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1.
Genet Med ; 2019 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31578471

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Lamb-Shaffer syndrome (LAMSHF) is a neurodevelopmental disorder described in just over two dozen patients with heterozygous genetic alterations involving SOX5, a gene encoding a transcription factor regulating cell fate and differentiation in neurogenesis and other discrete developmental processes. The genetic alterations described so far are mainly microdeletions. The present study was aimed at increasing our understanding of LAMSHF, its clinical and genetic spectrum, and the pathophysiological mechanisms involved. METHODS: Clinical and genetic data were collected through GeneMatcher and clinical or genetic networks for 41 novel patients harboring various types ofSOX5 alterations. Functional consequences of selected substitutions were investigated. RESULTS: Microdeletions and truncating variants occurred throughout SOX5. In contrast, most missense variants clustered in the pivotal SOX-specific high-mobility-group domain. The latter variants prevented SOX5 from binding DNA and promoting transactivation in vitro, whereas missense variants located outside the high-mobility-group domain did not. Clinical manifestations and severity varied among patients. No clear genotype-phenotype correlations were found, except that missense variants outside the high-mobility-group domain were generally better tolerated. CONCLUSIONS: This study extends the clinical and genetic spectrum associated with LAMSHF and consolidates evidence that SOX5 haploinsufficiency leads to variable degrees of intellectual disability, language delay, and other clinical features.

2.
J Med Genet ; 2019 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31586944

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The type 1 insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGF1R) is a keystone of fetal growth regulation by mediating the effects of IGF-I and IGF-II. Recently, a cohort of patients carrying an IGF1R defect was described, from which a clinical score was established for diagnosis. We assessed this score in a large cohort of patients with identified IGF1R defects, as no external validation was available. Furthermore, we aimed to develop a functional test to allow the classification of variants of unknown significance (VUS) in vitro. METHODS: DNA was tested for either deletions or single nucleotide variant (SNV) and the phosphorylation of downstream pathways studied after stimulation with IGF-I by western blot analysis of fibroblast of nine patients. RESULTS: We detected 21 IGF1R defects in 35 patients, including 8 deletions and 10 heterozygous, 1 homozygous and 1 compound-heterozygous SNVs. The main clinical characteristics of these patients were being born small for gestational age (90.9%), short stature (88.2%) and microcephaly (74.1%). Feeding difficulties and varying degrees of developmental delay were highly prevalent (54.5%). There were no differences in phenotypes between patients with deletions and SNVs of IGF1R. Functional studies showed that the SNVs tested were associated with decreased AKT phosphorylation. CONCLUSION: We report eight new pathogenic variants of IGF1R and an original case with a homozygous SNV. We found the recently proposed clinical score to be accurate for the diagnosis of IGF1R defects with a sensitivity of 95.2%. We developed an efficient functional test to assess the pathogenicity of SNVs, which is useful, especially for VUS.

3.
Genet Med ; 2019 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31363182

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Kabuki syndrome (KS) (OMIM 147920 and 300867) is a rare genetic disorder characterized by specific facial features, intellectual disability, and various malformations. Immunopathological manifestations seem prevalent and increase the morbimortality. To assess the frequency and severity of the manifestations, we measured the prevalence of immunopathological manifestations as well as genotype-phenotype correlations in KS individuals from a registry. METHODS: Data were for 177 KS individuals with KDM6A or KMT2D pathogenic variants. Questionnaires to clinicians were used to assess the presence of immunodeficiency and autoimmune diseases both on a clinical and biological basis. RESULTS: Overall, 44.1% (78/177) and 58.2% (46/79) of KS individuals exhibited infection susceptibility and hypogammaglobulinemia, respectively; 13.6% (24/177) had autoimmune disease (AID; 25.6% [11/43] in adults), 5.6% (10/177) with ≥2 AID manifestations. The most frequent AID manifestations were immune thrombocytopenic purpura (7.3% [13/177]) and autoimmune hemolytic anemia (4.0% [7/177]). Among nonhematological manifestations, vitiligo was frequent. Immune thrombocytopenic purpura was frequent with missense versus other types of variants (p = 0.027). CONCLUSION: The high prevalence of immunopathological manifestations in KS demonstrates the importance of systematic screening and efficient preventive management of these treatable and sometimes life-threatening conditions.

