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1.
Am J Hum Genet ; 2019 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31735293

RESUMO

The redox state of the neural progenitors regulates physiological processes such as neuronal differentiation and dendritic and axonal growth. The relevance of endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-associated oxidoreductases in these processes is largely unexplored. We describe a severe neurological disorder caused by bi-allelic loss-of-function variants in thioredoxin (TRX)-related transmembrane-2 (TMX2); these variants were detected by exome sequencing in 14 affected individuals from ten unrelated families presenting with congenital microcephaly, cortical polymicrogyria, and other migration disorders. TMX2 encodes one of the five TMX proteins of the protein disulfide isomerase family, hitherto not linked to human developmental brain disease. Our mechanistic studies on protein function show that TMX2 localizes to the ER mitochondria-associated membranes (MAMs), is involved in posttranslational modification and protein folding, and undergoes physical interaction with the MAM-associated and ER folding chaperone calnexin and ER calcium pump SERCA2. These interactions are functionally relevant because TMX2-deficient fibroblasts show decreased mitochondrial respiratory reserve capacity and compensatory increased glycolytic activity. Intriguingly, under basal conditions TMX2 occurs in both reduced and oxidized monomeric form, while it forms a stable dimer under treatment with hydrogen peroxide, recently recognized as a signaling molecule in neural morphogenesis and axonal pathfinding. Exogenous expression of the pathogenic TMX2 variants or of variants with an in vitro mutagenized TRX domain induces a constitutive TMX2 polymerization, mimicking an increased oxidative state. Altogether these data uncover TMX2 as a sensor in the MAM-regulated redox signaling pathway and identify it as a key adaptive regulator of neuronal proliferation, migration, and organization in the developing brain.

2.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 2019 Aug 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31395947

RESUMO

PTPN23 is a His-domain protein-tyrosine phosphatase implicated in ciliogenesis, the endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT) pathway, and RNA splicing. Until recently, no defined human phenotype had been associated with alterations in this gene. We identified and report a cohort of seven patients with either homozygous or compound heterozygous rare deleterious variants in PTPN23. Combined with four patients previously reported, a total of 11 patients with this disorder have now been identified. We expand the phenotypic and variation spectrum associated with defects in this gene. Patients have strong phenotypic overlap, suggesting a defined autosomal recessive syndrome caused by reduced function of PTPN23. Shared characteristics of affected individuals include developmental delay, brain abnormalities (mainly ventriculomegaly and/or brain atrophy), intellectual disability, spasticity, language disorder, microcephaly, optic atrophy, and seizures. We observe a broad range of variants across patients that are likely strongly reducing the expression or disrupting the function of the protein. However, we do not observe any patients with an allele combination predicted to result in complete loss of function of PTPN23, as this is likely incompatible with life, consistent with reported embryonic lethality in the mouse. None of the observed or reported variants are recurrent, although some have been identified in homozygosis in patients from consanguineous populations. This study expands the phenotypic and molecular spectrum of PTPN23 associated disease and identifies major shared features among patients affected with this disorder, while providing additional support to the important role of PTPN23 in human nervous and visual system development and function.

3.
Am J Hum Genet ; 105(3): 493-508, 2019 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31447100

RESUMO

Histones mediate dynamic packaging of nuclear DNA in chromatin, a process that is precisely controlled to guarantee efficient compaction of the genome and proper chromosomal segregation during cell division and to accomplish DNA replication, transcription, and repair. Due to the important structural and regulatory roles played by histones, it is not surprising that histone functional dysregulation or aberrant levels of histones can have severe consequences for multiple cellular processes and ultimately might affect development or contribute to cell transformation. Recently, germline frameshift mutations involving the C-terminal tail of HIST1H1E, which is a widely expressed member of the linker histone family and facilitates higher-order chromatin folding, have been causally linked to an as-yet poorly defined syndrome that includes intellectual disability. We report that these mutations result in stable proteins that reside in the nucleus, bind to chromatin, disrupt proper compaction of DNA, and are associated with a specific methylation pattern. Cells expressing these mutant proteins have a dramatically reduced proliferation rate and competence, hardly enter into the S phase, and undergo accelerated senescence. Remarkably, clinical assessment of a relatively large cohort of subjects sharing these mutations revealed a premature aging phenotype as a previously unrecognized feature of the disorder. Our findings identify a direct link between aberrant chromatin remodeling, cellular senescence, and accelerated aging.

