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1.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 17987, 2022 Oct 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36289429

RESUMO

Structural defects in Mg-doped GaN were analyzed using high-resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy combined with electron energy loss spectroscopy. The defects, in the shape of inverted pyramids, appear at high concentrations of incorporated Mg, which also lead to a reduction in free-hole concentration in Mg doped GaN. Detailed analysis pinpoints the arrangement of atoms in and around the defects and verify the presence of a well-defined layer of Mg at all facets, including the inclined facets. Our observations have resulted in a model of the pyramid-shaped defect, including structural displacements and compositional replacements, which is verified by image simulations. Finally, the total concentration of Mg atoms bound to these defects were evaluated, enabling a correlation between inactive and defect-bound dopants.

2.
Ultramicroscopy ; 222: 113193, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33556850

RESUMO

In situ studies using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) can provide insights to how properties, structures and compositions of nanostructures are affected and evolving when exerted to heat or chemical exposure. While high-resolved imaging can be obtained continuously, at video-framerates of hundreds of frames per second (fps), compositional analysis struggles with time resolution due to the long acquisition times for a reliable analysis. This especially holds true when performing mapping (correlated spatial and compositional information). Hence, transient changes are difficult to resolve using mapping. In this work, the time-resolution of sequential mapping using scanning TEM (STEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) is improved by acquiring spectrum images during short times and filtering the spectroscopic data. The suggested algorithm uses regularization to smooth and prevent overfitting (known from compressed sensing) to fit model spectra to the data. The algorithm is applied on simulations as well as acquisitions of catalyzed crystal growth (nanowires), performed in situ in a specialized environmental TEM (ETEM). The results show the improved temporal resolution, where the compositional progression of the different regions of the nanostructure is revealed, here with a time-resolution as low as 16 s compared to the minutes usually needed for similar analysis.

3.
Nanotechnology ; 32(2): 025605, 2021 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32987376

RESUMO

Cost- and resource-efficient growth is necessary for many applications of semiconductor nanowires. We here present the design, operational details and theory behind Aerotaxy, a scalable alternative technology for producing quality crystalline nanowires at a remarkably high growth rate and throughput. Using size-controlled Au seed particles and organometallic precursors, Aerotaxy can produce nanowires with perfect crystallinity and controllable dimensions, and the method is suitable to meet industrial production requirements. In this report, we explain why Aerotaxy is an efficient method for fabricating semiconductor nanowires and explain the technical aspects of our custom-built Aerotaxy system. Investigations using SEM (scanning electron microscope), TEM (transmission electron microscope) and other characterization methods are used to support the claim that Aerotaxy is indeed a scalable method capable of producing nanowires with reproducible properties. We have investigated both binary and ternary III-V semiconductor material systems like GaAs and GaAsP. In addition, common aspects of Aerotaxy nanowires deduced from experimental observations are used to validate the Aerotaxy growth model, based on a computational flow dynamics (CFD) approach. We compare the experimental results with the model behaviour to better understand Aerotaxy growth.

4.
Nanomaterials (Basel) ; 10(12)2020 Dec 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33339116

RESUMO

We have previously demonstrated that we can grow p-type GaAs nanowires using Zn doping during gold catalyzed growth with aerotaxy. In this investigation, we show how to calculate the hole concentrations in such nanowires. We base the calculations on the Zhang-Northrup defect formation energy. Using density functional theory, we calculate the energy of the defect, a Zn atom on a Ga site, using a supercell approach. The chemical potentials of Zn and Ga in the liquid catalyst particle are calculated from a thermodynamically assessed database including Au, Zn, Ga, and As. These quantities together with the chemical potential of the carriers enable us to calculate the hole concentration in the nanowires self-consistently. We validate our theoretical results against aerotaxy grown GaAs nanowires where we have varied the hole concentration by varying the Zn/Ga ratio in the aerotaxy growth.

5.
ACS Nano ; 14(4): 3868-3875, 2020 Apr 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32049491

RESUMO

Control of the crystallization process is central to developing nanomaterials with atomic precision to meet the demands of electronic and quantum technology applications. Semiconductor nanowires grown by the vapor-liquid-solid process are a promising material system in which the ability to form components with structure and composition not achievable in bulk is well-established. Here, we use in situ TEM imaging of Au-catalyzed GaAs nanowire growth to understand the processes by which the growth dynamics are connected to the experimental parameters. We find that two sequential steps in the crystallization process-nucleation and layer growth-can occur on similar time scales and can be controlled independently using different growth parameters. Importantly, the layer growth process contributes significantly to the growth time for all conditions and will play a major role in determining material properties such as compositional uniformity, dopant density, and impurity incorporation. The results are understood through theoretical simulations correlating the growth dynamics, liquid droplet, and experimental parameters. The key insights discussed here are not restricted to Au-catalyzed GaAs nanowire growth but can be extended to most compound nanowire growths in which the different growth species has very different solubility in the catalyst particle.