4.
BMC Med Genomics ; 12(1): 105, 2019 07 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31288860

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nicolaides-Baraitser syndrome (NCBRS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder caused by pathogenic sequence variants in SMARCA2 which encodes the catalytic component of the chromatin remodeling BAF complex. Pathogenic variants in genes that encode epigenetic regulators have been associated with genome-wide changes in DNA methylation (DNAm) in affected individuals termed DNAm signatures. METHODS: Genome-wide DNAm was assessed in whole-blood samples from the individuals with pathogenic SMARCA2 variants and NCBRS diagnosis (n = 8) compared to neurotypical controls (n = 23) using the Illumina MethylationEPIC array. Differential methylated CpGs between groups (DNAm signature) were identified and used to generate a model enabling classification variants of uncertain significance (VUS; n = 9) in SMARCA2 as "pathogenic" or "benign". A validation cohort of NCBRS cases (n = 8) and controls (n = 96) demonstrated 100% model sensitivity and specificity. RESULTS: We identified a DNAm signature of 429 differentially methylated CpG sites in individuals with NCBRS. The genes to which these CpG sites map are involved in cell differentiation, calcium signaling, and neuronal function consistent with NCBRS pathophysiology. DNAm model classifications of VUS were concordant with the clinical phenotype; those within the SMARCA2 ATPase/helicase domain classified as "pathogenic". A patient with a mild neurodevelopmental NCBRS phenotype and a VUS distal to the ATPase/helicase domain did not score as pathogenic, clustering away from cases and controls. She demonstrated an intermediate DNAm profile consisting of one subset of signature CpGs with methylation levels characteristic of controls and another characteristic of NCBRS cases; each mapped to genes with ontologies consistent with the patient's unique clinical presentation. CONCLUSIONS: Here we find that a DNAm signature of SMARCA2 pathogenic variants in NCBRS maps to CpGs relevant to disorder pathophysiology, classifies VUS, and is sensitive to the position of the variant in SMARCA2. The patient with an intermediate model score demonstrating a unique genotype-epigenotype-phenotype correlation underscores the potential utility of this signature as a functionally relevant VUS classification system scalable beyond binary "benign" versus "pathogenic" scoring. This is a novel feature of DNAm signatures that could enable phenotypic predictions from genotype data. Our findings also demonstrate that DNAm signatures can be domain-specific, highlighting the precision with which they can reflect genotypic variation.

6.
Am J Hum Genet ; 104(4): 758-766, 2019 Apr 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30929739

RESUMO

By using exome sequencing and a gene matching approach, we identified de novo and inherited pathogenic variants in KDM3B in 14 unrelated individuals and three affected parents with varying degrees of intellectual disability (ID) or developmental delay (DD) and short stature. The individuals share additional phenotypic features that include feeding difficulties in infancy, joint hypermobility, and characteristic facial features such as a wide mouth, a pointed chin, long ears, and a low columella. Notably, two individuals developed cancer, acute myeloid leukemia and Hodgkin lymphoma, in childhood. KDM3B encodes for a histone demethylase and is involved in H3K9 demethylation, a crucial part of chromatin modification required for transcriptional regulation. We identified missense and truncating variants, suggesting that KDM3B haploinsufficiency is the underlying mechanism for this syndrome. By using a hybrid facial-recognition model, we show that individuals with a pathogenic variant in KDM3B have a facial gestalt, and that they show significant facial similarity compared to control individuals with ID. In conclusion, pathogenic variants in KDM3B cause a syndrome characterized by ID, short stature, and facial dysmorphism.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29906526

