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1.
Rev Peru Med Exp Salud Publica ; 37(3): 541-546, 2020 Dec 02.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33295559

RESUMO

Patients diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus, who then become infected with SARS-CoV-2, are at greater risk of developing complications from COVID-19, which may even lead to death. Diabetes is a chronic condition that requires continuous contact with healthcare facilities; therefore, this type of patients should have regular access to medicines, tests and appointments with healthcare personnel. In Peru, care and treatment continuity have been affected since the national state of emergency due to COVID-19 began; because many healthcare facilities suspended outpatient consultations. The strategies presented in this study were developed by different Peruvian health providers in the pandemic context to ensure care continuity for people with diabetes. This article provides recommendations to strengthen primary healthcare, because it is the first level of healthcare contact for patients with diabetes.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32742666

RESUMO

Hypertension is the leading risk factor for global disease burden. Self-management of high blood pressure (BP) through self-monitoring and self-titration of medications, has proved to be one successful and cost-effective tool to achieve better BP control in many high-income countries but not much is known about its potential in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). We used semi-structured questionnaires and focus groups in three LMICs; Peru, Cameroon and Malawi to examine perceptions and attitudes of patients diagnosed with essential hypertension towards living with hypertension, BP measurement and treatment, patient-physician relationship and opinions about self-management of high blood pressure. Results in all three countries were comparable. Patients showed varied levels of health literacy related to hypertension. BP measurement habits were mostly affected by resources available and caregiver support. Treatment and adherence to it were primarily affected by cost. Most patients were welcoming of the idea of self-management but skeptical about the ability to do self-monitoring accurately and the safety involving self-titration of medications.

3.
Rev. peru. med. exp. salud publica ; 37(3): 541-546, jul-sep 2020. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1145028

RESUMO

RESUMEN Las personas con diabetes mellitus tipo 2 infectadas por SARS-CoV-2 tienen mayores riesgos de desarrollar COVID-19 con complicaciones y de morir como consecuencia de ella. La diabetes es una condición crónica en la que se requiere continuidad de cuidados que implican un contacto con los establecimientos de salud, pues deben tener acceso regular a medicamentos, exámenes y citas con personal de salud. Esta continuidad de cuidados se ha visto afectada en el Perú a raíz de la declaratoria del estado de emergencia nacional, producto de la pandemia por la COVID-19 pues muchos establecimientos de salud han suspendido las consultas externas. Este artículo describe algunas estrategias que han desarrollado los diferentes proveedores de salud peruanos en el marco de la pandemia para proveer continuidad del cuidado a las personas con diabetes y finalmente brinda recomendaciones para que reciban los cuidados que necesitan a través del fortalecimiento del primer nivel de atención, como el punto de contacto más cercano con las personas con diabetes.


ABSTRACT Patients diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus, who then become infected with SARS-CoV-2, are at greater risk of developing complications from COVID-19, which may even lead to death. Diabetes is a chronic condition that requires continuous contact with healthcare facilities; therefore, this type of patients should have regular access to medicines, tests and appointments with healthcare personnel. In Peru, care and treatment continuity have been affected since the national state of emergency due to COVID-19 began; because many healthcare facilities suspended outpatient consultations. The strategies presented in this study were developed by different Peruvian health providers in the pandemic context to ensure care continuity for people with diabetes. This article provides recommendations to strengthen primary healthcare, because it is the first level of healthcare contact for patients with diabetes.