6.
Nanoscale ; 12(2): 888-894, 2020 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31833520

RESUMO

We report on the synthesis of vertical InP nanowire arrays on (001) InP and Si substrates using template-assisted vapour-liquid-solid growth. A thick silicon oxide layer was first deposited on the substrates. The samples were then patterned by electron beam lithography and deep dry etching through the oxide layer down to the substrate surface. Gold seed particles were subsequently deposited in the holes of the pattern by the use of pulse electrodeposition. The subsequent growth of nanowires by the vapour-liquid-solid method was guided towards the [001] direction by the patterned oxide template, and displayed a high growth yield with respect to the array of holes in the template. In order to confirm the versatility and robustness of the process, we have also demonstrated guided growth of InP nanowire p-n junctions and InP/InAs/InP nanowire heterostructures on (001) InP substrates. Our results show a promising route to monolithically integrate III-V nanowire heterostructure devices with commercially viable (001) silicon platforms.

7.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 4577, 2019 10 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31594930

RESUMO

Semiconductor nanowires offer the opportunity to incorporate novel structures and functionality into electronic and optoelectronic devices. A clear understanding of the nanowire growth mechanism is essential for well-controlled growth of structures with desired properties, but the understanding is currently limited by a lack of empirical measurements of important parameters during growth, such as catalyst particle composition. However, this is difficult to accurately determine by investigating post-growth. We report direct in situ measurement of the catalyst composition during nanowire growth for the first time. We study Au-seeded GaAs nanowires inside an electron microscope as they grow and measure the catalyst composition using X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy. The Ga content in the catalyst during growth increases with both temperature and Ga precursor flux.

8.
Chemistry ; 25(59): 13591-13597, 2019 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31418957

RESUMO

A new generation of N-heterocyclic carbene palladium(II) complexes containing vinyl groups in different positions in the backbone of the N-heterocycle have been developed. The fully characterised monomers were copolymerised with divinylbenzene to fabricate robust polymer supported NHC-PdII complexes and these polymers were applied as heterogeneous catalysts in directed C-H halogenation of arenes with a pyridine-type directing group. The catalysts demonstrated medium-high catalytic activity with up to 90 % conversion and 100 % selectivity in chlorination. They are heterogeneous and recyclable (at least six times) with no significant leaching of palladium in batch mode catalysis. The best catalyst was also applied under continuous flow conditions where it disclosed an exceptional activity (90 % conversion) and 100 % selectivity for the mono-halogenated product for at least six days, with no leaching of palladium, no loss of activity and an ability to maintain the original oxidation state of PdII .

9.
Nano Lett ; 19(6): 3498-3504, 2019 06 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31039317

RESUMO

Particle-assisted III-V semiconductor nanowire growth and applications thereof have been studied extensively. However, the stability of nanowires in contact with the particle and the particle chemical composition as a function of temperature remain largely unknown. In this work, we use in situ transmission electron microscopy to investigate the interface between a Au-Ga particle and the top facet of an ⟨1̅1̅1̅⟩-oriented GaAs nanowire grown via the vapor-liquid-solid process. We observed a thermally activated bilayer-by-bilayer removal of the GaAs facet in contact with the liquid particle during annealing between 300 and 420 °C in vacuum. Interestingly, the GaAs-removal rates initially depend on the thermal history of the sample and are time-invariant at later times. In situ X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy was also used to determine that the Ga content in the particle at any given temperature remains constant over extended periods of time and increases with increasing temperature from 300 to 400 °C. We attribute the observed phenomena to droplet-assisted decomposition of GaAs at a rate that is controlled by the amount of Ga in the droplet. We suggest that the observed transients in removal rates are a direct consequence of time-dependent changes in the Ga content. Our results provide new insights into the role of droplet composition on the thermal stability of GaAs nanowires and complement the existing knowledge on the factors influencing nanowire growth. Moreover, understanding the nanowire stability and decomposition is important for improving processing protocols for the successful fabrication and sustained operation of nanowire-based devices.