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: V(D)J recombination ensures the diversity of the adaptive immune system. Although its complete defect causes severe combined immunodeficiency (ie, T-B- severe combined immunodeficiency), its suboptimal activity is associated with a broad spectrum of immune manifestations, such as late-onset combined immunodeficiency and autoimmunity. The earliest molecular diagnosis of these patients is required to adopt the best therapy strategy, particularly when it involves a myeloablative conditioning regimen for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. OBJECTIVE: We aimed at developing biomarkers based on analysis of the T-cell receptor (TCR) α repertoire to assist in the diagnosis of patients with primary immunodeficiencies with V(D)J recombination and DNA repair deficiencies. METHODS: We used flow cytometric (fluorescence-activated cell sorting) analysis to quantify TCR-Vα7.2-expressing T lymphocytes in peripheral blood and developed PROMIDISα, a multiplex RT-PCR/next-generation sequencing assay, to evaluate a subset of the TCRα repertoire in T lymphocytes. RESULTS: The combined fluorescence-activated cell sorting and PROMIDISα analyses revealed specific signatures in patients with V(D)J recombination-defective primary immunodeficiencies or ataxia telangiectasia/Nijmegen breakage syndromes. CONCLUSION: Analysis of the TCRα repertoire is particularly appropriate in a prospective way to identify patients with partial immune defects caused by suboptimal V(D)J recombination activity, a DNA repair defect, or both. It also constitutes a valuable tool for the retrospective in vivo functional validation of variants identified through exome or panel sequencing. Its broader implementation might be of interest to assist early diagnosis of patients presenting with hypomorphic DNA repair defects inclined to experience acute toxicity during prehematopoietic stem cell transplantation conditioning.

8.
J Med Genet ; 55(6): 359-371, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29618507

RESUMO

The Xq28 duplication involving the MECP2 gene (MECP2 duplication) has been mainly described in male patients with severe developmental delay (DD) associated with spasticity, stereotypic movements and recurrent infections. Nevertheless, only a few series have been published. We aimed to better describe the phenotype of this condition, with a focus on morphological and neurological features. Through a national collaborative study, we report a large French series of 59 affected males with interstitial MECP2 duplication. Most of the patients (93%) shared similar facial features, which evolved with age (midface hypoplasia, narrow and prominent nasal bridge, thick lower lip, large prominent ears), thick hair, livedo of the limbs, tapered fingers, small feet and vasomotor troubles. Early hypotonia and global DD were constant, with 21% of patients unable to walk. In patients able to stand, lower limbs weakness and spasticity led to a singular standing habitus: flexion of the knees, broad-based stance with pseudo-ataxic gait. Scoliosis was frequent (53%), such as divergent strabismus (76%) and hypermetropia (54%), stereotypic movements (89%), without obvious social withdrawal and decreased pain sensitivity (78%). Most of the patients did not develop expressive language, 35% saying few words. Epilepsy was frequent (59%), with a mean onset around 7.4 years of age, and often (62%) drug-resistant. Other medical issues were frequent: constipation (78%), and recurrent infections (89%), mainly lung. We delineate the clinical phenotype of MECP2 duplication syndrome in a large series of 59 males. Pulmonary hypertension appeared as a cause of early death in these patients, advocating its screening early in life.

9.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 26(7): 996-1006, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29695756

RESUMO

High-throughput sequencing (HTS) of human genome coding regions allows the simultaneous screen of a large number of genes, significantly improving the diagnosis of non-syndromic intellectual disabilities (ID). HTS studies permit the redefinition of the phenotypical spectrum of known disease-causing genes, escaping the clinical inclusion bias of gene-by-gene Sanger sequencing. We studied a cohort of 903 patients with ID not reminiscent of a well-known syndrome, using an ID-targeted HTS of several hundred genes and found de novo heterozygous variants in TCF4 (transcription factor 4) in eight novel patients. Piecing together the patients from this study and those from previous large-scale unbiased HTS studies, we estimated the rate of individuals with ID carrying a disease-causing TCF4 mutation to 0.7%. So far, TCF4 molecular abnormalities were known to cause a syndromic form of ID, Pitt-Hopkins syndrome (PTHS), which combines severe ID, developmental delay, absence of speech, behavioral and ventilation disorders, and a distinctive facial gestalt. Therefore, we reevaluated ten patients carrying a pathogenic or likely pathogenic variant in TCF4 (eight patients included in this study and two from our previous ID-HTS study) for PTHS criteria defined by Whalen and Marangi. A posteriori, five patients had a score highly evocative of PTHS, three were possibly consistent with this diagnosis, and two had a score below the defined PTHS threshold. In conclusion, these results highlight TCF4 as a frequent cause of moderate to profound ID and broaden the clinical spectrum associated to TCF4 mutations to nonspecific ID.