4.
Glob Health Action ; 13(1): 1754016, 2020 12 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32406330

RESUMO

Background: Co-creation is the process of involving stakeholders in the development of interventions. Although co-creation is becoming more widespread, reports of the process and lessons learned are scarce.Objective: To describe the process and lessons learned from using the COHESION manual, a co-creation methodology to develop interventions aimed at the improvement of diagnosis and/or management of chronic diseases at the primary healthcare level in a low-resource setting in Peru.Methods: Observational study to describe the use of the COHESION manual 'Moving from Research to Interventions: The COHESION Model' developed for a multi-country project in low- and middle-income countries for co-creation and the adaptations needed to customize it to the local context of rural communities in northern Peru.Results: The actual process of co-creation in Peru included co-creation-related questions in the formative research; an initial consultation with stakeholders at the micro, meso, and macro levels (e.g. community members, health workers, and policy-makers); the analysis of the collected data; a second consultation with each stakeholder group; the prioritization of intervention options; and finally the design of a theory of change for all activities included in the complex intervention. The complex intervention included: 1) offer training in specific diseases and soft skills to health workers, 2) create radio programs that promote chronic disease prevention and management plus empower patients to ask questions during their visits to primary health care (PHC) facilities, and 3) provide a small grant to the PHC for infrastructure improvement. Small adaptations to the COHESION manual were necessary for this co-creation process.Conclusion: This study provides a practical example of the process of co-creating complex interventions to increase access and quality of health care in a low-resource setting. The process, components, challenges and opportunities identified could be useful for other researchers who want to co-create interventions with beneficiaries in similar settings.

5.
Nat Med ; 26(3): 374-378, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32066973

RESUMO

Replacement of regular salt with potassium-enriched substitutes reduces blood pressure in controlled situations, mainly among people with hypertension. We report on a population-wide implementation of this strategy in a stepped-wedge cluster randomized trial (NCT01960972). The regular salt in enrolled households was retrieved and replaced, free of charge, with a combination of 75% NaCl and 25% KCl. A total of 2,376 participants were enrolled in 6 villages in Tumbes, Peru. The fully adjusted intention-to-treat analysis showed an average reduction of 1.29 mm Hg (95% confidence interval (95% CI) (-2.17, -0.41)) in systolic and 0.76 mm Hg (95% CI (-1.39, -0.13)) in diastolic blood pressure. Among participants without hypertension at baseline, in the time- and cluster-adjusted model, the use of the salt substitute was associated with a 51% (95% CI (29%, 66%)) reduced risk of developing hypertension compared with the control group. In 24-h urine samples, there was no evidence of differences in sodium levels (mean difference 0.01; 95% CI (0.25, -0.23)), but potassium levels were higher at the end of the study than at baseline (mean difference 0.63; 95% CI (0.78, 0.47)). Our results support a case for implementing a pragmatic, population-wide, salt-substitution strategy for reducing blood pressure and hypertension incidence.


Assuntos
Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Características de Residência , Cloreto de Sódio na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Diástole , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Hipertensão/urina , Incidência , Masculino , Peru/epidemiologia , Potássio/urina , Sódio/urina , Inquéritos e Questionários , Sístole
6.
Int J Equity Health ; 18(1): 28, 2019 06 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31155000

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In 2014 the World Health Organization (WHO) launched the "End TB Strategy", setting new ambitious goals for elimination of tuberculosis (TB). In contrast with previous efforts to control TB, the new strategy adopted the protection and promotion of human rights in TB prevention and care as a core pillar. This mandated the development of national programmes that are sensitive to the characteristics of populations and responsive to structural factors that put people at increased risk of exposure to TB, limit access to good quality health services and make people more vulnerable to TB infection. Indigenous people living in the Peruvian Amazon have been identified as a TB vulnerable group by Peruvian health authorities. This article examines the barriers faced by indigenous people and rural settlers from the Peruvian Amazon in obtaining a TB diagnosis and appropriate TB treatment, through the principles of the human rights based approach of accessibility, availability, affordability, adaptability and quality, and thus provides evidence of the utility of such approach in Peru. METHODS: This is a qualitative study. We combined information from policy documents and legal regulations and in-depth interviews with health workers and health authorities. We used Atlas-ti to conduct a thematic analysis and identify interviewees responses to pre-defined topics. RESULTS: Despite having a strong legal framework to protect the right to health of indigenous people and people affected by TB, there are underlying structural factors contributing to delays in detection, diagnosis and TB treatment, which are mostly related to having a health system poorly prepared to provide care for people living in dispersed rural communities. This article shows the limited level of integration of the "End TB Strategy" principles in the Peruvian National TB Programme and identifies the weakness of the health system to improve health care provision for indigenous people and rural settlers from the Peruvian Amazon. CONCLUSIONS: Our study shows the need to go beyond developing a strong legal framework to ensure vulnerable populations such as indigenous people are able to realize their right to health. Governments need to allocate funds, improve training and adapt healthcare provision to the cultural, geographical, and social context of indigenous people.