10.
Nanoscale Adv ; 1(12): 4764-4771, 2019 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36133116

RESUMO

Using a micro-focused high-energy X-ray beam, we have performed in situ time-resolved depth profiling during the electrochemical deposition of Sn into an ordered porous anodic alumina template. Combined with micro-diffraction we are able to follow the variation of the structure at the atomic scale as a function of depth and time. We show that Sn initially deposits at the bottom of the pores, and forms metallic nanopillars with a preferred [100] orientation and a relatively low mosaicity. The lattice strain is found to differ from previous ex situ measurements where the Sn had been removed from the porous support. The dendritic nature of the pore bottom affects the Sn growth mode and results in a variation of Sn grain size, strain and mosaicity. Such atomic scale information of nano-templated materials during electrodeposition may improve the future fabrication of devices.

11.
Nano Lett ; 18(9): 5775-5781, 2018 09 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30133288

RESUMO

Using AlSb as the model system, we demonstrate that kinetic limitations can lead to the preferential growth of wurtzite (WZ) AlSb shells rather than the thermodynamically stable zinc-blende (ZB) AlSb and that the WZ and ZB relative thickness can be tuned by a careful control of the deposition parameters. We report selective heteroepitaxial radial growth of AlSb deposited by metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE) on InAs nanowire core templates with engineered lengths of axial WZ and ZB segments. AlSb shell thickness, crystal phase, nanostructure, and composition are investigated as a function of the shell growth temperature, Ts, using scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, electron tomography, and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. We find that ZB- and WZ-structured AlSb shells grow heteroepitaxially around the ZB and WZ segments of the InAs core, respectively. Surprisingly, at 390 < Ts < 450 °C, the WZ-AlSb shells are thicker than the ZB-AlSb shells, and their thickness increases with decreasing Ts. In comparison, the ZB-AlSb shell thicknesses increase slightly with increasing Ts. We find that the increased thickness of the WZ-AlSb shells is due to the formation and enhanced deposition on {112̅0} facets rather than on the more commonly grown {101̅0} sidewall facets. Overall, these results, which are in direct contrast with previous reports suggesting that heteroepitaxial radial growth of III-antimonides is always favored on the ZB-structure facets, indicate that the growth of WZ-AlSb is preferred over the thermodynamically stable ZB-AlSb at lower growth temperatures. We attribute this behavior to kinetic limitations of MOVPE of AlSb on ZB and WZ phases of InAs.

12.
Small ; : e1801285, 2018 Jul 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30003665

RESUMO

For the purpose of functionalizing III-V semiconductor nanowires using n-doping, Sn-doped GaAs zincblende nanowires are produced, using the growth method of Aerotaxy. The growth conditions used are such that Ga droplets, formed on the nanowire surface, increase in number and concentrations when the Sn-precursor concentration is increased. Droplet-covered wires grown with varying Sn concentrations are analyzed by transmission electron microscopy and electron tomography, which together establish the positioning of the droplets to be preferentially on {-111}B facets. These facets have the same polarity as the main wire growth direction, [-1-1-1]B. This means that the generated Ga particles can form nucleation sites for possible nanowire branch growth. The concept of azimuthal mapping is introduced as a useful tool for nanowire surface visualization and evaluation. It is demonstrated here that electron tomography is useful in revealing both the surface and internal morphologies of the nanowires, opening up for applications in the analysis of more structurally complicated systems like radially asymmetrical nanowires. The analysis also gives a further understanding of the limits of the dopants which can be used for Aerotaxy nanowires.

