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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(15)2021 Aug 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34361096

RESUMO

Adenosine Deaminase 2 Deficiency (DADA2) syndrome is a rare monogenic disorder prevalently linked to recessive inherited loss of function mutations in the ADA2/CECR1 gene. It consists of an immune systemic disease including autoinflammatory vasculopathies, with a frequent onset at infancy/early childhood age. DADA2 syndrome encompasses pleiotropic manifestations such as stroke, systemic vasculitis, hematologic alterations, and immunodeficiency. Although skeletal abnormalities have been reported in patients with this disease, clear information about skeletal health, with appropriate biochemical-clinical characterization/management, its evolution over time and any appropriate clinical management is still insufficient. In this paper, after a general introduction shortly reviewing the pathophysiology of Ada2 enzymatic protein, its potential role in bone health, we describe a case study of two 27 year-old DADA2 monozygotic female twins exhibiting bone mineral density and bone turnover rate abnormalities over the years of their clinical follow-up.


Assuntos
Adenosina Desaminase/genética , Agamaglobulinemia/patologia , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Homozigoto , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intercelular/genética , Fenótipo , Imunodeficiência Combinada Severa/patologia , Adulto , Agamaglobulinemia/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Linhagem , Imunodeficiência Combinada Severa/genética
4.
Endocr Pract ; 2021 Jul 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34325041

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Among patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D), the prevalence of hidden hypercortisolism (HidHyCo, formally called subclinical hypercortisolism or mild autonomous cortisol secretion) was estimated to be 2.2-12.1%. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the available literature helps to identify the characteristics of T2D patients more frequently associated with HidHyCo. METHODS: A meta-analysis was performed using studies that assessed both the prevalence of HidHyCo in patients with T2D and the characteristics of these patients with and without HidHyCo. The DerSimonian and Laird (DSL) and the Hartung, Knapp, Sidik and Jonkman (HKSJ) methods were utilized. RESULTS: Among the 18 available studies, 6 studies provided the necessary data. The association between HidHyCo and advanced T2D (based on the patients' description given in each study in presence of micro/ microvascular complications, or insulin treatment plus hypertension, or hypertension treated with ≥2 drugs), hypertension, insulin treatment and dyslipidemia was reported in 5 (2184 patients), 6 (2283 patients), 3 (1440 patients), and 3 (987 patients) studies, respectively. HidHyCo was associated with advanced T2D as assessed with both DSL (odds ratio, OR, 3.47, 95% Confidence Interval, 95%CI, 2.12-5.67) and HKSJ method (OR 3.60, 95%CI 2.03-6.41) and with the prevalence of hypertension or of insulin treatment as assessed by the DSL approach (OR 1.92, 95%CI 1.05-3.50 and OR 2.29, 95%CI 1.07-4.91, respectively), but not as assessed with HKSJ method. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with advanced T2D have a higher prevalence of HidHyCo. These data inform about the selection of T2D patients for HidHyCo screening.

5.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 566, 2021 Jun 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34126960

