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1.
Food Microbiol ; 84: 103262, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31421756

RESUMO

The organoleptic attributes of Prunus mahaleb, a fruit representing a new source of bioactive compounds, are so pronounced that it can be consider non-edible. This study was designed to evaluate the acceptance of P. mahaleb fruits after fermentation with different Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Lactobacillus plantarum protechnological strains. Four different bacterial and one yeast strains, as single or mixed starter formulation, were used to inoculate an aqueous suspension of P. mahaleb fruits. The fermented fruits and fermentation broths were subjected to physico-chemical characterization and the organoleptic properties of both samples were also assessed by a hedonic panel. The obtained results indicated that all the employed strains were able to grow and to ferment the matrix. However, the mixed starter FG69 + Li180-7 (L. plantarum/S. cerevisiae) had the best impact on sensory characteristics of P. mahaleb fruit and fermented medium. The adopted protocol allowed us to attain edible fruits and a new fermented non-dairy drink with valuable probiotic health-promoting properties. In our knowledge, this is the first study concerning the exploitation of P. mahaleb fruits. This investigation confirmed the potential of yeasts and lactic acid bacteria co-inoculation in the design of starter tailored for this kind of food applications.

2.
Cytogenet Genome Res ; 158(1): 25-31, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31055587

RESUMO

Diagnosing a complex genetic syndrome and correctly assigning the concomitant phenotypic traits to a well-defined clinical form is often a medical challenge. In this work, we report the analysis of a family with complex phenotypes, including microcephaly, intellectual disability, dysmorphic features, and polydactyly in the proband, with the aim of adding new aspects for obtaining a clear diagnosis. We performed array-comparative genomic hybridization and quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR (qRT-PCR) analyses. We identified a deletion of chromosome 20p12.1 involving the macrodomain containing 2/mono-ADP ribosylhydrolase 2 gene (MACROD2) in several members of the family. This gene is actually not associated with a specific syndrome but with congenital anomalies of multiple organs. qRT-PCR showed higher levels of a MACROD2 mRNA isoform in the individuals carrying the deletion. Our results, together with other data reported in the literature, support the hypothesis that the deletion in MACROD2 can affect correct embryonic development and that the presence of another associated event, such as epigenetic modifications at the MACROD2 locus, can influence the level of severity of the pathology.


Assuntos
Anormalidades Múltiplas/genética , Enzimas Reparadoras do DNA/genética , Hidrolases/genética , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Rim/anormalidades , Microcefalia/genética , Pâncreas/anormalidades , Polidactilia/genética , Deleção de Sequência , Adulto , Cromossomos Humanos Par 20/genética , Cromossomos Humanos Par 20/ultraestrutura , Hibridização Genômica Comparativa , Enzimas Reparadoras do DNA/deficiência , Enzimas Reparadoras do DNA/fisiologia , Desenvolvimento Embrionário/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Hidrolases/deficiência , Hidrolases/fisiologia , Masculino , Linhagem , Fenótipo , Transtornos Psicomotores/genética
4.
Front Microbiol ; 9: 1687, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30123190

RESUMO

A yeast strain was isolated during a study on vineyard-associated yeast strains from Apulia in Southern Italy. ITS and LSU D1/D2 rDNA sequences showed this strain not to belong to any known species and was described as the type strain of Ogataea uvarum sp. nov., a close relative of O. philodendri. Several secondary peaks appeared in the sequences, suggesting internal heterogeneity among the copies of the rDNA. This hypothesis was tested by sequencing single clones of the marker region. The analyses showed different levels of variability throughout the operon with differences between the rRNA encoding genes and the internally transcribed regions. O. uvarum and O. philodendri share high frequency variants, i.e., variants frequently found in many clones, whereas there is a large variability of the low frequency polymorphisms, suggesting that the mechanism of homogenization is more active with the former than with the latter type of variation. These findings indicate that low frequency variants are detected in Sanger sequencing as secondary peaks whereas in Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) of metagenomics DNA would lead to an overestimate of the alpha diversity. For the first time in our knowledge, this investigation shed light on the variation of the copy number of the rDNA cistron during the yeast speciation process. These polymorphisms can be used to investigate on the processes occurring in these taxonomic markers during the separation of fungal species, it being a genetic process highly frequent in the complex microbial ecosystem existing in grape, must and wine.