4.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 3094, 2019 07 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31300657

RESUMO

AMPA receptors (AMPARs) are tetrameric ligand-gated channels made up of combinations of GluA1-4 subunits encoded by GRIA1-4 genes. GluA2 has an especially important role because, following post-transcriptional editing at the Q607 site, it renders heteromultimeric AMPARs Ca2+-impermeable, with a linear relationship between current and trans-membrane voltage. Here, we report heterozygous de novo GRIA2 mutations in 28 unrelated patients with intellectual disability (ID) and neurodevelopmental abnormalities including autism spectrum disorder (ASD), Rett syndrome-like features, and seizures or developmental epileptic encephalopathy (DEE). In functional expression studies, mutations lead to a decrease in agonist-evoked current mediated by mutant subunits compared to wild-type channels. When GluA2 subunits are co-expressed with GluA1, most GRIA2 mutations cause a decreased current amplitude and some also affect voltage rectification. Our results show that de-novo variants in GRIA2 can cause neurodevelopmental disorders, complementing evidence that other genetic causes of ID, ASD and DEE also disrupt glutamatergic synaptic transmission.


Assuntos
Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/genética , Receptores de AMPA/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Lactente , Mutação com Perda de Função , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto Jovem
5.
Brain ; 142(9): 2617-2630, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31327001

RESUMO

The underpinnings of mild to moderate neurodevelopmental delay remain elusive, often leading to late diagnosis and interventions. Here, we present data on exome and genome sequencing as well as array analysis of 13 individuals that point to pathogenic, heterozygous, mostly de novo variants in WDFY3 (significant de novo enrichment P = 0.003) as a monogenic cause of mild and non-specific neurodevelopmental delay. Nine variants were protein-truncating and four missense. Overlapping symptoms included neurodevelopmental delay, intellectual disability, macrocephaly, and psychiatric disorders (autism spectrum disorders/attention deficit hyperactivity disorder). One proband presented with an opposing phenotype of microcephaly and the only missense-variant located in the PH-domain of WDFY3. Findings of this case are supported by previously published data, demonstrating that pathogenic PH-domain variants can lead to microcephaly via canonical Wnt-pathway upregulation. In a separate study, we reported that the autophagy scaffolding protein WDFY3 is required for cerebral cortical size regulation in mice, by controlling proper division of neural progenitors. Here, we show that proliferating cortical neural progenitors of human embryonic brains highly express WDFY3, further supporting a role for this molecule in the regulation of prenatal neurogenesis. We present data on Wnt-pathway dysregulation in Wdfy3-haploinsufficient mice, which display macrocephaly and deficits in motor coordination and associative learning, recapitulating the human phenotype. Consequently, we propose that in humans WDFY3 loss-of-function variants lead to macrocephaly via downregulation of the Wnt pathway. In summary, we present WDFY3 as a novel gene linked to mild to moderate neurodevelopmental delay and intellectual disability and conclude that variants putatively causing haploinsufficiency lead to macrocephaly, while an opposing pathomechanism due to variants in the PH-domain of WDFY3 leads to microcephaly.