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Vitamin D deficiency has been suggested to favor a poorer outcome of Coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19). We aimed to assess if 25-hydroxyvitamin-D (25OHD) levels are associated with interleukin 6 (IL-6) levels and with disease severity and mortality in COVID-19. METHODS: We prospectively studied 103 in-patients admitted to a Northern-Italian hospital (age 66.1 ± 14.1 years, 70 males) for severely-symptomatic COVID-19. Fifty-two subjects with SARS-CoV-2 infection but mild COVID-19 symptoms (mildly-symptomatic COVID-19 patients) and 206 subjects without SARS-CoV-2 infection were controls. We measured 25OHD and IL-6 levels at admission and focused on respiratory outcome during hospitalization. RESULTS: Severely-symptomatic COVID-19 patients had lower 25OHD levels (18.2 ± 11.4 ng/mL) than mildly-symptomatic COVID-19 patients and non-SARS-CoV-2-infected controls (30.3 ± 8.5 ng/mL and 25.4 ± 9.4 ng/mL, respectively, p < 0.0001 for both comparisons). 25OHD and IL-6 levels were respectively lower and higher in severely-symptomatic COVID-19 patients admitted to intensive care Unit [(ICU), 14.4 ± 8.6 ng/mL and 43.0 (19.0-56.0) pg/mL, respectively], than in those not requiring ICU admission [22.4 ± 1.4 ng/mL, p = 0.0001 and 16.0 (8.0-32.0) pg/mL, p = 0.0002, respectively]. Similar differences were found when comparing COVID-19 patients who died in hospital [13.2 ± 6.4 ng/mL and 45.0 (28.0-99.0) pg/mL] with survivors [19.3 ± 12.0 ng/mL, p = 0.035 and 21.0 (10.5-45.9) pg/mL, p = 0.018, respectively). 25OHD levels inversely correlated with: i) IL-6 levels (ρ - 0.284, p = 0.004); ii) the subsequent need of the ICU admission [relative risk, RR 0.99, 95% confidence interval (95%CI) 0.98-1.00, p = 0.011] regardless of age, gender, presence of at least 1 comorbidity among obesity, diabetes, arterial hypertension, creatinine, IL-6 and lactate dehydrogenase levels, neutrophil cells, lymphocytes and platelets count; iii) mortality (RR 0.97, 95%CI, 0.95-0.99, p = 0.011) regardless of age, gender, presence of diabetes, IL-6 and C-reactive protein and lactate dehydrogenase levels, neutrophil cells, lymphocytes and platelets count. CONCLUSION: In our COVID-19 patients, low 25OHD levels were inversely correlated with high IL-6 levels and were independent predictors of COVID-19 severity and mortality.


Assuntos
COVID-19/sangue , COVID-19/mortalidade , SARS-CoV-2/genética , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Vitamina D/análogos & derivados , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , COVID-19/complicações , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Calcifediol/administração & dosagem , Comorbidade , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Interleucina-6/sangue , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Admissão do Paciente , Estudos Prospectivos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , Vitamina D/sangue , Deficiência de Vitamina D/complicações , Vitaminas/administração & dosagem
6.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 12: 664557, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34149617

RESUMO

The mechanisms underlying thyroid gland development have a central interest in biology and this review is aimed to provide an update on the recent advancements on the early steps of thyroid differentiation that were obtained in the zebrafish, because this teleost fish revealed to be a suitable organism to study the early developmental stages. Physiologically, the thyroid precursors fate is delineated by the appearance among the endoderm cells of the foregut of a restricted cell population expressing specific transcription factors, including pax2a, nkx2.4b, and hhex. The committed thyroid primordium first appears as a thickening of the pharyngeal floor of the anterior endoderm, that subsequently detaches from the floor and migrates to its final location where it gives rise to the thyroid hormone-producing follicles. At variance with mammalian models, thyroid precursor differentiation in zebrafish occurs early during the developmental process before the dislocation to the eutopic positioning of thyroid follicles. Several pathways have been implicated in these early events and nowadays there is evidence of a complex crosstalk between intrinsic (coming from the endoderm and thyroid precursors) and extrinsic factors (coming from surrounding tissues, as the cardiac mesoderm) whose organization in time and space is probably required for the proper thyroid development. In particular, Notch, Shh, Fgf, Bmp, and Wnt signaling seems to be required for the commitment of endodermal cells to a thyroid fate at specific developmental windows of zebrafish embryo. Here, we summarize the recent findings produced in the various zebrafish experimental models with the aim to define a comprehensive picture of such complicated puzzle.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33960321