5.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 120: 223-231, 2017 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29065389

RESUMO

Wheat, the main food source for a third of world population, appears strongly under threat because of predicted increasing temperatures coupled to drought. Plant complex molecular response to drought stress relies on the gene network controlling cell reactions to abiotic stress. In the natural environment, plants are subjected to the combination of abiotic and biotic stresses. Also the response of plants to biotic stress, to cope with pathogens, involves the activation of a molecular network. Investigations on combination of abiotic and biotic stresses indicate the existence of cross-talk between the two networks and a kind of overlapping can be hypothesized. In this work we describe the isolation and characterization of a drought-related durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.) gene, identified in a previous study, coding for a protein combining features of NBS-LRR type resistance protein with a S/TPK domain, involved in drought stress response. This is one of the few examples reported where all three domains are present in a single protein and, to our knowledge, it is the first report on a gene specifically induced by drought stress and drought-related conditions, with this particular structure.


Assuntos
Genes de Plantas , Proteínas de Plantas , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases , Estresse Fisiológico , Triticum , Desidratação , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Domínios Proteicos , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/genética , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/metabolismo , Triticum/genética , Triticum/metabolismo
6.
Front Plant Sci ; 7: 1686, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27891140

RESUMO

Heat and drought stress have emerged as major constraints for durum wheat production. In the Mediterranean area, their negative effect on crop productivity is expected to be exacerbated by the occurring climate change. Xyloglucan endotransglucosylase/hydrolases (XTHs) are chief enzymes in cell wall remodeling, whose relevance in cell expansion and morphogenesis suggests a central role in stress responses. In this work the potential role of XTHs in abiotic stress tolerance was investigated in durum wheat. The separate effects of dehydration and heat exposure on XTH expression and its endotransglucosylase (XET) in vitro activity and in vivo action have been monitored, up to 24 h, in the apical and sub-apical root regions and shoots excised from 3-day-old seedlings of durum wheat cultivars differing in stress susceptibility/tolerance. Dehydration and heat stress differentially influence the XTH expression profiles and the activity and action of XET in the wheat seedlings, depending on the degree of susceptibility/tolerance of the cultivars, the organ, the topological region of the root and, within the root, on the gradient of cell differentiation. The root apical region was the zone mainly affected by both treatments in all assayed cultivars, while no change in XET activity was observed at shoot level, irrespective of susceptibility/tolerance, confirming the pivotal role of the root in stress perception, signaling, and response. Conflicting effects were observed depending on stress type: dehydration evoked an overall increase, at least in the apical region of the root, of XET activity and action, while a significant inhibition was caused by heat treatment in most cultivars. The data suggest that differential changes in XET action in defined portions of the root of young durum wheat seedlings may have a role as a response to drought and heat stress, thus contributing to seedling survival and crop establishment. A thorough understanding of the mechanisms underlying these variations could represent the theoretical basis for implementing breeding strategies to develop new highly productive hybrids adapted to future climate scenarios.

7.
Food Chem ; 213: 545-553, 2016 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27451216

RESUMO

A study was carried out to produce functional pasta by adding bran aqueous extract (BW) and bran oleoresin (BO) obtained using ultrasound and supercritical CO2, respectively, or a powdery lyophilized tomato matrix (LT). The bioactive compounds, hydrophilic and lipophilic antioxidant activity (HAA and LAA) in vitro, were evaluated. BW supplementation did not improve antioxidant activity, whilst LT pasta showed unconventional taste and odor. BO pasta had good levels of tocochromanols (2551µg/100g pasta f.w.) and carotenoids (40.2µg/100g pasta f.w.), and the highest HAA and LAA. The oleoresin altered starch swelling and gluten network, as evidenced by scanning electron microscopy, therefore BO pasta had structural characteristics poor compared with the control (4.8% vs. 3.2% cooking loss), although this difference did not affect significantly overall sensory judgment (74 vs. 79 for BO and control, respectively). BO supplementation was most effective for increasing antioxidant activity without jeopardizing pasta quality.