6.
Am J Med Genet A ; 179(7): 1276-1286, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31124279

RESUMO

Lysine-specific demethylase 6B (KDM6B) demethylates trimethylated lysine-27 on histone H3. The methylation and demethylation of histone proteins affects gene expression during development. Pathogenic alterations in histone lysine methylation and demethylation genes have been associated with multiple neurodevelopmental disorders. We have identified a number of de novo alterations in the KDM6B gene via whole exome sequencing (WES) in a cohort of 12 unrelated patients with developmental delay, intellectual disability, dysmorphic facial features, and other clinical findings. Our findings will allow for further investigation in to the role of the KDM6B gene in human neurodevelopmental disorders.

7.
Genet Med ; 21(9): 2036-2042, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30739909

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To define the clinical characteristics of patients with variants in TCF20, we describe 27 patients, 26 of whom were identified via exome sequencing. We compare detailed clinical data with 17 previously reported patients. METHODS: Patients were ascertained through molecular testing laboratories performing exome sequencing (and other testing) with orthogonal confirmation; collaborating referring clinicians provided detailed clinical information. RESULTS: The cohort of 27 patients all had novel variants, and ranged in age from 2 to 68 years. All had developmental delay/intellectual disability. Autism spectrum disorders/autistic features were reported in 69%, attention disorders or hyperactivity in 67%, craniofacial features (no recognizable facial gestalt) in 67%, structural brain anomalies in 24%, and seizures in 12%. Additional features affecting various organ systems were described in 93%. In a majority of patients, we did not observe previously reported findings of postnatal overgrowth or craniosynostosis, in comparison with earlier reports. CONCLUSION: We provide valuable data regarding the prognosis and clinical manifestations of patients with variants in TCF20.

8.
Genet Med ; 21(8): 1797-1807, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30679821

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Haploinsufficiency of USP7, located at chromosome 16p13.2, has recently been reported in seven individuals with neurodevelopmental phenotypes, including developmental delay/intellectual disability (DD/ID), autism spectrum disorder (ASD), seizures, and hypogonadism. Further, USP7 was identified to critically incorporate into the MAGEL2-USP7-TRIM27 (MUST), such that pathogenic variants in USP7 lead to altered endosomal F-actin polymerization and dysregulated protein recycling. METHODS: We report 16 newly identified individuals with heterozygous USP7 variants, identified by genome or exome sequencing or by chromosome microarray analysis. Clinical features were evaluated by review of medical records. Additional clinical information was obtained on the seven previously reported individuals to fully elucidate the phenotypic expression associated with USP7 haploinsufficiency. RESULTS: The clinical manifestations of these 23 individuals suggest a syndrome characterized by DD/ID, hypotonia, eye anomalies,feeding difficulties, GERD, behavioral anomalies, and ASD, and more specific phenotypes of speech delays including a nonverbal phenotype and abnormal brain magnetic resonance image findings including white matter changes based on neuroradiologic examination. CONCLUSION: The consistency of clinical features among all individuals presented regardless of de novo USP7 variant type supports haploinsufficiency as a mechanism for pathogenesis and refines the clinical impact faced by affected individuals and caregivers.