RESUMO

Summary: Resistance to thyroid hormone (RTH) is a rare hereditary syndrome with impaired sensitivity to thyroid hormones (TH) and reduced intracellular action of triiodothyronine (T3) caused by genetic variants of TH receptor beta (TRB) or alpha (TRA). RTH type beta (RTHß) due to dominant negative variants in the TRB gene usually occurs with persistent elevation of circulating free TH, non-suppressed serum TSH levels responding to a thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) test, an absence of typical symptoms of hyperthyroidism and goiter. Here, we present a rare variant in the TRB gene reported for the first time in an Italian patient with generalized RTHß syndrome. The patient showed elevated TH, with non-suppressed TSH levels and underwent thyroid surgery two different times for multinodular goiter. The genetic test showed a heterozygous mutation in exon 9 of the TRB gene resulting in the replacement of threonine (ACG) with methionine (ATG) at codon 310 (p.M310T). RTHß syndrome should be considered in patients with elevated TH, non-suppressed TSH levels and goiter. Learning points: Resistance to thyroid hormone (RTH) is a rare autosomal dominant hereditary syndrome with impaired tissue responsiveness to thyroid hormones (TH). Diagnosis of RTH is usually based on the clinical finding of discrepant thyroid function tests and confirmed by a genetic test. RTH is a rare condition that must be considered for the management of patients with goiter, elevation of TH and non-suppressed serum TSH levels in order to avoid unnecessary treatments.

8.
Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 35(2): 101494, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33814301

RESUMO

Adrenal incidentalomas (AI) may be associated with a mild autonomous cortisol secretion (MACS) in up to one third of cases. There is growing evidence that MACS patients actually present increased risk of cardiovascular disease and higher mortality rate, driven by increased prevalence of known cardiovascular risk factors, as well as accelerated cardiovascular remodelling. Adrenalectomy seems to have cardiometabolic beneficial effects in MACS patients but their management is still a debated topic due to the lack of high-quality studies. Several studies suggested that so called "non-functioning" AI may be actually "functioning" with an associated increased cardiovascular risk. Although the individual cortisol sensitivity and peripheral activation have been recently suggested to play a role in influencing the cardiovascular risk even in apparently eucortisolemic patients, to date the degree of cortisol secretion, as mirrored by the cortisol levels after dexamethasone suppression test remains the best predictor of an increased cardiovascular risk in AI patients. However, whether or not the currently used cut-off set at 50 nmol/L for cortisol levels after dexamethasone suppression could be considered completely reliable in ruling out hypercortisolism remains unclear.


Assuntos
Neoplasias das Glândulas Suprarrenais , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Neoplasias das Glândulas Suprarrenais/cirurgia , Adrenalectomia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Humanos , Hidrocortisona , Achados Incidentais
9.
PLoS One ; 16(4): e0249614, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33822817

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Data on the role of hypothyroidism in the pathogenesis of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and liver fibrosis are conflicting, although selective Thyroid Hormone Receptor (THR)-ß agonists have been identified as potential therapy in patients with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Therefore, we investigated the association between hypothyroidism and NAFLD histological features potentially associated with progressive liver disease. METHODS: Between 2014 and 2016, consecutive patients with histologically proven NAFLD and frozen serum available for thyroid function tests assessment were included. NAFLD was staged according to the NAFLD Activity Score (NAS), and fibrosis according to Kleiner. NASH was defined as NAS ≥4, significant fibrosis as F2-F4 and significant steatosis as S2-S3. Thyroid function tests (TFT; TSH, FT3, FT4, rT3), TPO-Ab and Tg-Ab were also assessed. RESULTS: Fifty-two patients were analyzed: median age 54 years, 58% females, LSM 7.8 kPa, 27% diabetics, 14% hypothyroid. At histology, NASH was present in 21 (40%), F2-F4 in 28 (54%) and S2-S3 in 30 (58%) patients. Rates of hypothyroidism were similar independently of the presence of NASH (p = 0.11), significant fibrosis (p = 0.21) or steatosis (p = 0.75). However, hypothyroid patients displayed a higher NAS (p = 0.02) and NASH (p = 0.06) prevalence. At multivariate analysis, TFT were not independently associated with histology. CONCLUSION: Hypothyroidism was highly prevalent in NAFLD patients, and was associated with increased NAFLD activity, but not with fibrosis and steatosis severity. Thus, thyroid dysfunction might play a direct and/or indirect in the pathogenesis of NAFLD and NASH.