Assuntos
Equidade em Saúde/legislação & jurisprudência , Direitos Humanos , Tuberculose/prevenção & controle , Populações Vulneráveis , Humanos , Peru , Pesquisa Qualitativa
7.
Nutrients ; 10(11)2018 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30360485

RESUMO

Peru is undergoing a nutrition transition and, at the country level, it faces a double burden of disease where several different conditions require dietary changes to maintain a healthy life and prevent complications. Through semistructured interviews in rural Peru with people affected by three infectious and noninfectious chronic conditions (type 2 diabetes, hypertension, and neurocysticercosis), their relatives, and focus group discussions with community members, we analyzed their perspectives on the value of food and the challenges of dietary changes due to medical diagnosis. The findings show the various ways in which people from rural northern Peru conceptualize good (buena alimentación) and bad (mala alimentación) food, and that food choices are based on life-long learning, experience, exposure, and availability. In the context of poverty, required changes are not only related to what people recognize as healthy food, such as fruits and vegetables, but also of work, family, trust, taste, as well as affordability and accessibility of foods. In this paper we discuss the complexity of introducing dietary changes in poor rural communities whose perspectives on food are poorly understood and rarely taken into consideration by health professionals when promoting behavior change.


Assuntos
Abastecimento de Alimentos/economia , Abastecimento de Alimentos/normas , Promoção da Saúde , População Rural , Comportamento de Escolha , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Estado Nutricional , Percepção , Peru
8.
Qual Health Res ; 28(12): 1871-1882, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30066604

RESUMO

Family support is crucial for managing chronic conditions but it is often overlooked when designing behavioral interventions in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). As part of the formative phase of a feasibility randomized control trial (RCT), we conducted 20 semistructured interviews with people with T2DM from Lima, Peru. Based on such results, we describe the support people with T2DM receive from their families and the role that such support has in their efforts to implement diabetes management practices. We learned that participants receive support from family members, but mostly from their spouses and children. Their relatives encourage them and motivate them to fight for their health, they also provide instrumental support by preparing healthy meals, reminding them to take medications, and sharing physical activity. Participants also reported controlling actions which were not always "well received." Thus, any intervention supporting self-management practices need to work with key family members. We support the literature that suggests that interventions should target family members to ensure improved T2DM self-management practices.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/psicologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/terapia , Família/psicologia , Autogestão/métodos , Autogestão/psicologia , Apoio Social , Adulto , Idoso , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Dieta Saudável , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Hospitais Públicos , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Masculino , Adesão à Medicação , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Motivação , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Peru , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Cônjuges/psicologia
9.
Wellcome Open Res ; 3: 139, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30662958

RESUMO

Background: Incentives play a role in introducing health-related benefits, but no interventions using mixed incentives, i.e. a combination of individual and group incentives, have been tested in individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). We evaluated the feasibility of implementing individual- and mixed-incentives, with and without a supportive partner, on glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) control and weight loss among patients with T2DM. Methods: This is a feasibility, sex-stratified, single-blinded, randomized controlled study in individuals with T2DM. All participants received diabetes education and tailored goal setting for weight and glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c). Participants were randomly assigned into three arms: individual incentives (Arm 1), mixed incentives-altruism (Arm 2), and mixed incentives-cooperation (Arm 3). Participants were accompanied by a diabetes educator every other week to monitor targets, and the intervention period lasted 3 months. The primary outcome was the change in HbA1c at 3 months from baseline. Weight and change body mass index (BMI) were considered as secondary outcomes. Results: Out of 783 patients screened, a total of 54 participants, 18 per study arm, were enrolled and 44 (82%) completed the 3-month follow-up. Mean baseline HbA1c values were 8.5%, 7.9% and 8.2% in Arm 1, Arm 2, and Arm 3, respectively. At 3 months, participants in all three study arms showed reductions in HbA1c ranging from -0.9% in Arm 2 to -1.4% in Arm 1. Weight and BMI also showed reductions. Conclusions: Individual and mixed cash incentives show important reductions in HbA1c, weight and BMI in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus after 3 months.  Recruitment and uptake of the intervention were successfully accomplished demonstrating feasibility to conduct larger effectiveness studies to test individual and mixed economic incentives for diabetes management. Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier NCT02891382.