9.
Am J Hum Genet ; 104(2): 287-298, 2019 02 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30661771

RESUMO

Hypusine is formed post-translationally from lysine and is found in a single cellular protein, eukaryotic translation initiation factor-5A (eIF5A), and its homolog eIF5A2. Biosynthesis of hypusine is a two-step reaction involving the enzymes deoxyhypusine synthase (DHPS) and deoxyhypusine hydroxylase (DOHH). eIF5A is highly conserved throughout eukaryotic evolution and plays a role in mRNA translation, cellular proliferation, cellular differentiation, and inflammation. DHPS is also highly conserved and is essential for life, as Dhps-null mice are embryonic lethal. Using exome sequencing, we identified rare biallelic, recurrent, predicted likely pathogenic variants in DHPS segregating with disease in five affected individuals from four unrelated families. These individuals have similar neurodevelopmental features that include global developmental delay and seizures. Two of four affected females have short stature. All five affected individuals share a recurrent missense variant (c.518A>G [p.Asn173Ser]) in trans with a likely gene disrupting variant (c.1014+1G>A, c.912_917delTTACAT [p.Tyr305_Ile306del], or c.1A>G [p.Met1?]). cDNA studies demonstrated that the c.1014+1G>A variant causes aberrant splicing. Recombinant DHPS enzyme harboring either the p.Asn173Ser or p.Tyr305_Ile306del variant showed reduced (20%) or absent in vitro activity, respectively. We co-transfected constructs overexpressing HA-tagged DHPS (wild-type or mutant) and GFP-tagged eIF5A into HEK293T cells to determine the effect of these variants on hypusine biosynthesis and observed that the p.Tyr305_Ile306del and p.Asn173Ser variants resulted in reduced hypusination of eIF5A compared to wild-type DHPS enzyme. Our data suggest that rare biallelic variants in DHPS result in reduced enzyme activity that limits the hypusination of eIF5A and are associated with a neurodevelopmental disorder.


Assuntos
Genes Recessivos/genética , Lisina/análogos & derivados , Mutação , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/enzimologia , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/genética , Oxirredutases atuantes sobre Doadores de Grupo CH-NH/genética , Alelos , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/enzimologia , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/genética , Feminino , Haplótipos , Humanos , Lisina/biossíntese , Masculino , Erros Inatos do Metabolismo/enzimologia , Erros Inatos do Metabolismo/genética , Oxirredutases atuantes sobre Doadores de Grupo CH-NH/química , Oxirredutases atuantes sobre Doadores de Grupo CH-NH/metabolismo , Linhagem , Fatores de Iniciação de Peptídeos/química , Fatores de Iniciação de Peptídeos/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/química , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/metabolismo , Convulsões/enzimologia , Convulsões/genética , Adulto Jovem
10.
Am J Hum Genet ; 103(4): 621-630, 2018 Oct 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30290154

RESUMO

Aberrant activation or inhibition of potassium (K+) currents across the plasma membrane of cells has been causally linked to altered neurotransmission, cardiac arrhythmias, endocrine dysfunction, and (more rarely) perturbed developmental processes. The K+ channel subfamily K member 4 (KCNK4), also known as TRAAK (TWIK-related arachidonic acid-stimulated K+ channel), belongs to the mechano-gated ion channels of the TRAAK/TREK subfamily of two-pore-domain (K2P) K+ channels. While K2P channels are well known to contribute to the resting membrane potential and cellular excitability, their involvement in pathophysiological processes remains largely uncharacterized. We report that de novo missense mutations in KCNK4 cause a recognizable syndrome with a distinctive facial gestalt, for which we propose the acronym FHEIG (facial dysmorphism, hypertrichosis, epilepsy, intellectual disability/developmental delay, and gingival overgrowth). Patch-clamp analyses documented a significant gain of function of the identified KCNK4 channel mutants basally and impaired sensitivity to mechanical stimulation and arachidonic acid. Co-expression experiments indicated a dominant behavior of the disease-causing mutations. Molecular dynamics simulations consistently indicated that mutations favor sealing of the lateral intramembrane fenestration that has been proposed to negatively control K+ flow by allowing lipid access to the central cavity of the channel. Overall, our findings illustrate the pleiotropic effect of dysregulated KCNK4 function and provide support to the hypothesis of a gating mechanism based on the lateral fenestrations of K2P channels.