Assuntos
Cirrose Hepática/complicações , Fígado/patologia , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/patologia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Glândula Tireoide/patologia , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Seguimentos , Técnicas Histológicas , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/etiologia , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Testes de Função Tireóidea
10.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(6)2021 Mar 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33809722

RESUMO

Medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) is a tumor deriving from the thyroid C cells. Vandetanib (VAN) and cabozantinib (CAB) are two tyrosine kinase inhibitors targeting REarranged during Transfection (RET) and other kinase receptors and are approved for the treatment of advanced MTC. We aim to compare the in vitro and in vivo anti-tumor activity of VAN and CAB in MTC. The effects of VAN and CAB on viability, cell cycle, and apoptosis of TT and MZ-CRC-1 cells are evaluated in vitro using an MTT assay, DNA flow cytometry with propidium iodide, and Annexin V-FITC/propidium iodide staining, respectively. In vivo, the anti-angiogenic potential of VAN and CAB is evaluated in Tg(fli1a:EGFP)y1 transgenic fluorescent zebrafish embryos by analyzing the effects on the physiological development of the sub-intestinal vein plexus and the tumor-induced angiogenesis after TT and MZ-CRC-1 xenotransplantation. VAN and CAB exert comparable effects on TT and MZ-CRC-1 viability inhibition and cell cycle perturbation, and stimulated apoptosis with a prominent effect by VAN in MZ-CRC-1 and CAB in TT cells. Regarding zebrafish, both drugs inhibit angiogenesis in a dose-dependent manner, in particular CAB shows a more potent anti-angiogenic activity than VAN. To conclude, although VAN and CAB show comparable antiproliferative effects in MTC, the anti-angiogenic activity of CAB appears to be more relevant.


Assuntos
Inibidores da Angiogênese/uso terapêutico , Anilidas/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma Neuroendócrino/tratamento farmacológico , Piperidinas/uso terapêutico , Piridinas/uso terapêutico , Quinazolinas/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/tratamento farmacológico , Peixe-Zebra/fisiologia , Anilidas/farmacologia , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Carcinoma Neuroendócrino/irrigação sanguínea , Carcinoma Neuroendócrino/patologia , Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Embrião não Mamífero/irrigação sanguínea , Embrião não Mamífero/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Neovascularização Patológica/tratamento farmacológico , Neovascularização Fisiológica/efeitos dos fármacos , Piridinas/farmacologia , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/irrigação sanguínea , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/patologia , Peixe-Zebra/embriologia
11.
Endocrine ; 71(3): 696-705, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33650047

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Congenital hypothyroidism (CH) is the most frequent neonatal endocrine disorder and one of the most common preventable forms of mental retardation worldwide. CH is due to thyroid development or thyroid function defects (primary) or may be of hypothalamic-pituitary origin (central). Primary CH is caused essentially by abnormal thyroid gland morphogenesis (thyroid dysgenesis, TD) or defective thyroid hormone synthesis (dyshormonogenesis, DH). TD accounts for about 65% of CH, however a genetic cause is identified in less than 5% of patients. PURPOSE: The pathogenesis of CH is largely unknown and may include the contribution of individual and environmental factors. During the last years, detailed phenotypic description of patients, next-generation sequence technologies and use of animal models allowed the discovery of novel candidate genes in thyroid development, function and pathways. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: We provide an overview of recent genetic causes of primary and central CH. In addition, mode of inheritance and the oligogenic model of CH are discussed.