11.
NPJ Genom Med ; 2: 32, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29263841

RESUMO

Phelan-McDermid syndrome (PMS) is characterized by a variety of clinical symptoms with heterogeneous degrees of severity, including intellectual disability (ID), absent or delayed speech, and autism spectrum disorders (ASD). It results from a deletion of the distal part of chromosome 22q13 that in most cases includes the SHANK3 gene. SHANK3 is considered a major gene for PMS, but the factors that modulate the severity of the syndrome remain largely unknown. In this study, we investigated 85 patients with different 22q13 rearrangements (78 deletions and 7 duplications). We first explored the clinical features associated with PMS, and provide evidence for frequent corpus callosum abnormalities in 28% of 35 patients with brain imaging data. We then mapped several candidate genomic regions at the 22q13 region associated with high risk of clinical features, and suggest a second locus at 22q13 associated with absence of speech. Finally, in some cases, we identified additional clinically relevant copy-number variants (CNVs) at loci associated with ASD, such as 16p11.2 and 15q11q13, which could modulate the severity of the syndrome. We also report an inherited SHANK3 deletion transmitted to five affected daughters by a mother without ID nor ASD, suggesting that some individuals could compensate for such mutations. In summary, we shed light on the genotype-phenotype relationship of patients with PMS, a step towards the identification of compensatory mechanisms for a better prognosis and possibly treatments of patients with neurodevelopmental disorders.

12.
Brain ; 140(5): 1316-1336, 2017 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28379373

RESUMO

Mutations in SCN2A, a gene encoding the voltage-gated sodium channel Nav1.2, have been associated with a spectrum of epilepsies and neurodevelopmental disorders. Here, we report the phenotypes of 71 patients and review 130 previously reported patients. We found that (i) encephalopathies with infantile/childhood onset epilepsies (≥3 months of age) occur almost as often as those with an early infantile onset (<3 months), and are thus more frequent than previously reported; (ii) distinct phenotypes can be seen within the late onset group, including myoclonic-atonic epilepsy (two patients), Lennox-Gastaut not emerging from West syndrome (two patients), and focal epilepsies with an electrical status epilepticus during slow sleep-like EEG pattern (six patients); and (iii) West syndrome constitutes a common phenotype with a major recurring mutation (p.Arg853Gln: two new and four previously reported children). Other known phenotypes include Ohtahara syndrome, epilepsy of infancy with migrating focal seizures, and intellectual disability or autism without epilepsy. To assess the response to antiepileptic therapy, we retrospectively reviewed the treatment regimen and the course of the epilepsy in 66 patients for which well-documented medical information was available. We find that the use of sodium channel blockers was often associated with clinically relevant seizure reduction or seizure freedom in children with early infantile epilepsies (<3 months), whereas other antiepileptic drugs were less effective. In contrast, sodium channel blockers were rarely effective in epilepsies with later onset (≥3 months) and sometimes induced seizure worsening. Regarding the genetic findings, truncating mutations were exclusively seen in patients with late onset epilepsies and lack of response to sodium channel blockers. Functional characterization of four selected missense mutations using whole cell patch-clamping in tsA201 cells-together with data from the literature-suggest that mutations associated with early infantile epilepsy result in increased sodium channel activity with gain-of-function, characterized by slowing of fast inactivation, acceleration of its recovery or increased persistent sodium current. Further, a good response to sodium channel blockers clinically was found to be associated with a relatively small gain-of-function. In contrast, mutations in patients with late-onset forms and an insufficient response to sodium channel blockers were associated with loss-of-function effects, including a depolarizing shift of voltage-dependent activation or a hyperpolarizing shift of channel availability (steady-state inactivation). Our clinical and experimental data suggest a correlation between age at disease onset, response to sodium channel blockers and the functional properties of mutations in children with SCN2A-related epilepsy.