11.
Hum Genet ; 2018 May 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29740699

RESUMO

Many genetic causes of developmental delay and/or intellectual disability (DD/ID) are extremely rare, and robust discovery of these requires both large-scale DNA sequencing and data sharing. Here we describe a GeneMatcher collaboration which led to a cohort of 13 affected individuals harboring protein-altering variants, 11 of which are de novo, in MED13; the only inherited variant was transmitted to an affected child from an affected mother. All patients had intellectual disability and/or developmental delays, including speech delays or disorders. Other features that were reported in two or more patients include autism spectrum disorder, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, optic nerve abnormalities, Duane anomaly, hypotonia, mild congenital heart abnormalities, and dysmorphisms. Six affected individuals had mutations that are predicted to truncate the MED13 protein, six had missense mutations, and one had an in-frame-deletion of one amino acid. Out of the seven non-truncating mutations, six clustered in two specific locations of the MED13 protein: an N-terminal and C-terminal region. The four N-terminal clustering mutations affect two adjacent amino acids that are known to be involved in MED13 ubiquitination and degradation, p.Thr326 and p.Pro327. MED13 is a component of the CDK8-kinase module that can reversibly bind Mediator, a multi-protein complex that is required for Polymerase II transcription initiation. Mutations in several other genes encoding subunits of Mediator have been previously shown to associate with DD/ID, including MED13L, a paralog of MED13. Thus, our findings add MED13 to the group of CDK8-kinase module-associated disease genes.

12.
Am J Hum Genet ; 101(1): 65-74, 2017 Jul 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28669405

RESUMO

KCNQ5 is a highly conserved gene encoding an important channel for neuronal function; it is widely expressed in the brain and generates M-type current. Exome sequencing identified de novo heterozygous missense mutations in four probands with intellectual disability, abnormal neurological findings, and treatment-resistant epilepsy (in two of four). Comprehensive analysis of this potassium channel for the four variants expressed in frog oocytes revealed shifts in the voltage dependence of activation, including altered activation and deactivation kinetics. Specifically, both loss-of-function and gain-of-function KCNQ5 mutations, associated with increased excitability and decreased repolarization reserve, lead to pathophysiology.


Assuntos
Epilepsia/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Canais de Potássio KCNQ/genética , Mutação/genética , Eletroencefalografia , Humanos , Ativação do Canal Iônico , Canais de Potássio KCNQ/química , Proteínas Mutantes/química , Proteínas Mutantes/genética , Fenótipo , Alinhamento de Sequência
13.
Am J Hum Genet ; 101(1): 139-148, 2017 Jul 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28686853

RESUMO

We report 15 individuals with de novo pathogenic variants in WDR26. Eleven of the individuals carry loss-of-function mutations, and four harbor missense substitutions. These 15 individuals comprise ten females and five males, and all have intellectual disability with delayed speech, a history of febrile and/or non-febrile seizures, and a wide-based, spastic, and/or stiff-legged gait. These subjects share a set of common facial features that include a prominent maxilla and upper lip that readily reveal the upper gingiva, widely spaced teeth, and a broad nasal tip. Together, these features comprise a recognizable facial phenotype. We compared these features with those of chromosome 1q41q42 microdeletion syndrome, which typically contains WDR26, and noted that clinical features are consistent between the two subsets, suggesting that haploinsufficiency of WDR26 contributes to the pathology of 1q41q42 microdeletion syndrome. Consistent with this, WDR26 loss-of-function single-nucleotide mutations identified in these subjects lead to nonsense-mediated decay with subsequent reduction of RNA expression and protein levels. We derived a structural model of WDR26 and note that missense variants identified in these individuals localize to highly conserved residues of this WD-40-repeat-containing protein. Given that WDR26 mutations have been identified in ∼1 in 2,000 of subjects in our clinical cohorts and that WDR26 might be poorly annotated in exome variant-interpretation pipelines, we would anticipate that this disorder could be more common than currently appreciated.