Assuntos
Hipotireoidismo Congênito , Disgenesia da Tireoide , Hipotireoidismo Congênito/genética , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Mutação , Disgenesia da Tireoide/genética , Hormônios Tireóideos
12.
Eur J Endocrinol ; 184(5): 699-709, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33683214

RESUMO

Objective: Alterations in thyroid function tests (TFTs) have been recorded during SARS-CoV-2 infection as associated to either a destructive thyroiditis or a non-thyroidal illness. Methods: We studied 144 consecutive COVID-19 patients admitted to a single center in intensive or subintensive care units. Those with previous thyroid dysfunctions or taking interfering drugs were excluded. Differently from previous reports, TSH, FT3, FT4, thyroglobulin (Tg), anti-Tg autoantibodies (TgAb) were measured at baseline and every 3-7 days. C-reacting protein (CRP), cortisol and IL-6 were also assayed. Results: The majority of patients had a normal TSH at admission, usually with normal FT4 and FT3. Low TSH levels were found either at admission or during hospitalization in 39% of patients, associated with low FT3 in half of the cases. FT4 and Tg levels were normal, and TgAb-negative. TSH and FT3 were invariably restored at the time of discharge in survivors, whereas were permanently low in most deceased cases, but only FT3 levels were predictors of mortality. Cortisol, CRP and IL-6 levels were higher in patients with low TSH and FT3 levels. Conclusions: Almost half of our COVID-19 patients without interfering drugs had normal TFTs both at admission and during follow-up. In this series, the transient finding of low TSH with normal FT4 and low FT3 levels, inversely correlated with CRP, cortisol and IL-6 and associated with normal Tg levels, is likely due to the cytokine storm induced by SARS-Cov-2 with a direct or mediated impact on TSH secretion and deiodinase activity, and likely not to a destructive thyroiditis.


Assuntos
COVID-19/sangue , Tireoglobulina/sangue , Tireotropina/sangue , Tiroxina/sangue , Tri-Iodotironina/sangue , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Autoanticorpos/imunologia , Proteína C-Reativa/imunologia , COVID-19/imunologia , Feminino , Humanos , Hidrocortisona/sangue , Interleucina-6/imunologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , SARS-CoV-2 , Tireoglobulina/imunologia , Testes de Função Tireóidea
13.
Endocrine ; 73(1): 186-195, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33630246

RESUMO

PURPOSE: It has been hypothesized that specific early-life stress (ES) procedures on CD-1 male mice produce diabetes-like alterations due to the failure of negative feedback of glucocorticoid hormone in the pituitary. The aim of this study is to investigate the possible mechanism that leads to this pathological model, framing it in a more specific clinical condition. METHODS: Metabolic and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-related hormones of stressed mice (SM) have been analyzed immediately after stress procedures (21 postnatal days, PND) and after 70 days of a peaceful (unstressed) period (90 PND). These data have been compared to parameters from age-matched controls (CTR), and mice treated during ES procedures with oligonucleotide antisense for pro-opiomelanocortin (AS-POMC). RESULTS: At 21 PND, SM presented an increased secretion of hypothalamic CRH and pituitary POMC-derived peptides, as well as higher plasmatic levels of ACTH and corticosterone vs. CTR. At 90 PND, SM showed hyperglycemia, with suppression of hypothalamic CRH, while pituitary and plasmatic ACTH levels, as well as plasma corticosterone, were constantly higher than in CTR. These values are accompanied by a progressive acceleration in gaining total body weight, which became significant vs. CTR at 90 PND together with a higher pituitary weight. Treatment with AS-POMC prevented all hormonal and metabolic alterations observed in SM, both at 21 and 90 PND. CONCLUSIONS: These findings show that these specific ES procedures affect the negative glucocorticoid feedback in the pituitary, but not in the hypothalamus, suggesting a novel model of ACTH-dependent hypercortisolism that can be prevented by silencing the POMC gene.


