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J Pak Med Assoc ; 72(2): 253-259, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35320172


OBJECTIVE: To quantify the depiction of violence and vulgarity in television programmes for children, and to assess the perception and practices of parents and children about television programmes meant for children. METHODS: We conducted this mixed-methods cross-sectional study in Karachi, Pakistan in the months of August-September 2018, after approval from the ethics review board of Dow University of Health Sciences, Karachi. First, a content analysis of over 102 hours of various television programmes meant for children was performed in the light of the guidelines set out by the World Health Organisation, the United States Federal Communication Commission and the Pakistan Electronic Media Regulatory Authority. Seven trained researchers sampled the children prime time throughout a week, including the weekends, using a structured tally sheet. Subsequently, interviews were conducted with dyad of parent-children from the employees' list of a public-sector university. A questionnaire was also administered to assess the practices and perceptions of the parents-children dyad about the programmes. Data was analysed using SPSS 24. RESULTS: Of the 173 subjects, 84(48.6%) were parents and 89(51.4%) were children. The mean age of the children was 9.8±3.7 years. Content analysis comprised 6130 minutes, of which 5442(88.8%) had depictions of violence and vulgarity. Depiction of violence and vulgarity was prevalent on television channels that were watched the most, but there was no significant difference in this regard (p=0.238). Of the parents, 68(81%) expressed concern over the effect of screen time and content on the mental health of their children. CONCLUSIONS: Television programmes meant for children were found to be inappropriate with seriously high proportion of violence and vulgarity in their contents.

Pais , Televisão , Adolescente , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Pais/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Violência
PLoS One ; 17(2): e0263604, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35192648


Ethnobotanical field surveys were carried out in the Tanawal area of the Lesser Himalayan Region, Khyber Pakhtunkhawa, Province from April 2016 to October 2017. The area is located between 34.36 (34° 21' 30 N) latitude and 73.07 (73° 4' 0 E) longitude with an average elevation of 1374 meters above sea level. Ethnomedicinal data were collected through Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA), and participants were selected through the snow-boll technique. Semi-structured, in-depth and open-ended interviews were conducted. The data were quantitatively evaluated using ethnomedicinal indices i.e. Relative frequency of citation (RFCs), Fidelity level (FL), and Use Value (UV). The ethnobotanical data were also comparatively analyzed through the Jaccard Index (JI). The study yielded 66 medicinal plants in 62 genera and 43 families. Asteraceae and Solanaceae were the most important families with five medicinal taxa each. Regarding medicinal plant part utilization, leaves (43.28%) were used predominantly, followed by whole plant (14.92%) and fruits (14.92%). Decoction was the main drug formulation applied to 21 species (31.15%) and the oral route was most common (56.1%) while 31.2% of medicinal plants were used for both oral and topical applications. Fifty health disorders were recorded and grouped in 15 categories. Maximum species were used to treat gastrointestinal disorders i.e. 13 species, dermal problems (12 species), and respiratory tract ailments (9). The calculated RFCs ranged between 81 to 31. The most important medicinal plants were Acacia modesta, Citrullus vulgaris, Tamarindus indica, and Momordica charantia with an RGFC of 81 each. The UV ranged between 0.58 and 3.6. Medicinal taxa with the highest UV were Dioscorea deltoidea (3.6), Withania coagulans (3.3), Momordica charantia (3.5), Silybum marianum and Pyrus pashia (3.2). FL values showed that 28 (41.79%) species had a FL value below 50 (74.62%) while 39 (58.20%) had higher FL values. Momordica charantia, Tamarindus indica, Acacia modesta and Citrullus vulgaris were 95.2 each. The Jaccard Index (JI) values ranged from16.77 to 0.98. The current study also reported 16 medicinal plants, commonly used around the globe, have been rarely documented for their medicinal values in the local ethnomedicinal literature i.e. Althaea officinalis, Plantanus orientalis, Jasminum sombac, Maytenus royleana, Cucurbita maxima, Phyllanthus emblica, Citrullus vulgaris. Polygonatum verticilliatum, Caseria tomentosa, Cistanche tubulosa, Bambusa arundinacea, Schinus molle, Tamarindus indica, Pongamia pinnata, Citrus limon and Catharanthus roseus. However, 48 medicinal plants had been reported in the literature but the current study reported their novel medicinal uses. Important taxa should be established in botanical gardens for in-situ conservation, chemical investigation and sustainable utilization. It would also be effective to improve the livelihoods of the local population.