Assuntos
Facies , Marcha/genética , Haploinsuficiência/genética , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Proteínas/genética , Convulsões/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Sequência de Bases , Pré-Escolar , Deleção Cromossômica , Feminino , Crescimento e Desenvolvimento/genética , Humanos , Deficiência Intelectual/complicações , Masculino , Mutação/genética , Proteínas/química , Estabilidade de RNA/genética , Convulsões/complicações , Síndrome
14.
Cold Spring Harb Mol Case Stud ; 2(5): a001057, 2016 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27626068

RESUMO

The integration of genome-scale studies such as whole-exome sequencing (WES) into the clinical care of children with cancer has the potential to provide insight into the genetic basis of an individual's cancer with implications for clinical management. This report describes the results of clinical tumor and germline WES for a patient with a rare tumor diagnosis, rosette-forming glioneuronal tumor of the fourth ventricle (RGNT). Three pathogenic gene alterations with implications for clinical care were identified: somatic activating hotspot mutations in FGFR1 (p.N546K) and PIK3CA (p.H1047R) and a germline pathogenic variant in PTPN11 (p.N308S) diagnostic for Noonan syndrome. The molecular landscape of RGNT is not well-described, but these data are consistent with prior observations regarding the importance of the interconnected MAPK and PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathways in this rare tumor. The co-occurrence of FGFR1, PIK3CA, and PTPN11 alterations provides further evidence for consideration of RGNT as a distinct molecular entity from pediatric low-grade gliomas and suggests potential therapeutic strategies for this patient in the event of tumor recurrence as novel agents targeting these pathways enter pediatric clinical trials. Although RGNT has not been definitively linked with cancer predisposition syndromes, two prior cases have been reported in patients with RASopathies (Noonan syndrome and neurofibromatosis type 1 [NF1]), providing an additional link between these tumors and the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway. In summary, this case provides an example of the potential for genome-scale sequencing technologies to provide insight into the biology of rare tumors and yield both tumor and germline results of potential relevance to patient care.

15.
Genome Med ; 8(1): 3, 2016 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26739615

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Large-scale cohort-based whole exome sequencing of individuals with neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs) has identified numerous novel candidate disease genes; however, detailed phenotypic information is often lacking in such studies. De novo mutations in pogo transposable element with zinc finger domain (POGZ) have been identified in six independent and diverse cohorts of individuals with NDDs ranging from autism spectrum disorder to developmental delay. METHODS: Whole exome sequencing was performed on five unrelated individuals. Sanger sequencing was used to validate variants and segregate mutations with the phenotype in available family members. RESULTS: We identified heterozygous truncating mutations in POGZ in five unrelated individuals, which were confirmed to be de novo or not present in available parental samples. Careful review of the phenotypes revealed shared features that included developmental delay, intellectual disability, hypotonia, behavioral abnormalities, and similar facial characteristics. Variable features included short stature, microcephaly, strabismus and hearing loss. CONCLUSIONS: While POGZ has been associated with neurodevelopmental disorders in large cohort studies, our data suggest that loss of function variants in POGZ lead to an identifiable syndrome of NDD with specific phenotypic traits. This study exemplifies the era of human reverse clinical genomics ushered in by large disease-directed cohort studies; first defining a new syndrome molecularly and, only subsequently, phenotypically.


Assuntos
Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Mutação , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos , Transposases/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Alelos , Pré-Escolar , Exoma , Feminino , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Lactente , Deficiência Intelectual/patologia , Masculino
16.
Genet Med ; 18(7): 678-85, 2016 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26633545

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Whole-exome sequencing (WES) is increasingly used as a diagnostic tool in medicine, but prior reports focus on predominantly pediatric cohorts with neurologic or developmental disorders. We describe the diagnostic yield and characteristics of WES in adults. METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis of consecutive WES reports for adults from a diagnostic laboratory. Phenotype composition was determined using Human Phenotype Ontology terms. RESULTS: Molecular diagnoses were reported for 17.5% (85/486) of adults, which is lower than that for a primarily pediatric population (25.2%; P = 0.0003); the diagnostic rate was higher (23.9%) for those 18-30 years of age compared to patients older than 30 years (10.4%; P = 0.0001). Dual Mendelian diagnoses contributed to 7% of diagnoses, revealing blended phenotypes. Diagnoses were more frequent among individuals with abnormalities of the nervous system, skeletal system, head/neck, and growth. Diagnostic rate was independent of family history information, and de novo mutations contributed to 61.4% of autosomal dominant diagnoses. CONCLUSION: Early WES experience in adults demonstrates molecular diagnoses in a substantial proportion of patients, informing clinical management, recurrence risk, and recommendations for relatives. A positive family history was not predictive, consistent with molecular diagnoses often revealed by de novo events, informing the Mendelian basis of genetic disease in adults.Genet Med 18 7, 678-685.