Assuntos
Epilepsia/tratamento farmacológico , Epilepsia/genética , Epilepsia/fisiopatologia , Canal de Sódio Disparado por Voltagem NAV1.2/genética , Canal de Sódio Disparado por Voltagem NAV1.2/fisiologia , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/genética , Bloqueadores dos Canais de Sódio/uso terapêutico , Adolescente , Adulto , Idade de Início , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Dinamarca/epidemiologia , Epilepsia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Mutação , Fenótipo , Adulto Jovem
13.
Am J Hum Genet ; 99(6): 1368-1376, 2016 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27889060

RESUMO

Early-onset epileptic encephalopathy (EOEE) represents a heterogeneous group of severe disorders characterized by seizures, interictal epileptiform activity with a disorganized electroencephalography background, developmental regression or retardation, and onset before 1 year of age. Among a cohort of 57 individuals with epileptic encephalopathy, we ascertained two unrelated affected individuals with EOEE associated with developmental impairment and autosomal-recessive variants in AP3B2 by means of whole-exome sequencing. The targeted sequencing of AP3B2 in 86 unrelated individuals with EOEE led to the identification of an additional family. We gathered five additional families with eight affected individuals through the Matchmaker Exchange initiative by matching autosomal-recessive mutations in AP3B2. Reverse phenotyping of 12 affected individuals from eight families revealed a homogeneous EOEE phenotype characterized by severe developmental delay, poor visual contact with optic atrophy, and postnatal microcephaly. No spasticity, albinism, or hematological symptoms were reported. AP3B2 encodes the neuron-specific subunit of the AP-3 complex. Autosomal-recessive variations of AP3B1, the ubiquitous isoform, cause Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome type 2. The only isoform for the δ subunit of the AP-3 complex is encoded by AP3D1. Autosomal-recessive mutations in AP3D1 cause a severe disorder cumulating the symptoms of the AP3B1 and AP3B2 defects.


Assuntos
Complexo 3 de Proteínas Adaptadoras/genética , Subunidades beta do Complexo de Proteínas Adaptadoras/genética , Epilepsia/complicações , Epilepsia/genética , Genes Recessivos/genética , Mutação , Atrofia Óptica/complicações , Atrofia Óptica/genética , Idade de Início , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Microcefalia/genética , Linhagem , Síndrome
14.
Am J Med Genet A ; 170(11): 2847-2859, 2016 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27605097

RESUMO

KBG syndrome, due to ANKRD11 alteration is characterized by developmental delay, short stature, dysmorphic facial features, and skeletal anomalies. We report a clinical and molecular study of 39 patients affected by KBG syndrome. Among them, 19 were diagnosed after the detection of a 16q24.3 deletion encompassing the ANKRD11 gene by array CGH. In the 20 remaining patients, the clinical suspicion was confirmed by the identification of an ANKRD11 mutation by direct sequencing. We present arguments to modulate the previously reported diagnostic criteria. Macrodontia should no longer be considered a mandatory feature. KBG syndrome is compatible with autonomous life in adulthood. Autism is less frequent than previously reported. We also describe new clinical findings with a potential impact on the follow-up of patients, such as precocious puberty and a case of malignancy. Most deletions remove the 5'end or the entire coding region but never extend toward 16q telomere suggesting that distal 16q deletion could be lethal. Although ANKRD11 appears to be a major gene associated with intellectual disability, KBG syndrome remains under-diagnosed. NGS-based approaches for sequencing will improve the detection of point mutations in this gene. Broad knowledge of the clinical phenotype is essential for a correct interpretation of the molecular results. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


Assuntos
Anormalidades Múltiplas/diagnóstico , Anormalidades Múltiplas/genética , Doenças do Desenvolvimento Ósseo/diagnóstico , Doenças do Desenvolvimento Ósseo/genética , Estudos de Associação Genética , Deficiência Intelectual/diagnóstico , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Mutação , Proteínas Repressoras/genética , Anormalidades Dentárias/diagnóstico , Anormalidades Dentárias/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Alelos , Substituição de Aminoácidos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Deleção Cromossômica , Cromossomos Humanos Par 16 , Hibridização Genômica Comparativa , Facies , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fenótipo , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
15.
Am J Hum Genet ; 98(3): 541-552, 2016 Mar 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26942287