Assuntos
Experiências Adversas da Infância , Síndrome de Cushing , Hormônio Adrenocorticotrópico , Animais , Corticosterona , Hormônio Liberador da Corticotropina , Masculino , Camundongos , Sistema Hipófise-Suprarrenal , Pró-Opiomelanocortina/genética , Estresse Psicológico/complicações
14.
Endocr Relat Cancer ; 28(4): 225-235, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33640868

RESUMO

Cytology is the gold standard method for the differential diagnosis of thyroid nodules, though 25-30% of them are classified as indeterminate. We aimed to set up a 'thyroid risk score' (TRS) to increase the diagnostic accuracy in these cases. We prospectively tested 135 indeterminate thyroid nodules. The pre-surgical TRS derived from the sum of the scores assigned at cytology, EU-TIRADS classification, nodule measurement, and molecular characterization, which was done by our PTC-MA assay, a customized array able to cost-effectively evaluate 24 different genetic alterations including point mutations and gene fusions. The risk of malignancy (ROM) increased paralleling the score: in the category >4 and ≤ 6 (low suspicion), >6 ≤ 8 (intermediate suspicion), and >8 (high suspicion); ROM was 10, 47 and 100%, respectively. ROC curves selected the score >6.5 as the best threshold to differentiate between malignant and benign nodules (P < 0.001). The TRS > 6.5 had a better performance than the single parameters evaluated separately, with an accuracy of 77 and 82% upon inclusion of noninvasive follicular thyroid neoplasm with papillary-like nuclear features among malignant or benign cases, respectively. In conclusion, for the first time, we generated a score combining a cost-effective molecular assay with already validated tools, harboring different specificities and sensitivities, for the differential diagnosis of indeterminate nodules. The combination of different parameters reduced the number of false negatives inherent to each classification system. The TRS > 6.5 was highly suggestive for malignancy and retained a high accuracy in the identification of patients to be submitted to surgery.

15.
Thyroid ; 31(7): 1030-1040, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33446056

RESUMO

Background: Loss-of-function mutations of thyrotropin receptor (TSHR) are one of the main causes of congenital hypothyroidism. As for many disease-associated G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs), these mutations often affect the correct trafficking and maturation of the receptor, thus impairing the expression on the cell surface. Several retained GPCR mutants are able to effectively bind their ligands and to transduce signals when they are forced to the cell surface by degradation inhibition or by treatment with chaperones. Despite the large number of well-characterized retained TSHR mutants, no attempts have been made for rescue. Further, little is known about TSHR degradation pathways. We hypothesize that, similar to other GPCRs, TSHR retained mutants may be at least partially functional if their maturation and membrane expression is facilitated by chaperones or degradation inhibitors. Methods: We performed in silico predictions of the functionality of known TSHR variants and compared the results with available in vitro data. Western blot, confocal microscopy, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, and dual luciferase assays were used to investigate the effects of degradation pathways inhibition and of chemical chaperone treatments on TSHR variants' maturation and functionality. Results: We found a high discordance rate between in silico predictions and in vitro data for retained TSHR variants, a fact indicative of a conserved potential to initiate signal transduction if these mutants were expressed on the cell surface. We show experimentally that some maturation defective TSHR mutants are able to effectively transduce Gs/cAMP signaling if their maturation and expression are enhanced by using chemical chaperones. Further, through the characterization of the intracellular retained p.N432D variant, we provide new insights on the TSHR degradation mechanism, as our results suggest that aggregation-prone mutant can be directed toward the autophagosomal pathway instead of the canonical proteasome system. Conclusions: Our study reveals alternative pathways for TSHR degradation. Retained TSHR variants can be functional when expressed on the cell surface membrane, thus opening the possibility of further studies on the pharmacological modulation of TSHR expression and functionality in patients in whom TSHR signaling is disrupted.