Assuntos
Doenças Genéticas Inatas/diagnóstico , Testes Genéticos , Genoma Humano , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , Adulto , Exoma/genética , Feminino , Doenças Genéticas Inatas/epidemiologia , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Masculino , Patologia Molecular/métodos
17.
Am J Med Genet A ; 170A(4): 891-5, 2016 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26686323

RESUMO

Filamin A (FLNA) is known to be involved in intracellular actin binding, cell migration, scaffolding, and signaling. We report a novel X-linked syndrome characterized by cardiac valvular disease, keloid scarring and reduced joint mobility in male second cousins due to a previously unreported mutation in FLNA. Whole exome sequencing was performed using standard methods and segregation analysis was performed in affected and non-affected family members. A novel hemizygous c.4726G>A (p.G1576R) mutation in FLNA was detected. Segregation analysis performed on multiple maternal family members showed c.4726G>A (p.G1576R) segregated with disease in an X-linked inheritance pattern. The findings in these cases are distinct from previously described FLNA related disorders by virtue of decreased joint mobility and spontaneous keloid scarring. They occur in association with a novel mutation and represent a novel genetic syndrome.


Assuntos
Substituição de Aminoácidos , Filaminas/genética , Doenças Genéticas Ligadas ao Cromossomo X/diagnóstico , Doenças Genéticas Ligadas ao Cromossomo X/genética , Mutação , Fenótipo , Adulto , Alelos , Códon , Facies , Estudos de Associação Genética , Genótipo , Humanos , Queloide/patologia , Masculino , Linhagem , Síndrome , Adulto Jovem
18.
Am J Hum Genet ; 95(5): 579-83, 2014 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25439098

RESUMO

5q31.3 microdeletion syndrome is characterized by neonatal hypotonia, encephalopathy with or without epilepsy, and severe developmental delay, and the minimal critical deletion interval harbors three genes. We describe 11 individuals with clinical features of 5q31.3 microdeletion syndrome and de novo mutations in PURA, encoding transcriptional activator protein Pur-α, within the critical region. These data implicate causative PURA mutations responsible for the severe neurological phenotypes observed in this syndrome.


Assuntos
Anormalidades Múltiplas/genética , Deleção Cromossômica , Cromossomos Humanos Par 5/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Hipotonia Muscular/genética , Convulsões/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Caenorhabditis elegans/genética , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Humanos , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Mutação/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Síndrome
19.
JAMA ; 312(18): 1870-9, 2014 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25326635