RESUMO

Intellectual disability (ID) and autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are genetically heterogeneous, and a significant number of genes have been associated with both conditions. A few mutations in POGZ have been reported in recent exome studies; however, these studies do not provide detailed clinical information. We collected the clinical and molecular data of 25 individuals with disruptive mutations in POGZ by diagnostic whole-exome, whole-genome, or targeted sequencing of 5,223 individuals with neurodevelopmental disorders (ID primarily) or by targeted resequencing of this locus in 12,041 individuals with ASD and/or ID. The rarity of disruptive mutations among unaffected individuals (2/49,401) highlights the significance (p = 4.19 × 10(-13); odds ratio = 35.8) and penetrance (65.9%) of this genetic subtype with respect to ASD and ID. By studying the entire cohort, we defined common phenotypic features of POGZ individuals, including variable levels of developmental delay (DD) and more severe speech and language delay in comparison to the severity of motor delay and coordination issues. We also identified significant associations with vision problems, microcephaly, hyperactivity, a tendency to obesity, and feeding difficulties. Some features might be explained by the high expression of POGZ, particularly in the cerebellum and pituitary, early in fetal brain development. We conducted parallel studies in Drosophila by inducing conditional knockdown of the POGZ ortholog row, further confirming that dosage of POGZ, specifically in neurons, is essential for normal learning in a habituation paradigm. Combined, the data underscore the pathogenicity of loss-of-function mutations in POGZ and define a POGZ-related phenotype enriched in specific features.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista/genética , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Transposases/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Animais , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/diagnóstico , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Regulação para Baixo , Drosophila/genética , Proteínas de Drosophila/genética , Proteínas de Drosophila/metabolismo , Exoma , Feminino , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Lactente , Deficiência Intelectual/diagnóstico , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem/diagnóstico , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem/genética , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Microcefalia/diagnóstico , Microcefalia/genética , Mutação , Fenótipo , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
16.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 24(8): 1124-31, 2016 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26757980

RESUMO

Noonan syndrome is a heterogeneous autosomal dominant disorder caused by mutations in at least eight genes involved in the RAS/MAPK signaling pathway. Recently, RIT1 (Ras-like without CAAX 1) has been shown to be involved in the pathogenesis of some patients. We report a series of 44 patients from 30 pedigrees (including nine multiplex families) with mutations in RIT1. These patients display a typical Noonan gestalt and facial phenotype. Among the probands, 8.7% showed postnatal growth retardation, 90% had congenital heart defects, 36% had hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (a lower incidence compared with previous report), 50% displayed speech delay and 52% had learning difficulties, but only 22% required special education. None had major skin anomalies. One child died perinatally of juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia. Compared with the canonical Noonan phenotype linked to PTPN11 mutations, patients with RIT1 mutations appear to be less severely growth retarded and more frequently affected by cardiomyopathy. Based on our experience, we estimate that RIT1 could be the cause of 5% of Noonan syndrome patients. Because mutations found constitutionally in Noonan syndrome are also found in several tumors in adulthood, we evaluated the potential contribution of RIT1 to leukemogenesis in Noonan syndrome. We screened 192 pediatric cases of acute lymphoblastic leukemias (96 B-ALL and 96 T-ALL) and 110 cases of juvenile myelomonocytic leukemias (JMML), but detected no variation in these tumoral samples, suggesting that Noonan patients with germline RIT1 mutations are not at high risk to developing JMML or ALL, and that RIT1 has at most a marginal role in these sporadic malignancies.