Asteraceae/química , Etnobotânica/métodos , Fitoterapia/métodos , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Solanaceae/química , Acacia/química , Asteraceae/classificação , Citrullus/química , Frutas/química , Humanos , Medicina Tradicional/métodos , Momordica charantia/química , Paquistão , Extratos Vegetais/química , Folhas de Planta/química , Plantas Medicinais/química , Solanaceae/classificação , Tamarindus/química
J Pak Med Assoc ; 71(11): 2501-2505, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34783725


OBJECTIVES: To compare the analgesic effects of gabapentin and paracetamol post-operatively in patients with hand injury. METHODS: The double-blind, randomised control trial was conducted at the Department of Plastic Surgery, Dow University of Health Sciences, Karachi, from March to August 2019, and comprised subjects aged 18-60 years with hand injury who were randomly divided into group I which received gabapentin 600mg and group II which received paracetamol 1000 mg through anonymous packaging. Pain intensity was assessed using the visual analogue scale along with a self-designed questionnaire which was filled twice post-operatively; first at the time of drug intake once orally allowed; and thereafter six hours later. Data was analysed using SPSS 22. RESULTS: Of the 50 subjects, there were 25(50%) in each of the two groups. Overall, there were 41(82%) males and 9(18%) females. The mean age of the total sample was 28.64±6.72 years. The most frequent side-effect reported in both groups was nausea; 11(44%) in group I and 9(36%) in group II. The least reported side-effect in group I was double vision 1(4%) which was not reported at all in group II and the least reported side-effect was dry mouth 1(4%). The analgesic effect between the groups were not significantly different (p>0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Both gabapentin and paracetamol were found to be effective in pain management, but the latter had slightly better pain control with relatively less side-effects. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Identifier: NCT04068506.

Acetaminofen , Traumatismos da Mão , Acetaminofen/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Analgésicos/uso terapêutico , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Gabapentina/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Masculino , Dor Pós-Operatória/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto Jovem
Cureus ; 12(8): e9894, 2020 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32968560


Background Menstruation is a natural physiological phenomenon, yet considered a stigmatized subject, particularly in low- and middle-income countries like Pakistan. It is seldom discussed openly, leading to flow of incorrect and incomplete knowledge. The resultant unhealthy practices not only affect the health of the menstruator but can also contribute to considerable psychosocial stress. Menstrual hygiene management (MHM) is an important facet, which is associated with a variety of practices and beliefs in different parts of the world, some of which may not be correct. Identifying these poor methods is necessary in order to rectify them. Hence, our study aimed at determining the level of knowledge, beliefs, and practices pertaining to menstruation in the general female populace of Karachi. Healthcare workers have a potential role in the dissemination of authentic knowledge and practices. Therefore, we assessed and compared the accuracy and reliability of the aforementioned parameters in them and the need for an educational intervention. Methods A descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted on females visiting the Gynecologic and Obstetrics Outpatient Department (OPD), and healthcare workers employed at Dr. Ruth K. M. Pfau Civil Hospital Karachi and Dow University Hospital Ojha. Using non-probability convenience sampling, a self-structured questionnaire was used to collect data from 353 respondents over a duration of three months from October 2019 to January 2020. Data was tabulated in Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 24.0 (IBM Corp., Armonk, NY, US). In accordance with the objectives of the study, descriptive analysis was performed, and data was presented in the form of frequencies and percentages.  Results Of the 353 participants, 176 were from the general population and 177 were healthcare workers. At menarche, only 28.4% of the general population and 29.4% of healthcare workers had an idea of menses and proper placement of absorbent. Significantly lower number of females from the general population were found to be aware of tampons and menstrual cups (15.9% and 11.4% respectively) as compared to healthcare workers. For both groups, the source of knowledge was mostly their mother. The study showed that 77.8% of the general population and 66.1% of healthcare workers avoided bathing on certain days during menses, with the most common reason being that "it causes irregular flow". As compared to healthcare workers, a significantly higher number of women from the general population had restrictions of activity (53.4%) and avoided washing of groin area during menstruation (31.2%). Majority of women from the general population mentioned that they were scared when they menstruated for the first time. The most common absorbent used by respondents was pads, followed by cloth. The data showed 64.2% of females from the general population and 28.8% of healthcare workers abstained from eating certain foods. Seeking treatment for gynecological issues was not widespread among respondents. Conclusion Our study demonstrated insufficient menstrual knowledge, and consequent incorrect practices in the female population of Karachi. Destigmatizing menstruation and educating women and young girls is indispensable to overcoming this gap. At the same time, reinforcing the availability of MHM products is long overdue and is a crucial milestone towards facilitation of MHM for the women of Pakistan.

Infez Med ; 26(4): 385-388, 2018 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30555146


Myiasis is a pathological condition in which there is a pestilence of fly larvae feeding on living or dead tissues. This disease is common in the tropics and subtropics of Africa and America and rarely affects humans. Our case report describes a five-year-old boy from Karachi, Pakistan with a history of extraction sockets and incisional biopsy of the left parotid lymph node. Lack of proper wound maintenance led to infestation of maggots both over the overlying skin of the left parotid region and the posterior oral cavity. The plan was wound debridement both outside and intra-orally under local anesthesia and the removal of maggots. A cotton swab impregnated with turpentine oil was placed on the wounds for a few minutes. The wounds were then properly debrided with pyodine and hydrogen peroxide. Around 15 to 16 maggots were extracted from the wound on the left parotid region using medical forceps whereas five maggots were extracted from the intraoral wound with the help of turpentine oil and forceps. This case demonstrates the importance of oral health and proper wound management, and also that myiasis, despite its distinctiveness, can be managed by promoting awareness of the disease and by suitable treatment methods.

Doenças da Boca/parasitologia , Miíase , Animais , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Masculino , Doenças da Boca/diagnóstico , Doenças da Boca/terapia , Miíase/diagnóstico , Miíase/terapia , Paquistão