RESUMO

IMPORTANCE: Clinical whole-exome sequencing is increasingly used for diagnostic evaluation of patients with suspected genetic disorders. OBJECTIVE: To perform clinical whole-exome sequencing and report (1) the rate of molecular diagnosis among phenotypic groups, (2) the spectrum of genetic alterations contributing to disease, and (3) the prevalence of medically actionable incidental findings such as FBN1 mutations causing Marfan syndrome. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PATIENTS: Observational study of 2000 consecutive patients with clinical whole-exome sequencing analyzed between June 2012 and August 2014. Whole-exome sequencing tests were performed at a clinical genetics laboratory in the United States. Results were reported by clinical molecular geneticists certified by the American Board of Medical Genetics and Genomics. Tests were ordered by the patient's physician. The patients were primarily pediatric (1756 [88%]; mean age, 6 years; 888 females [44%], 1101 males [55%], and 11 fetuses [1% gender unknown]), demonstrating diverse clinical manifestations most often including nervous system dysfunction such as developmental delay. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: Whole-exome sequencing diagnosis rate overall and by phenotypic category, mode of inheritance, spectrum of genetic events, and reporting of incidental findings. RESULTS: A molecular diagnosis was reported for 504 patients (25.2%) with 58% of the diagnostic mutations not previously reported. Molecular diagnosis rates for each phenotypic category were 143/526 (27.2%; 95% CI, 23.5%-31.2%) for the neurological group, 282/1147 (24.6%; 95% CI, 22.1%-27.2%) for the neurological plus other organ systems group, 30/83 (36.1%; 95% CI, 26.1%-47.5%) for the specific neurological group, and 49/244 (20.1%; 95% CI, 15.6%-25.8%) for the nonneurological group. The Mendelian disease patterns of the 527 molecular diagnoses included 280 (53.1%) autosomal dominant, 181 (34.3%) autosomal recessive (including 5 with uniparental disomy), 65 (12.3%) X-linked, and 1 (0.2%) mitochondrial. Of 504 patients with a molecular diagnosis, 23 (4.6%) had blended phenotypes resulting from 2 single gene defects. About 30% of the positive cases harbored mutations in disease genes reported since 2011. There were 95 medically actionable incidental findings in genes unrelated to the phenotype but with immediate implications for management in 92 patients (4.6%), including 59 patients (3%) with mutations in genes recommended for reporting by the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: Whole-exome sequencing provided a potential molecular diagnosis for 25% of a large cohort of patients referred for evaluation of suspected genetic conditions, including detection of rare genetic events and new mutations contributing to disease. The yield of whole-exome sequencing may offer advantages over traditional molecular diagnostic approaches in certain patients.


Assuntos
Exoma , Doenças Genéticas Inatas/diagnóstico , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Feto , Testes Genéticos , Genômica , Humanos , Achados Incidentais , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Mutação , Fenótipo , Encaminhamento e Consulta
20.
N Engl J Med ; 369(16): 1502-11, 2013 Oct 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24088041

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Whole-exome sequencing is a diagnostic approach for the identification of molecular defects in patients with suspected genetic disorders. METHODS: We developed technical, bioinformatic, interpretive, and validation pipelines for whole-exome sequencing in a certified clinical laboratory to identify sequence variants underlying disease phenotypes in patients. RESULTS: We present data on the first 250 probands for whom referring physicians ordered whole-exome sequencing. Patients presented with a range of phenotypes suggesting potential genetic causes. Approximately 80% were children with neurologic phenotypes. Insurance coverage was similar to that for established genetic tests. We identified 86 mutated alleles that were highly likely to be causative in 62 of the 250 patients, achieving a 25% molecular diagnostic rate (95% confidence interval, 20 to 31). Among the 62 patients, 33 had autosomal dominant disease, 16 had autosomal recessive disease, and 9 had X-linked disease. A total of 4 probands received two nonoverlapping molecular diagnoses, which potentially challenged the clinical diagnosis that had been made on the basis of history and physical examination. A total of 83% of the autosomal dominant mutant alleles and 40% of the X-linked mutant alleles occurred de novo. Recurrent clinical phenotypes occurred in patients with mutations that were highly likely to be causative in the same genes and in different genes responsible for genetically heterogeneous disorders. CONCLUSIONS: Whole-exome sequencing identified the underlying genetic defect in 25% of consecutive patients referred for evaluation of a possible genetic condition. (Funded by the National Human Genome Research Institute.).


Assuntos
Exoma , Doenças Genéticas Inatas/diagnóstico , Testes Genéticos/métodos , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Genes Dominantes , Genes Recessivos , Genes Ligados ao Cromossomo X , Doenças Genéticas Inatas/genética , Humanos , Mutação , Fenótipo , Adulto Jovem
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