16.
Endocrine ; 71(3): 681-688, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33512657

RESUMO

The differential diagnoses of pubertal delay include hypergonadotropic hypogonadism and congenital hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (CHH), as well as constitutional delay of growth and puberty (CDGP). Distinguishing between CDGP and CHH may be challenging, and the scientific community has been struggling to develop diagnostic tests that allow an accurate differential diagnosis. Indeed, an adequate and timely management is critical in order to enable optimal clinical and psychosocial outcomes of the different forms of pubertal delays. In this review, we provide an updated insight on the differential diagnoses of pubertal delay, including the available tests, their meanings and accuracy, as well as some clues to effectively orientate towards either constitutional pubertal delay or pathologic CHH and hypergonadotropic hypogonadism.


Assuntos
Hipogonadismo , Puberdade Tardia , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Prova Pericial , Transtornos do Crescimento , Humanos , Hipogonadismo/diagnóstico , Puberdade Tardia/diagnóstico
17.
Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) ; 94(2): 219-228, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32969044

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Sex steroids, administered as a priming before GH stimulation tests (GHST) to differentiate between growth hormone deficiency (GHD) and constitutional delay of growth and puberty (CDGP) or as growth-promoting therapy using low-dose sex steroids (LDSS) in CDGP, are much debated. We aimed to compare auxological outcomes of CDGP or GHD children undergoing primed or unprimed GHST and to evaluate LDSS treatment in CDGP. DESIGN: Retrospective study among three paediatric University Hospitals in Italy and UK. METHODS: 184 children (72 females) aged 12.4 ± 2.08 years underwent primed (/P+ ) or unprimed (/P- ) GHST and were followed up until final height (FH). CDGP patients were untreated (CDG P- ) or received LDSS (CDGP+ ). The cohort included 34 CDG P- /P+ , 12 CDGP+ /P+ , 51 GHD/P+ , 29 CDG P- /P- , 2 CDGP+ /P- and 56 GHD/P- . FH standard deviation score (SDS), Δ SDS FH-target height (TH) and degree of success (-1 ≤ Δ SDS FH-SDS TH ≤ +1) were outcomes of interest. RESULTS: GHD/P+ had better FH-SDS (-0.87 vs -1.49; P = .023) and ΔSDS FH-TH (-0.35 vs -0.77; P = .002) than CDGP- /P+ . Overall, GHD/P+ showed the highest degree of success (90%, P = .006). Regardless of priming, both rhGH and LDSS improved degree of success compared to no treatment (89% and 86% vs 63%, P = .0009). GHD/P+ showed a trend towards a higher proportion of permanent GHD compared to GHD/P- (30.43% vs 15.09%; P = .067). CONCLUSION: In peripubertal children, priming before GHST improves diagnostic accuracy of GHST for idiopathic GHD. LDSS treatment improves auxological outcomes in CDGP.

18.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 106(1): e338-e349, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33124651

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Analysis of a 2-screen program for congenital hypothyroidism (CH) was performed using differential dried-blood spot thyrotropin (bTSH) cutoffs of 10 mU/L at first screening (all infants) and 5 mU/L at second screening (selected infants). OBJECTIVES: This work aimed to characterize CH infants identified by the second screening and compare infants with bTSH of 5.0 to 9.9 and 10 mU/L or greater on second screening. DESIGN AND PATIENTS: Maternal and neonatal clinical features were retrospectively analyzed for 119 CH babies detected on the second screen in the Lombardy region of Italy, 2007 to 2014. RESULTS: Fifty-two (43.7%) of the 119 CH neonates showed bTSH values ranging from 5.0 to 9.9 mU/L at the second screening (low bTSH group) and 67 (56.3%) bTSH of 10.0 mU/L or greater (high bTSH group). The frequency of thyroid dysgenesis and eutopic gland was similar in both groups, as was the frequency of permanent and transient CH. Moreover, a high frequency of extrathyroidal malformations was found in both groups. The percentage of preterm infants (57.7% vs 23.9%, P < .001) and infants admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit (50.0% vs 17.9%, P < .001) was significantly higher in the low vs the high bTSH group. In addition, maternal treatment with glucocorticoids in pregnancy was significantly more frequent in the low bTSH group than in the high bTSH group (11.5% vs 1.5%, P = .042), as well as maternal hypothyroidism and/or goiter (26.9% vs 10.4%, P = .036). CONCLUSIONS: This study has demonstrated that a lower TSH cutoff at the second screening can detect additional cases of CH and that a second bTSH cutoff of 5.0 mU/L is appropriate for identifying preterm newborns and babies with associated risk factors.