10.
Wellcome Open Res ; 3: 53, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30740534

RESUMO

Background: Weight loss is important for the control of type 2 diabetes mellitus but is difficult to achieve and sustain. Programmes employing financial incentives have been successful in areas such as smoking cessation. However, the optimum design for an incentivised programme for weight loss is undetermined, and may depend on social, cultural and demographic factors. Methods: An original questionnaire was designed whose items addressed respondent personal and health characteristics, and preferences for a hypothetical incentivised weight loss programme. One hundred people with type 2 diabetes mellitus were recruited to complete the questionnaire from the endocrinology clinic of a public hospital in Lima, Peru. A descriptive analysis of responses was performed. Results: Ninety-five percent of subjects who had previously attempted to lose weight had found this either 'difficult' or 'very difficult'. Eighty-five percent of subjects would participate in an incentivised weight loss programme. Median suggested incentive for 1 kg weight loss every 2 weeks over 9 months was PEN 100 (~USD $30). Cash was preferred by 70% as payment method. Only 56% of subjects would participate in a deposit-contract scheme, and the median suggested deposit amount was PEN 20 (~USD $6). Eighty percent of subjects would share the incentive with a helper, and family members were the most common choice of helper. Conclusions: The challenge of achieving and sustaining weight loss is confirmed in this setting. Direct cash payments of PEN 100 were generally preferred, with substantial scope for involving a co-participant with whom the incentive could be shared. Employing direct financial incentives in future weight loss programmes appears to be widely acceptable among people with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

11.
Horiz. méd. (Impresa) ; 18(3): 30-36, 2018.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1012242

RESUMO

Objetivo: Conocer las experiencias y percepciones de donantes de sangre en un hospital público. Materiales y métodos: Se realizó un estudio cualitativo con orientación fenomenológica en un hospital público de Lima. Se realizaron entrevistas semiestructuradas a profundidad y notas de campo basadas en observaciones a los participantes. Resultados: Se entrevistó a doce donantes, los cuales manifestaron no haber tenido mucha información sobre la donación y el banco de sangre. Sin embargo, luego de su experiencia de donar se identificó aspectos positivos como la atención de calidad, rápida y minuciosa. Los participantes valoran el trato cordial del personal a la hora de brindar información, el reducido tiempo de espera y la compañía durante el proceso de extracción de la sangre. Los aspectos negativos fueron la falta de publicidad y difusión de la donación voluntaria de sangre. A pesar de ello la mayoría de entrevistados manifestaron su intención de retornar debido a la calidad del servicio. En resumen, la percepción de los participantes fue favorable a la donación, al recibir una atención de calidad, con información oportuna en el tiempo adecuado. Conclusiones: Los entrevistados no tenían mayor información sobre la posibilidad de hacer donaciones voluntarias de sangre en el hospital. Posterior a su experiencia, la percepción sobre la donación fue favorable, indicando su intención de participar en futuras donaciones.


Objective: To know the experiences and perceptions of blood donors at a public hospital. Materials and methods: A qualitative study with phenomenological orientation was performed at a public hospital in Lima. Semi-structured in-depth interviews and field notes based on participants' observations were conducted. Results: A total of 12 donors who reported not having much information about donation and blood banks were interviewed. However, after their donation experience, they identified positive aspects such as a high-quality, fast and thorough care. Participants appreciated the personnel's cordial treatment when providing information, the short waiting time, and the personnel's company during the process of blood extraction. The negative aspects were the lack of dissemination and publicity of voluntary blood donation. In spite of this, most interviewees expressed their intention to return due to the high-quality service they received. In summary, participants' perception of blood donation was favorable because they received high-quality care, with timely information in the appropriate time. Conclusions: Interviewees had limited information about the possibility of making voluntary blood donations at the hospital. After their experience, participants perceived that donating blood was favorable and indicated their intention to participate in future donations.

