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1.
JCI Insight ; 3(19)2018 Oct 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30282823

RESUMO

Copeptin, a marker of arginine vasopressin (AVP) secretion, is elevated throughout human pregnancies complicated by preeclampsia (PE), and AVP infusion throughout gestation is sufficient to induce the major phenotypes of PE in mice. Thus, we hypothesized a role for AVP in the pathogenesis of PE. AVP infusion into pregnant C57BL/6J mice resulted in hypertension, renal glomerular endotheliosis, intrauterine growth restriction, decreased placental growth factor (PGF), altered placental morphology, placental oxidative stress, and placental gene expression consistent with human PE. Interestingly, these changes occurred despite a lack of placental hypoxia or elevations in placental fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 (FLT1). Coinfusion of AVP receptor antagonists and time-restricted infusion of AVP uncovered a mid-gestational role for the AVPR1A receptor in the observed renal pathologies, versus mid- and late-gestational roles for the AVPR2 receptor in the blood pressure and fetal phenotypes. These findings demonstrate that AVP is sufficient to initiate phenotypes of PE in the absence of placental hypoxia, and indicate that AVP may mechanistically (independently, and possibly synergistically with hypoxia) contribute to the development of clinical signs of PE in specific subtypes of human PE. Additionally, they identify divergent and gestational time-specific signaling mechanisms that mediate the development of PE phenotypes in response to AVP.

2.
Physiol Genomics ; 50(8): 590-604, 2018 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29702036

RESUMO

G protein-coupled receptor signaling mechanisms are implicated in many aspects of cardiovascular control, and dysfunction of such signaling mechanisms is commonly associated with disease states. Investigators have identified a large number of regulator of G protein signaling (RGS) proteins that variously contribute to the modulation of intracellular second-messenger signaling kinetics. These many RGS proteins each interact with a specific set of second-messenger cascades and receptor types and exhibit tissue-specific expression patterns. Increasing evidence supports the contribution of RGS proteins, or their loss, in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular dysfunctions. This review summarizes the current understanding of the functional contributions of RGS proteins, particularly within the B/R4 family, in cardiovascular disorders of pregnancy including gestational hypertension, uterine artery dysfunction, and preeclampsia.

3.
J Virol ; 2017 Jun 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28615211

RESUMO

The recent Ebola virus (EBOV) epidemic in West Africa demonstrates the potential for a significant public health burden caused by filoviral infections. No vaccine or antiviral is currently FDA-approved. To expand the vaccine options potentially available, we assessed protection conferred by an EBOV vaccine composed of vesicular stomatitis virus pseudovirions that lack native G glycoprotein (VSVΔG) and bear EBOV glycoprotein (GP). These pseudovirions mediate a single round of infection. Both single dose and prime/boost vaccination regimens protected mice against lethal challenge with mouse-adapted Ebola virus (ma-EBOV) in a dose-dependent manner. The prime/boost regimen provided significantly better protection than a single dose. As N-linked glycans are thought to shield conserved regions of the EBOV GP receptor binding domain (RBD) thereby blocking epitopes within the RBD, we also tested if VSVΔG bearing EBOV GPs that lack GP1 N-linked glycans provided effective immunity against challenge with ma-EBOV or a more distantly related virus, Sudan virus. Using a prime/boost strategy, high doses of GP/VSVΔG partially or fully denuded of N-linked glycans on GP1 protected mice against ma-EBOV challenge, but these mutants were no more effective than WT GP/VSVΔG and did not provide cross protection against Sudan virus. As reported for other EBOV vaccine platforms, protection conferred correlated with the quantity of EBOV GP-specific Ig produced, but not the production of neutralizing antibodies. Our results show that EBOV GP/VSVΔG pseudovirions serve as a successful vaccination platform in a rodent model of Ebola virus disease and GP1 N-glycan loss does not influence immunogenicity or vaccination success.IMPORTANCE The West African Ebola virus epidemic was the largest to date with more than 28,000 people infected. No FDA-approved vaccines are yet available, but in a trial vaccination strategy in West Africa, recombinant, infectious VSV encoding the Ebola virus glycoprotein effectively prevented virus-associated disease. VSVΔG pseudovirion vaccines may prove as efficacious and have better safety, but have not been tested to date. Thus, we test the efficacy of VSVΔG pseudovirions bearing Ebola virus glycoprotein as a vaccine platform. We found that wild-type Ebola virus glycoprotein, in the context of this platform, provides robust protection of EBOV challenged mice. Further, we found removal of the heavy glycan shield surrounding conserved regions of the glycoprotein does not enhance vaccine efficacy.

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