19.
J Endocrinol Invest ; 44(3): 459-470, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32537678

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Klinefelter syndrome (KS) is characterized by late adolescence/young adulthood onset of primary hypogonadism. Hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (HH), when congenital, is usually associated with absent/incomplete puberty and low/normal gonadotropins. We report the clinical and genetic features of two subjects with KS and an unexpected HH hormone profile. METHODS: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of hypothalamus-pituitary region and next generation sequencing (NGS) of congenital HH-associated genes were obtained. A narrative review of the literature was conducted. RESULTS: Patients were diagnosed with Klinefelter syndrome following karyotype analysis. Nevertheless, they showed unusual features: both had incomplete puberty, low gonadotropins and testosterone levels, and the first one was anosmic. Sellar lesions were excluded by MRI, and NGS was negative in both subjects. Our data add to those of the only 14 similar cases reported so far. Unexplained HH rarely occurs in KS and is variably associated with anosmia, other pituitary hormones deficiencies and heterogeneous karyotypes. However, most cases show an early, pre-pubertal onset of hypogonadism. If the causes behind this gonadotropins defect are largely unknown, hereby we provide the first review of the literature on this topic and propose some pathogenetic hypotheses, including the coexistence of KS and congenital HH as suggested by overlapping clinical features in some of these patients. CONCLUSION: HH is an exceptional occurrence in Klinefelter syndrome and is associated with heterogeneous phenotypes and, probably, aetiologies. Moreover, KS could underlie HH nonresponsive to gonadotropins. An exhaustive diagnostic workup and a tailored clinical management are advisable in these rare forms.

20.
Thyroid ; 31(3): 387-419, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33272083

RESUMO

Background: An ENDO-European Reference Network (ERN) initiative was launched that was endorsed by the European Society for Pediatric Endocrinology and the European Society for Endocrinology with 22 participants from the ENDO-ERN and the two societies. The aim was to update the practice guidelines for the diagnosis and management of congenital hypothyroidism (CH). A systematic literature search was conducted to identify key articles on neonatal screening, diagnosis, and management of primary and central CH. The evidence-based guidelines were graded with the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation system, describing both the strength of recommendations and the quality of evidence. In the absence of sufficient evidence, conclusions were based on expert opinion. Summary: The recommendations include the various neonatal screening approaches for CH as well as the etiology (also genetics), diagnostics, treatment, and prognosis of both primary and central CH. When CH is diagnosed, the expert panel recommends the immediate start of correctly dosed levothyroxine treatment and frequent follow-up including laboratory testing to keep thyroid hormone levels in their target ranges, timely assessment of the need to continue treatment, attention for neurodevelopment and neurosensory functions, and, if necessary, consulting other health professionals, and education of the child and family about CH. Harmonization of diagnostics, treatment, and follow-up will optimize patient outcomes. Lastly, all individuals with CH are entitled to a well-planned transition of care from pediatrics to adult medicine. Conclusions: This consensus guidelines update should be used to further optimize detection, diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up of children with all forms of CH in the light of the most recent evidence. It should be helpful in convincing health authorities of the benefits of neonatal screening for CH. Further epidemiological and experimental studies are needed to understand the increased incidence of this condition.

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