12.
eNeurologicalSci ; 6: 33-50, 2017 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28989982

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Understanding local complexities and challenges of stroke-related caregiving are essential to develop appropriate interventions. Our study aimed to characterize the impact of post-stroke care among caregivers in a setting of transitioning economy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Qualitative study based on in-depth interviews with primary caregivers of stroke survivors in Lima, Peru. Transcribed data was organized into the emotional impact of caregiving, main stress factors and coping mechanisms to deal with the caregiving role, as well as the unmet needs of caregivers. RESULTS: We interviewed twelve caregivers, mean age 52.5 years, 8/12 were females, who were either the spouse or child of the stroke survivor. Stroke patients had a median age of 70 years, range 53-85 years. All participants reported having experienced emotional stress and depressive symptoms as a result of caregiving. Although most had family support, reduced social activities and added unanticipated financial burdens increased caregiver's stress. None of the caregivers had received training in post-stroke care tasks after the patient's discharge and only a few had received some psychological support, yet almost all expressed the need to see a professional to improve their mental health. Keeping a positive attitude towards their relative's physical post-stroke condition was a key coping mechanism. CONCLUSIONS: In the absence of structured institutional responses, family members endure with the provision of care for stroke survivors, a task escorted by major emotional, financial, and social strains. This burden could be prevented or curtailed if caregivers were to be targeted by interventions providing psychological and financial support, together with basic training on post-stroke care.

13.
Nutrients ; 9(7)2017 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28678190

RESUMO

Interventions to promote behaviors to reduce sodium intake require messages tailored to local understandings of the relationship between what we eat and our health. We studied local explanations about hypertension, the relationship between local diet, salt intake, and health status, and participants' opinions about changing food habits. This study provided inputs for a social marketing campaign in Peru promoting the use of a salt substitute containing less sodium than regular salt. Qualitative methods (focus groups and in-depth interviews) were utilized with local populations, people with hypertension, and health personnel in six rural villages. Participants were 18-65 years old, 41% men. Participants established a direct relationship between emotions and hypertension, regardless of age, gender, and hypertension status. Those without hypertension established a connection between eating too much/eating fried food and health status but not between salt consumption and hypertension. Participants rejected dietary changes. Economic barriers and high appreciation of local culinary traditions were the main reasons for this. It is the conclusion of this paper that introducing and promoting salt substitutes require creative strategies that need to acknowledge local explanatory disease models such as the strong association between emotional wellbeing and hypertension, give a positive spin to changing food habits, and resist the "common sense" strategy of information provision around the causal connection between salt consumption and hypertension.


Assuntos
Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Hipertensão/etiologia , Cloreto de Sódio na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Cloreto de Sódio na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Idoso , Dieta , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Peru/epidemiologia , População Rural , Cloreto de Sódio , Paladar , Adulto Jovem
14.
Global Health ; 12(1): 29, 2016 06 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27255370