Assuntos
Alimentos Fortificados/análise , Lycopersicon esculentum/química , Triticum/química , Antioxidantes/análise , Carotenoides/análise , Glutens/análise , Extratos Vegetais , Olfato , Amido/análise , Paladar
8.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 2: CD004873, 2016 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26833493

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This Cochrane review was first published in 2005 and updated in 2007, 2012 and now 2015. Acute bronchiolitis is the leading cause of medical emergencies during winter in children younger than two years of age. Chest physiotherapy is sometimes used to assist infants in the clearance of secretions in order to decrease ventilatory effort. OBJECTIVES: To determine the efficacy of chest physiotherapy in infants aged less than 24 months old with acute bronchiolitis. A secondary objective was to determine the efficacy of different techniques of chest physiotherapy (for example, vibration and percussion and passive forced exhalation). SEARCH METHODS: We searched CENTRAL (2015, Issue 9) (accessed 8 July 2015), MEDLINE (1966 to July 2015), MEDLINE in-process and other non-indexed citations (July 2015), EMBASE (1990 to July 2015), CINAHL (1982 to July 2015), LILACS (1985 to July 2015), Web of Science (1985 to July 2015) and Pedro (1929 to July 2015). SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) in which chest physiotherapy was compared against no intervention or against another type of physiotherapy in bronchiolitis patients younger than 24 months of age. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently extracted data. Primary outcomes were change in the severity status of bronchiolitis and time to recovery. Secondary outcomes were respiratory parameters, duration of oxygen supplementation, length of hospital stay, use of bronchodilators and steroids, adverse events and parents' impression of physiotherapy benefit. No pooling of data was possible. MAIN RESULTS: We included 12 RCTs (1249 participants), three more than the previous Cochrane review, comparing physiotherapy with no intervention. Five trials (246 participants) evaluated conventional techniques (vibration and percussion plus postural drainage), and seven trials (1003 participants) evaluated passive flow-oriented expiratory techniques: slow passive expiratory techniques in four trials, and forced passive expiratory techniques in three trials.Conventional techniques failed to show a benefit in the primary outcome of change in severity status of bronchiolitis measured by means of clinical scores (five trials, 241 participants analysed). Safety of conventional techniques has been studied only anecdotally, with one case of atelectasis, the collapse or closure of the lung resulting in reduced or absent gas exchange, reported in the control arm of one trial.Slow passive expiratory techniques failed to show a benefit in the primary outcomes of severity status of bronchiolitis and in time to recovery (low quality of evidence). Three trials analysing 286 participants measured severity of bronchiolitis through clinical scores, with no significant differences between groups in any of these trials, conducted in patients with moderate and severe disease. Only one trial observed a transient significant small improvement in the Wang clinical score immediately after the intervention in patients with moderate severity of disease. There is very low quality evidence that slow passive expiratory techniques seem to be safe, as two studies (256 participants) reported that no adverse effects were observed.Forced passive expiratory techniques failed to show an effect on severity of bronchiolitis in terms of time to recovery (two trials, 509 participants) and time to clinical stability (one trial, 99 participants analysed). This evidence is of high quality and corresponds to patients with severe bronchiolitis. Furthermore, there is also high quality evidence that these techniques are related to an increased risk of transient respiratory destabilisation (risk ratio (RR) 10.2, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.3 to 78.8, one trial) and vomiting during the procedure (RR 5.4, 95% CI 1.6 to 18.4, one trial). Results are inconclusive for bradycardia with desaturation (RR 1.0, 95% CI 0.2 to 5.0, one trial) and bradycardia without desaturation (RR 3.6, 95% CI 0.7 to 16.9, one trial), due to the limited precision of estimators. However, in mild to moderate bronchiolitis patients, forced expiration combined with conventional techniques produced an immediate relief of disease severity (one trial, 13 participants). AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: None of the chest physiotherapy techniques analysed in this review (conventional, slow passive expiratory techniques or forced expiratory techniques) have demonstrated a reduction in the severity of disease. For these reasons, these techniques cannot be used as standard clinical practice for hospitalised patients with severe bronchiolitis. There is high quality evidence that forced expiratory techniques in severe patients do not improve their health status and can lead to severe adverse events. Slow passive expiratory techniques provide an immediate and transient relief in moderate patients without impact on duration. Future studies should test the potential effect of slow passive expiratory techniques in mild to moderate non-hospitalised patients and patients who are respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) positive. Also, they could explore the combination of chest physiotherapy with salbutamol or hypertonic saline.