Assuntos
Leucemia Mielomonocítica Juvenil/genética , Mutação , Síndrome de Noonan/genética , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/genética , Proteínas ras/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Leucemia Mielomonocítica Juvenil/patologia , Masculino , Síndrome de Noonan/patologia , Linhagem , Fenótipo , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/patologia
17.
Am J Med Genet A ; 170A(1): 116-29, 2016 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26420639

RESUMO

Xq28 duplications encompassing MECP2 have been described in male patients with a severe neurodevelopmental disorder associated with hypotonia and spasticity, severe learning disability, stereotyped movements, and recurrent pulmonary infections. We report on standardized brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data of 30 affected patients carrying an Xq28 duplication involving MECP2 of various sizes (228 kb to 11.7 Mb). The aim of this study was to seek recurrent malformations and attempt to determine whether variations in imaging features could be explained by differences in the size of the duplications. We showed that 93% of patients had brain MRI abnormalities such as corpus callosum abnormalities (n = 20), reduced volume of the white matter (WM) (n = 12), ventricular dilatation (n = 9), abnormal increased hyperintensities on T2-weighted images involving posterior periventricular WM (n = 6), and vermis hypoplasia (n = 5). The occipitofrontal circumference varied considerably between >+2SD in five patients and <-2SD in four patients. Among the nine patients with dilatation of the lateral ventricles, six had a duplication involving L1CAM. The only patient harboring bilateral posterior subependymal nodular heterotopia also carried an FLNA gene duplication. We could not demonstrate a correlation between periventricular WM hyperintensities/delayed myelination and duplication of the IKBKG gene. We thus conclude that patients with an Xq28 duplication involving MECP2 share some similar but non-specific brain abnormalities. These imaging features, therefore, could not constitute a diagnostic clue. The genotype-phenotype correlation failed to demonstrate a relationship between the presence of nodular heterotopia, ventricular dilatation, WM abnormalities, and the presence of FLNA, L1CAM, or IKBKG, respectively, in the duplicated segment.


Assuntos
Encefalopatias/genética , Cromossomos Humanos X/genética , Duplicação Gênica , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Retardo Mental Ligado ao Cromossomo X/genética , Proteína 2 de Ligação a Metil-CpG/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Encefalopatias/patologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética , Genótipo , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Retardo Mental Ligado ao Cromossomo X/patologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Linhagem , Fenótipo , Prognóstico , Adulto Jovem
18.
Mol Autism ; 6: 19, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25844147

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Apparently balanced chromosomal rearrangements can be associated with an abnormal phenotype, including intellectual disability and autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Genome-wide microarrays reveal cryptic genomic imbalances, related or not to the breakpoints, in 25% to 50% of patients with an abnormal phenotype carrying a microscopically balanced chromosomal rearrangement. Here we performed microarray analysis of 18 patients with ASD carrying balanced chromosomal abnormalities to identify submicroscopic imbalances implicated in abnormal neurodevelopment. METHODS: Eighteen patients with ASD carrying apparently balanced chromosomal abnormalities were screened using single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) arrays. Nine rearrangements were de novo, seven inherited, and two of unknown inheritance. Genomic imbalances were confirmed by fluorescence in situ hybridization and quantitative PCR. RESULTS: We detected clinically significant de novo copy number variants in four patients (22%), including three with de novo rearrangements and one with an inherited abnormality. The sizes ranged from 3.3 to 4.9 Mb; three were related to the breakpoint regions and one occurred elsewhere. We report a patient with a duplication of the Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome critical region, contributing to the delineation of this rare genomic disorder. The patient has a chromosome 4p inverted duplication deletion, with a 0.5 Mb deletion of terminal 4p and a 4.2 Mb duplication of 4p16.2p16.3. The other cases included an apparently balanced de novo translocation t(5;18)(q12;p11.2) with a 4.2 Mb deletion at the 18p breakpoint, a subject with de novo pericentric inversion inv(11)(p14q23.2) in whom the array revealed a de novo 4.9 Mb deletion in 7q21.3q22.1, and a patient with a maternal inv(2)(q14.2q37.3) with a de novo 3.3 Mb terminal 2q deletion and a 4.2 Mb duplication at the proximal breakpoint. In addition, we identified a rare de novo deletion of unknown significance on a chromosome unrelated to the initial rearrangement, disrupting a single gene, RFX3. CONCLUSIONS: These findings underscore the utility of SNP arrays for investigating apparently balanced chromosomal abnormalities in subjects with ASD or related neurodevelopmental disorders in both clinical and research settings.