RESUMO

Human capital requires opportunities to develop and capacity to overcome challenges, together with an enabling environment that fosters critical and disruptive innovation. Exploring such features is necessary to establish the foundation of solid long-term partnerships. In this paper we describe the experience of the CRONICAS Centre of Excellence in Chronic Diseases, based at Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia in Lima, Peru, as a case study for fostering meaningful and sustainable partnerships for international collaborative research. The CRONICAS Centre of Excellence in Chronic Diseases was established in 2009 with the following Mission: "We support the development of young researchers and collaboration with national and international institutions. Our motivation is to improve population's health through high quality research." The Centre's identity is embedded in its core values - generosity, innovation, integrity, and quality- and its trajectory is a result of various interactions between multiple individuals, collaborators, teams, and institutions, which together with the challenges confronted, enables us to make an objective assessment of the partnership we would like to pursue, nurture and support. We do not intend to provide a single example of a successful partnership, but in contrast, to highlight what can be translated into opportunities to be faced by research groups based in low- and middle-income countries, and how these encounters can provide a strong platform for fruitful and sustainable partnerships. In defiant contexts, partnerships require to be nurtured and sustained. Acknowledging that all partnerships are not and should not be the same, we also need to learn from the evolution of such relationships, its key successes, hurdles and failures to contribute to the promotion of a culture of global solidarity where mutual goals, mutual gains, as well as mutual responsibilities are the norm. In so doing, we will all contribute to instil a new culture where expectations, roles and interactions among individuals and their teams are horizontal, the true nature of partnerships.


Assuntos
Saúde Global , Cooperação Internacional , Pesquisa Biomédica/organização & administração , Fortalecimento Institucional/organização & administração , Doença Crônica/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Estudos de Casos Organizacionais , Peru
15.
Rev Peru Med Exp Salud Publica ; 32(3): 492-8, 2015.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26580931

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Describe the diversity of traditional healers, their links with the formal health system and changes in their therapeutic resources in two rural Andean communities in Churcampa, in the region of Huancavelica, Peru. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Qualitative study which combined three ethnographic techniques: in depth interviews, observations and accompaniments to traditional healers and health care personnel. RESULTS: 58 traditional healers, classified as healers, midwives and bonesetters were identified. Most healers interviewed learned their work while young and few had a teacher or mentor. The vast majority have objections to linking with health care facilities beyond referrals. There was no coordinated work among health personnel and traditional healers. However, when it happened, health personnel preferred those healers who have the willingness to adapt to the needs of the health services. We found that most of the healers were changing their practices due to the influence of evangelical churches. No healer had disciples to transmit their knowledge and practices. CONCLUSIONS: There is great diversity of traditional healers. This diversity is decreasing, among other factors, by the advance of the evangelical churches. Traditional healers refer some patients to the health facility; while health personnel establish hierarchical working relationships with the healers. It is necessary to work on these attitudes of the health care personnel, since the basis of an intercultural approach is to have coordinated and horizontal working relationships between both systems.


Assuntos
Pessoal de Saúde , Medicina Tradicional , Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Peru , População Rural
16.
Rev. peru. med. exp. salud publica ; 32(3): 492-498, jul.-sep. 2015. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, LIPECS, INS-PERU | ID: lil-790735

RESUMO

Describir la diversidad de terapeutas tradicionales, sus vínculos con el sistema de salud oficial y los cambios en sus recursos terapéuticos, en dos comunidades rurales de los andes en Churcampa, región de Huancavelica, Perú. Materiales y métodos. Estudio cualitativo en el que se combinan tres técnicas etnográficas: entrevistas en profundidad, observaciones y acompañamientos a terapeutas tradicionales y personal de salud. Resultados. Se identificaron 58 terapeutas, clasificados como curanderos, parteros y hueseros. La mayoría de terapeutas entrevistados aprendió su labor siendo joven y muy pocos tuvieron un maestro o mentor. La gran mayoría señaló tener reparos para vincularse con los establecimientos de salud más allá de las referencias. No había un trabajo articulado entre personal de salud y terapeutas tradicionales. Sin embargo, cuando sucedía, el personal de salud prefería a aquellos terapeutas que tuvieran la disposición para adecuarse a las necesidades de los servicios de salud. Se encontró que buena parte de los terapeutas estaban cambiando sus prácticas debido a la influencia de las iglesias evangélicas. Ningún terapeuta contaba con discípulos para transmitir sus conocimientos y prácticas. Conclusiones. Existe una gran diversidad de terapeutas tradicionales. Esta diversidad viene disminuyendo, entre otros factores, por el avance de las iglesias evangélicas. Los terapeutas tradicionales refieren a algunos pacientes al establecimiento de salud; mientras que el personal de salud establece relaciones jerárquicas de trabajo con los terapeutas. Se requiere trabajar estas actitudes del personal de salud pues la base de un enfoque intercultural es el trabajo articulado y horizontal entre ambos sistemas...