Assuntos
Bronquiolite/terapia , Terapia Respiratória/métodos , Doença Aguda , Albuterol/uso terapêutico , Broncodilatadores/uso terapêutico , Drenagem Postural , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Oxigenoterapia/métodos , Percussão/métodos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Cloreto de Sódio/uso terapêutico , Vibração/uso terapêutico
9.
BMC Genomics ; 14: 821, 2013 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24267539

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Durum wheat often faces water scarcity and high temperatures, two events that usually occur simultaneously in the fields. Here we report on the stress responsive strategy of two durum wheat cultivars, characterized by different water use efficiency, subjected to drought, heat and a combination of both stresses. RESULTS: The cv Ofanto (lower water use efficiency) activated a large set of well-known drought-related genes after drought treatment, while Cappelli (higher water use efficiency) showed the constitutive expression of several genes induced by drought in Ofanto and a modulation of a limited number of genes in response to stress. At molecular level the two cvs differed for the activation of molecular messengers, genes involved in the regulation of chromatin condensation, nuclear speckles and stomatal closure. Noteworthy, the heat response in Cappelli involved also the up-regulation of genes belonging to fatty acid ß-oxidation pathway, glyoxylate cycle and senescence, suggesting an early activation of senescence in this cv. A gene of unknown function having the greatest expression difference between the two cultivars was selected and used for expression QTL analysis, the corresponding QTL was mapped on chromosome 6B. CONCLUSION: Ofanto and Cappelli are characterized by two opposite stress-responsive strategies. In Ofanto the combination of drought and heat stress led to an increased number of modulated genes, exceeding the simple cumulative effects of the two single stresses, whereas in Cappelli the same treatment triggered a number of differentially expressed genes lower than those altered in response to heat stress alone. This work provides clear evidences that the genetic system based on Cappelli and Ofanto represents an ideal tool for the genetic dissection of the molecular response to drought and other abiotic stresses.


Assuntos
Adaptação Biológica , Secas , Temperatura Alta , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Triticum/fisiologia , Água , Envelhecimento/genética , Análise por Conglomerados , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genótipo , Glioxilatos/metabolismo , Redes e Vias Metabólicas , Oxirredução , Folhas de Planta , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Característica Quantitativa Herdável , Estabilidade de RNA , Transdução de Sinais
10.
Cancer Epidemiol ; 37(3): 300-5, 2013 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23403129

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We investigated occupational risk of multiple myeloma (MM) in a pooled analysis of five international case-control studies. METHODS: We calculated the odds ratio and its 95% confidence interval for selected occupations with unconditional regression analysis in 1959 MM cases and 6192 controls, by pooling study-specific risks using random-effects meta-analysis. Exposure to organic solvents was assessed with a job-exposure matrix (JEM). RESULTS: Gardeners and nursery workers combined, most likely exposed to pesticides, showed a 50% increase in risk (OR = 1.50, 95% CI 0.9-2.3), while other farming jobs did not. Metal processors (OR = 1.55, 95% CI 0.9-2.3), female cleaners (OR = 1.32, 95% CI 1.0-1.8), and high level exposure to organic solvents (OR = 1.38, 95% CI 0.96-1.8) also showed moderately increased risks. CONCLUSIONS: Additional case-control studies of MM aetiology are warranted to further investigate the nature of the repeatedly reported increase in MM risk in several occupational groups.