19.
Am J Med Genet A ; 167(6): 1252-61, 2015 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25847481

RESUMO

Tetrasomy 9p is a generic term describing the presence of a supernumerary chromosome incorporating two copies of the 9p arm. Two varieties exist: isodicentric chromosome 9p (i(9p)), where the two 9p arms are linked by a single centromeric region, and pseudodicentric 9p (idic(9p)), where one active and one inactive centromere are linked together by a proximal segment of 9q that may incorporate euchromatic material. In living patients, i(9p) and idic(9p) are usually present in a mosaic state. Fifty-four cases, including fetuses, have been reported, of which only two have been molecularly characterized using array-CGH. Tetrasomy 9p leads to a variable phenotype ranging from multiple congenital anomalies with severe intellectual disability and growth delay to subnormal cognitive and physical developments. Hypertelorism, abnormal ears, microretrognathia and bulbous nose are the most common dysmorphic traits. Microcephaly, growth retardation, joint dislocation, scoliosis, cardiac and renal anomalies were reported in several cases. Those physical anomalies are often, but not universally, accompanied by intellectual disability. The most recurrent breakpoints, defined by conventional cytogenetics, are 9p10, 9q12 and 9q13. We report on 12 new patients with tetrasomy 9p (3 i(9p), 8 idic(9p) and one structurally uncharacterized), including the first case of parental germline mosaicism. All rearrangements have been characterized by DNA microarray. Based on our results and a review of the literature, we further delineate the prenatal and postnatal clinical spectrum of this imbalance. Our results show poor genotype-phenotype correlations and underline the need of precise molecular characterization of the supernumerary marker.


Assuntos
Anormalidades Múltiplas/genética , Aneuploidia , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/genética , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Trissomia , Anormalidades Múltiplas/patologia , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Bandeamento Cromossômico , Cromossomos Humanos Par 9 , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/patologia , Feminino , Feto , Estudos de Associação Genética , Heterogeneidade Genética , Humanos , Deficiência Intelectual/patologia , Cariotipagem , Masculino , Mosaicismo , Análise de Sequência com Séries de Oligonucleotídeos , Fenótipo , Síndrome
20.
PLoS Genet ; 10(9): e1004580, 2014 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25188300

RESUMO

SHANK genes code for scaffold proteins located at the post-synaptic density of glutamatergic synapses. In neurons, SHANK2 and SHANK3 have a positive effect on the induction and maturation of dendritic spines, whereas SHANK1 induces the enlargement of spine heads. Mutations in SHANK genes have been associated with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), but their prevalence and clinical relevance remain to be determined. Here, we performed a new screen and a meta-analysis of SHANK copy-number and coding-sequence variants in ASD. Copy-number variants were analyzed in 5,657 patients and 19,163 controls, coding-sequence variants were ascertained in 760 to 2,147 patients and 492 to 1,090 controls (depending on the gene), and, individuals carrying de novo or truncating SHANK mutations underwent an extensive clinical investigation. Copy-number variants and truncating mutations in SHANK genes were present in ∼1% of patients with ASD: mutations in SHANK1 were rare (0.04%) and present in males with normal IQ and autism; mutations in SHANK2 were present in 0.17% of patients with ASD and mild intellectual disability; mutations in SHANK3 were present in 0.69% of patients with ASD and up to 2.12% of the cases with moderate to profound intellectual disability. In summary, mutations of the SHANK genes were detected in the whole spectrum of autism with a gradient of severity in cognitive impairment. Given the rare frequency of SHANK1 and SHANK2 deleterious mutations, the clinical relevance of these genes remains to be ascertained. In contrast, the frequency and the penetrance of SHANK3 mutations in individuals with ASD and intellectual disability-more than 1 in 50-warrant its consideration for mutation screening in clinical practice.


Assuntos
Transtornos Globais do Desenvolvimento Infantil/genética , Transtornos Cognitivos/genética , Mutação/genética , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Cognição/fisiologia , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Masculino , Neurônios/fisiologia , Sinapses/genética
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