13.
Nanotechnology ; 29(28): 285601, 2018 Jul 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29664421

RESUMO

Controlled doping in semiconductor nanowires modifies their electrical and optical properties, which are important for high efficiency optoelectronic devices. We have grown n-type (Sn) doped GaAs nanowires in Aerotaxy, a new continuous gas phase mass production technique. The morphology of Sn doped nanowires is found to be a strong function of dopant, tetraethyltin to trimethylgallium flow ratio, Au-Ga-Sn alloying, and nanowire growth temperatures. High temperature and high flow ratios result in low morphological quality nanowires and in parasitic growth on the wire base and surface. Alloying and growth temperatures of 400 °C and 530 °C, respectively, resulted in good morphological quality nanowires for a flow ratio of TESn to TMGa up to 2.25 × 10-3. The wires are pure zinc-blende for all investigated growth conditions, whereas nanowires grown by metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy with the same growth conditions are usually mainly Wurtzite. The growth rate of the doped wires is found to be dependent more on the TESn flow fraction than on alloying and nanowire growth temperatures. Our photoluminescence measurements, supported by four-point probe resistivity measurements, reveal that the carrier concentration in the doped wires varies only slightly (1-3) × 1019 cm-3 with TESn flow fraction and both alloying and growth temperatures, indicating that good morphological quality wires with high carrier density can be grown with low TESn flow. Carrier concentrations lower than 1019 cm-3 can be grown by further reducing the flow fraction of TESn, which may give better morphology wires.

14.
Nano Lett ; 17(10): 6006-6010, 2017 10 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28873310

RESUMO

III-V compound semiconductors offer a path to continue Moore's law due to their excellent electron transport properties. One major challenge, integrating III-V's on Si, can be addressed by using vapor-liquid-solid grown vertical nanowires. InAs is an attractive material due to its superior mobility, although InAs metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) typically suffer from band-to-band tunneling caused by its narrow band gap, which increases the off-current and therefore the power consumption. In this work, we present vertical heterostructure InAs/InGaAs nanowire MOSFETs with low off-currents provided by the wider band gap material on the drain side suppressing band-to-band tunneling. We demonstrate vertical III-V MOSFETs achieving off-current below 1 nA/µm while still maintaining on-performance comparable to InAs MOSFETs; therefore, this approach opens a path to address not only high-performance applications but also Internet-of-Things applications that require low off-state current levels.

15.
Nano Lett ; 17(7): 4373-4380, 2017 07 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28613894

RESUMO

Tunneling field-effect transistors (TunnelFET), a leading steep-slope transistor candidate, is still plagued by defect response, and there is a large discrepancy between measured and simulated device performance. In this work, highly scaled InAs/InxGa1-xAsySb1-y/GaSb vertical nanowire TunnelFET with ability to operate well below 60 mV/decade at technically relevant currents are fabricated and characterized. The structure, composition, and strain is characterized using transmission electron microscopy with emphasis on the heterojunction. Using Technology Computer Aided Design (TCAD) simulations and Random Telegraph Signal (RTS) noise measurements, effects of different type of defects are studied. The study reveals that the bulk defects have the largest impact on the performance of these devices, although for these highly scaled devices interaction with even few oxide defects can have large impact on the performance. Understanding the contribution by individual defects, as outlined in this letter, is essential to verify the fundamental physics of device operation, and thus imperative for taking the III-V TunnelFETs to the next level.

16.
Chemistry ; 23(35): 8457-8465, 2017 Jun 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28422334

RESUMO

Heterogeneous catalysts for selective oxidation of C-H bonds were synthesized by co-polymerization of new N-heterocyclic carbene-palladium(II) (NHC-PdII ) monomers with divinylbenzene. The polymer-supported NHC-PdII -catalysed undirected C-H acetoxylation of simple and methylated arenes as well as polyarenes, with similar or superior efficiency compared to their homogeneous analogues. In particular, the regioselectivity has been improved in the acetoxylation of biphenyl and naphthalene compared to the best homogeneous catalysts. The new polymer-supported catalysts maintain the original oxidation state of PdII after repeated catalytic reactions, and exhibit no significant leaching of palladium. In addition, the new catalysts have been successfully recovered and reused without loss of activity over several cycles of reactions.

17.
Nano Lett ; 16(9): 5701-7, 2016 09 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27564139

RESUMO

We have grown GaAsP nanowires with high optical and structural quality by Aerotaxy, a new continuous gas phase mass production process to grow III-V semiconductor based nanowires. By varying the PH3/AsH3 ratio and growth temperature, size selected GaAs1-xPx nanowires (80 nm diameter) with pure zinc-blende structure and with direct band gap energies ranging from 1.42 to 1.90 eV (at 300 K), (i.e., 0 ≤ x ≤ 0.43) were grown, which is the energy range needed for creating tandem III-V solar cells on silicon. The phosphorus content in the NWs is shown to be controlled by both growth temperature and input gas phase ratio. The distribution of P in the wires is uniform over the length of the wires and among the wires. This proves the feasibility of growing GaAsP nanowires by Aerotaxy and results indicate that it is a generic process that can be applied to the growth of other III-V semiconductor based ternary nanowires.

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