 years. Second, at the beginning of the soccer season, 354 different male soccer players aged 13-15 years completed this questionnaire, thereby assessing direct dimensions (intention, attitude, subjective norm, perceived control) and indirect dimensions (attitudinal, normative and control beliefs) derived from TPB. Nine months later--upon termination of the soccer season--these players were classified into 323 perserverers and 31 dropouts, with TPB being applied prospectively to predict these two groups. For both direct and indirect dimensions, between-group comparisons revealed significant differences in favor of the perseverers. Discriminant analyses revealed five measures (intention, attitude, subjective norm, a normative belief, and a control belief), which enabled a 22.1% a priori dropout prediction when used within a suitable equation. In conclusion, TPB may have a promising application to prospectively discriminate dropouts from perseverers, providing a potential predictive a priori classification model for sport participation.


Assuntos
Atitude , Motivação , Futebol , Adolescente , Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Canadá , Humanos , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários
8.
Soz Praventivmed ; 47(3): 162-71, 2002.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12238298

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To explore the perceptions of health and physical activity, and the associations between these two areas from a theoretical lifestyle perspective. METHODS: Data was collected by means of a self-administered questionnaire, among 3019 adults attending centres for preventive medicine in France. Correspondence analysis examined the significance of the relationships between perceptions of health and perceptions of sports and physical activity. RESULTS: Four principal types of subjects emerged from the factor analyses expressing four different lifestyle patterns. "Non physically active lifestyle: a feeling of not being healthy", "Physically active lifestyle, pleasure/leisure-oriented", "Necessarily physically active lifestyle, regardless of health", "Physically active lifestyle aimed at stress relief". CONCLUSIONS: The sociological approach helps tackle sports and physical activity as behaviour patterns but also and especially as a health orientation connected with the socio-economical climate. This approach also gives sports practice back its meaningful cultural dimension.


Assuntos
Atitude Frente a Saúde , Exercício/psicologia , Estilo de Vida , Esportes/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Imagem Corporal , Feminino , França , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Promoção da Saúde , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários
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