Assuntos
Mieloma Múltiplo/epidemiologia , Doenças Profissionais/epidemiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Mieloma Múltiplo/etiologia , Doenças Profissionais/etiologia , Exposição Ocupacional/estatística & dados numéricos , Ocupações/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
11.
J Occup Med Toxicol ; 7(1): 25, 2012 Dec 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23241100

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The EPILYMPH study applied a detailed occupational exposure assessment approach to a large multi-centre case-control study conducted in six European countries. This paper analysed multiple myeloma (MM) risk associated with level of education, and lifetime occupational history and occupational exposures, based on the EPILYMPH data set. METHODS: 277 MM cases and four matched controls per each case were included. Controls were randomly selected, matching for age (+/- 5 years), centre and gender. Lifetime occupations and lifetime exposure to specific workplace agents was obtained through a detailed questionnaire. Local industrial hygienists assessed likelihood and intensity for specific exposures. The odds ratio and 95% confidence intervals (OR, 95% CI) were calculated for level of education, individual occupations and specific exposures. Unconditional logistic regression models were run for individual occupations and exposures. RESULTS: A low level of education was associated with MM OR=1.68 (95% CI 1.02-2.76). An increased risk was observed for general farmers (OR=1.77; 95% CI 1.05-2.99) and cleaning workers (OR=1.69; 95% CI 1.04-2.72) adjusting for level of education. Risk was also elevated, although not significant, for printers (OR=2.06; 95% CI 0.97-4.34). Pesticide exposure over a period of ten years or more increased MM risk (OR=1.62; 95% CI 1.01-2.58). CONCLUSION: These results confirm an association of MM with farm work, and indicate its association with printing and cleaning. While prolonged exposure to pesticides seems to be a risk factor for MM, an excess risk associated with exposure to organic solvents could not be confirmed.

12.
J Ind Microbiol Biotechnol ; 39(12): 1875-80, 2012 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22996308

RESUMO

It has been demonstrated that Agaricus bisporus tyrosinase is able to oxidize various phenolic compounds, thus being an enzyme of great importance for a number of biotechnological applications. The tyrosinase-coding PPO2 gene was isolated by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) using total RNA extracted from the mushroom fruit bodies as template. The gene was sequenced and cloned into pYES2 plasmid, and the resulting pY-PPO2 recombinant vector was then used to transform Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells. Native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis followed by enzymatic activity staining with L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA) indicated that the recombinant tyrosinase is biologically active. The recombinant enzyme was overexpressed and biochemically characterized, showing that the catalytic constants of the recombinant tyrosinase were higher than those obtained when a commercial tyrosinase was used, for all the tested substrates. The present study describes the recombinant production of A. bisporus tyrosinase in active form. The produced enzyme has similar properties to the one produced in the native A. bisporus host, and its expression in S. cerevisiae provides good potential for protein engineering and functional studies of this important enzyme.


Assuntos
Agaricus/enzimologia , Monofenol Mono-Oxigenase/biossíntese , Monofenol Mono-Oxigenase/genética , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Agaricus/genética , Sequência de Bases , Biocatálise , Western Blotting , Eletroforese em Gel de Poliacrilamida , Cinética , Monofenol Mono-Oxigenase/isolamento & purificação , Monofenol Mono-Oxigenase/metabolismo , Oxirredução , Proteínas Recombinantes/biossíntese , Proteínas Recombinantes/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes/isolamento & purificação , Proteínas Recombinantes/metabolismo , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/citologia , Especificidade por Substrato
13.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 56: 72-8, 2012 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22609457