Describe the diversity of traditional healers, their links with the formal health system and changes in their therapeutic resources in two rural Andean communities in Churcampa, in the region of Huancavelica, Peru. Materials and methods. Qualitative study which combined three ethnographic techniques: in depth interviews, observations and accompaniments to traditional healers and health care personnel. Results. 58 traditional healers, classified as healers, midwives and bonesetters were identified. Most healers interviewed learned their work while young and few had a teacher or mentor. The vast majority have objections to linking with health care facilities beyond referrals. There was no coordinated work among health personnel and traditional healers. However, when it happened, health personnel preferred those healers who have the willingness to adapt to the needs of the health services. We found that most of the healers were changing their practices due to the influence of evangelical churches. No healer had disciples to transmit their knowledge and practices. Conclusions. There is great diversity of traditional healers. This diversity is decreasing, among other factors, by the advance of the evangelical churches. Traditional healers refer some patients to the health facility; while health personnel establish hierarchical working relationships with the healers. It is necessary to work on these attitudes of the health care personnel, since the basis of an intercultural approach is to have coordinated and horizontal working relationships between both systems...


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Antropologia Cultural , Xamanismo , Medicina Tradicional , Peru
17.
Can J Cardiol ; 31(9): 1180-8, 2015 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26239007

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with chronic conditions and limited access to health care experience stressful challenges resulting from the burden of managing both their conditions and their daily life demands. Resilience provides a mechanism of adapting to stressful experiences. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to synthesize the evidence about interventions to enhance resiliency in managing hypertension or type 2 diabetes in vulnerable populations and to assess the efficacy of these interventions on clinical outcomes. METHODS: We searched multiple databases from early inception through February 2015 including randomized controlled trials that enrolled patients with type 2 diabetes or hypertension. All interventions that targeted resilience in vulnerable populations were included. Data were synthesized to describe the characteristics and efficacy of resiliency interventions. We pooled the total effects by calculating standardized mean difference using the random-effects model. RESULTS: The final search yielded 17 studies. All studies were conducted in the United States and generally targeted minority participants. Resiliency interventions used diverse strategies; discussion groups or workshops were the most common approach. CONCLUSIONS: Interventions aimed at enhancing the resiliency of patients from vulnerable groups are diverse. Outcomes were not fully conclusive. There was some evidence that resiliency interventions had a positive effect on hemoglobin A1C levels but not blood pressure. The incorporation of resiliency-oriented interventions into the arsenal of preventing and managing chronic conditions appears to be an opportunity that remains to be better investigated and exploited, and there is need to pursue further understanding of the core components of any intervention that claims to enhance resilience.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/psicologia , Angiopatias Diabéticas/psicologia , Hipertensão/psicologia , Resiliência Psicológica , Populações Vulneráveis/psicologia , Competência Cultural , Hemoglobina A Glicada , Humanos , Autocuidado
18.
Glob Heart ; 10(1): 13-9, 2015 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25754562

RESUMO

The CRONICAS Centre of Excellence in Chronic Diseases, based at Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, was created in 2009 with support from the U.S. National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI). The vision of CRONICAS is to build a globally recognized center of excellence conducting quality and innovative research and generating high-impact evidence for health. The center's identity is embedded in its core values: generosity, innovation, integrity, and quality. This review has been structured to describe the development of the CRONICAS Centre, with a focus on highlighting the ongoing translational research projects and capacity-building strategies. The CRONICAS Centre of Excellence is not a risk-averse organization: it benefits from past experiences, including past mistakes, and improves upon them and thus challenges traditional research approaches. This ethos and environment are key to fostering innovation in research.


Assuntos
Academias e Institutos/organização & administração , Doença Crônica , Pesquisa Médica Translacional/organização & administração , Saúde Global , Humanos , National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (U.S.) , Objetivos Organizacionais , Peru , Desenvolvimento de Programas , Apoio à Pesquisa como Assunto , Estados Unidos
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