RESUMO

We report the effect of heat, drought and combined stress on the expression of a group of genes that are up-regulated under these conditions in durum wheat (Triticum turgidum subsp. durum) plants. Modulation of gene expression was studied by cDNA-AFLP performed on RNAs extracted from flag leaves. By this approach, we identified several novel durum wheat genes whose expression is modulated under different stress conditions. We focused on a group of hitherto undescribed up-regulated genes in durum wheat, among these, 7 are up-regulated by heat, 8 by drought stress, 15 by combined heat and drought stress, 4 are up-regulated by both heat and combined stress, and 3 by both drought and combined stress. The functional characterization of these genes will provide new data that could help the developing of strategies aimed at improving durum wheat tolerance to field stress.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica/genética , Secas , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genes de Plantas , Temperatura Alta , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Triticum/genética , Folhas de Planta , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Regulação para Cima
14.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; (2): CD004873, 2012 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22336805

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This is an update of the original Cochrane review published in 2005 and updated in 2007. Acute bronchiolitis is the leading cause of medical emergencies during winter in children younger than two years of age. Chest physiotherapy is thought to assist infants in the clearance of secretions and to decrease ventilatory effort. OBJECTIVES: The main objective was to determine the efficacy of chest physiotherapy in infants aged less than 24 months old with acute bronchiolitis. A secondary objective was to determine the efficacy of different techniques of chest physiotherapy (for example, vibration and percussion and passive forced exhalation). SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library 2011, Issue 4) which contains the Cochrane Acute Respiratory Infections Group's Specialised Register, MEDLINE (1966 to November week 3, 2011), MEDLINE in-process and other non-indexed citations (8 December 2011), EMBASE.com (1990 to December 2011), CINAHL (1982 to December 2011), LILACS (1985 to December 2011) and Web of Science (1985 to December 2011). SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) in which chest physiotherapy was compared against no intervention or against another type of physiotherapy in bronchiolitis patients younger than 24 months of age. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently extracted data. Primary outcomes were respiratory parameters and improvement in severity of disease. Secondary outcomes were length of hospital stay, duration of oxygen supplementation and the use of bronchodilators and steroids. No pooling of data was possible. MAIN RESULTS: Nine clinical trials including 891 participants were included comparing physiotherapy with no intervention. Five trials (246 participants) evaluated vibration and percussion techniques and four trials (645 participants) evaluated passive expiratory techniques. We observed no significant differences in the severity of disease (eight trials, 867 participants). Results were negative for both types of physiotherapy. We observed no differences between groups in respiratory parameters (two trials, 118 participants), oxygen requirements (one trial, 50 participants), length of stay (five trials, 222 participants) or severe side effects (two trials, 595 participants). Differences in mild transient adverse effects (vomiting and respiratory instability) have been observed (one trial, 496 participants). AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Since the last publication of this review new good-quality evidence has appeared, strengthening the conclusions of the review. Chest physiotherapy does not improve the severity of the disease, respiratory parameters, or reduce length of hospital stay or oxygen requirements in hospitalised infants with acute bronchiolitis not on mechanical ventilation. Chest physiotherapy modalities (vibration and percussion or forced expiratory techniques) have shown equally negative results.


Assuntos
Bronquiolite/terapia , Terapia Respiratória/métodos , Doença Aguda , Albuterol/uso terapêutico , Broncodilatadores/uso terapêutico , Drenagem Postural , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Oxigenoterapia/métodos , Percussão/métodos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Cloreto de Sódio/uso terapêutico , Vibração/uso terapêutico
15.
Mol Biol Rep ; 38(8): 5219-29, 2011 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21197602

RESUMO

Senescence is an integrated response of plants to various internal (developmental) and external (environmental) signals. It is a highly regulated process leading eventually to the death of cells, single organs such as leaves, or even whole plants. In cereals, which are monocarpic plants, senescence represents the final stage of development. In order to study senescence in durum wheat (Triticum turgidum subsp. durum), a cDNA-AFLP analysis was performed. The transcription profiles of plants at different developmental stages (flowering and senescent) were compared. About 2000 cDNA fragments, ranging in size from 160 to 1900 bp, were reproducibly detected. This allowed the identification of 57 differentially expressed cDNAs corresponding to genes belonging to different functional categories related to cellular metabolism, transcription, maintenance of DNA structure, transport and signal transduction. This paper reports the identification of novel durum wheat candidate genes involved in the senescence process, and provides new information about the senescence programme of this important crop species.


Assuntos
Análise do Polimorfismo de Comprimento de Fragmentos Amplificados/métodos , DNA Complementar/genética , Estudos de Associação Genética , Triticum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Triticum/genética , Clorofila/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Folhas de Planta/genética , Folhas de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa
16.
G Ital Med Lav Ergon ; 33(3 Suppl): 103-5, 2011 Jul-Sep.
Artigo em Italiano | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23393813

RESUMO

European case-control study evaluates occupational risk of multiple myeloma (MM) in 277MM cases and 1108 matched controls, using logistic regression analysis and adjusting by age, gender, study centre and education. An increase in MM risk was observed for general farmers, cleaners, telephone and radio operators, and printers. Pesticide exposure lasting ten years or more, but not exposure to solvents, was also associated with an elevated MM risk (OR = 1.62; 95% CI 1.01-2.58). Our results confirm an association of multiple myeloma with farm work, and particularly with prolonged exposure to pesticides.


Assuntos
Mieloma Múltiplo/etiologia , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco
17.
G Ital Med Lav Ergon ; 33(3 Suppl): 106-7, 2011 Jul-Sep.
Artigo em Italiano | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23393814

RESUMO

We analyzed risk associated with exposure to pesticides and contact with livestock in 277 multiple myeloma (MM) cases and 2434 controls who participated in the multicentre European EPILYMPH study. Ever exposure to organic pesticides or contact with any species of livestock was not associated with an increase in risk of MM. However, risk associated with ever exposure to pesticides was elevated after adjusting for contact with sheep (OR = 2.0, 95% CI 1.2-3.3). The finding of an excess risk associated with ever exposure to any pesticides after adjusting for contact with breeding animals is most likely due to chance.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Trabalhadores Agrícolas/etiologia , Agricultura , Mieloma Múltiplo/etiologia , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Humanos , Fatores de Risco
18.
J Occup Med Toxicol ; 3: 27, 2008 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19014617

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Multiple myeloma has been linked to farming for over thirty years. However, there is little clarity about the magnitude of the risk, nor about the specific agricultural exposures which contribute to the risk. METHODS: We have carried out a systematic review of case-control studies of multiple myeloma published from 1970 to October 2007. Studies were identified through database searches and from references in the literature.Studies reporting risk estimates from farming, agricultural exposures, and exposure to animals were identified, and details abstracted. The impact of study heterogeneity, publication bias, variation in methods of case identification and exposure ascertainment between studies were considered in analysis. RESULTS: Case control studies showed a pooled odds ratio (OR) for working as a farmer of 1.39 95% CI 1.18 to 1.65. There was no graphic evidence of publication bias, for pesticide exposure 1.47; 95% 1.11 to 1.94, for DDT 2.19; CI 95% 1.30 to 2.95; for exposed to herbicides 1.69; 95 %CI 1.01 to 1.83. For working on a farm for more than ten years OR was 1.87; 95% CI 1.15 to 3.16. CONCLUSION: Farmers seem to have increase risk for MM. However, a major limitation of this analysis is the presence of significant heterogeneity across the studies and the evidence of publication bias in some models.A pooled analysis using individual level data could provide more power and permit the harmonization of occupational and exposure coding data.

19.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; (4): CD005259, 2008 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18843687

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Knee arthroscopy is a frequent surgical procedure. Arthroscopy procedures are considered minimally invasive. However, some patients will need extended surgical time, suffer injury and immobilization thus increasing the risk for thromboembolic events. Incidence of deep venous thrombosis (DVT) in patients undergoing knee arthroscopy is reported to be from 0.6% to 17.9% depending on the diagnostic method used. Different approaches are available for thromboprophylaxis (mechanical or pharmacological). OBJECTIVES: To assess the effectiveness and safety of thromboprophylaxis to reduce the incidence of DVT in patients undergoing knee arthroscopy. SEARCH STRATEGY: We searched the Cochrane Peripheral Vascular Diseases Group Specialized Register (last searched October 2006) the CENTRAL (last searched Issue 4, 2006), MEDLINE (1966 to 2006), EMBASE (1980 to 2006), and Lilacs (1988 to 2006). We contacted specialists known to be involved in phlebology and interested in post thrombotic syndrome for details of unpublished and ongoing trials. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomized clinical trials (RCTs) and controlled clinical trials (CCTs), whether blinded or not (i.e. double blinded, single blinded or unblinded) of all type of interventions, whether mechanical or pharmacological, single or in combination, used to prevent DVT in males and females over 18 years old undergoing knee arthroscopy. There was no restriction on language. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two authors independently assessed trial quality and extracted data. Study authors were contacted for additional information. MAIN RESULTS: Four trials involving 527 predominantly male participants were included. The main weakness of the studies was the lack of correct stratification of the arthroscopic intervention.The relative risk (RR) of thrombotic events was 0.16 (95% confidence interval (CI); 0.05 to 0.52) comparing any type of low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) versus placebo. All thrombotic events but one (pulmonary embolism in the LMWH group) were distal venous thrombosis. Adverse events were most common in the intervention group than in the control group, RR 2.04 (95% CI 1.21 to 3.44). There were 66 episodes of adverse events. The number needed to harm was 20 for any adverse events. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: This meta-analysis suggests that LMWH reduces the incidence of distal DVT diagnosed by sonogram. The clinical benefit of this is uncertain. No strong evidence was found to conclude thromboprophylaxis is effective to prevent thromboembolic events and safe, in people with unknown risk factors for thrombosis, undergoing knee arthroscopy.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Artroscopia/efeitos adversos , Heparina de Baixo Peso Molecular/uso terapêutico , Articulação do Joelho/cirurgia , Trombose Venosa/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Humanos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Meias de Compressão
20.
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol ; 79(5): 731-41, 2008 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18443781

RESUMO

A full length cDNA encoding an extracellular laccase was isolated by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction from the mycelia of the mushroom Pleurotus eryngii. The isolated sequence, denoted Ery3, encodes for a mature laccase isoenzyme of 531 amino acid residues with a predicted molecular weight of 56.6 kDa. All sequence motifs, being the signature sequences used to identify the laccases, were found in the Ery3 protein sequence. The Ery3 cDNA was expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and the effects of copper concentration and cultivation temperature were investigated. S. cerevisiae cells were immobilized in calcium alginate gel and the optimal immobilization parameters for the enhanced production of laccase were determined. The immobilization was most effective with 3% sodium alginate, 0.1 M calcium chloride and an initial biomass of 4.5 x 10(8) cells. The enzyme yield obtained with immobilized cells (139 mU ml(-1)) showed a 1.6-fold increase compared to the highest yield obtained with free cells. The alginate beads showed good stability and retained 84% capacity of enzyme production after seven repeated cycles of batch fermentation. The immobilization system proved to increase the proteolytic stability of the recombinant Ery3 protein. To our knowledge, this is the first report on S. cerevisiae whole-cell immobilization for recombinant laccase production.


Assuntos
Clonagem Molecular , Proteínas Fúngicas/metabolismo , Expressão Gênica , Lacase/metabolismo , Pleurotus/enzimologia , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Biomassa , Células Imobilizadas/metabolismo , Estabilidade Enzimática , Proteínas Fúngicas/química , Proteínas Fúngicas/genética , Lacase/química , Lacase/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes/química , Proteínas Recombinantes/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes/metabolismo , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética
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