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1.
JAMA Netw Open ; 2(10): e1913900, 2019 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31642931

RESUMO

Importance: Performing DNA genetic testing (DGT) for hereditary cancer genes is now a well-accepted clinical practice; however, the interpretation of DNA variation remains a challenge for laboratories and clinicians. Adding RNA genetic testing (RGT) enhances DGT by clarifying the clinical actionability of hereditary cancer gene variants, thus improving clinicians' ability to accurately apply strategies for cancer risk reduction and treatment. Objective: To evaluate whether RGT is associated with improvement in the diagnostic outcome of DGT and in the delivery of personalized cancer risk management for patients with hereditary cancer predisposition. Design, Setting, and Participants: Diagnostic study in which patients and/or families with inconclusive variants detected by DGT in genes associated with hereditary breast and ovarian cancer, Lynch syndrome, and hereditary diffuse gastric cancer sent blood samples for RGT from March 2016 to April 2018. Clinicians who ordered genetic testing and received a reclassification report for these variants were surveyed to assess whether RGT-related variant reclassifications changed clinical management of these patients. To quantify the potential number of tested individuals who could benefit from RGT, a cohort of 307 812 patients who underwent DGT for hereditary cancer were separately queried to identify variants predicted to affect splicing. Data analysis was conducted from March 2016 and September 2018. Main Outcomes and Measures: Variant reclassification outcomes following RGT, clinical management changes associated with RGT-related variant reclassifications, and the proportion of patients who would likely be affected by a concurrent DGT and RGT multigene panel testing approach. Results: In total, 93 if 909 eligible families (10.2%) submitted samples for RGT. Evidence from RGT clarified the interpretation of 49 of 56 inconclusive cases (88%) studied; 26 (47%) were reclassified as clinically actionable and 23 (41%) were clarified as benign. Variant reclassifications based on RGT results changed clinical management recommendations for 8 of 18 patients (44%) and 14 of 18 families (78%), based on responses from 18 of 45 clinicians (40%) surveyed. A total of 7265 of 307 812 patients who underwent DGT had likely pathogenic variants or variants of uncertain significance potentially affecting splicing, indicating that approximately 1 in 43 individuals could benefit from RGT. Conclusions and Relevance: In this diagnostic study, conducting RNA testing resolved a substantial proportion of variants of uncertain significance in a cohort of individuals previously tested for cancer predisposition by DGT. Performing RGT might change the diagnostic outcome of at least 1 in 43 patients if performed in all individuals undergoing genetic evaluation for hereditary cancer.

2.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 12752, 2019 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31484976

RESUMO

Many in silico predictors of genetic variant pathogenicity have been previously developed, but there is currently no standard application of these algorithms for variant assessment. Using 4,094 ClinVar-curated missense variants in clinically actionable genes, we evaluated the accuracy and yield of benign and deleterious evidence in 5 in silico meta-predictors, as well as agreement of SIFT and PolyPhen2, and report the derived thresholds for the best performing predictor(s). REVEL and BayesDel outperformed all other meta-predictors (CADD, MetaSVM, Eigen), with higher positive predictive value, comparable negative predictive value, higher yield, and greater overall prediction performance. Agreement of SIFT and PolyPhen2 resulted in slightly higher yield but lower overall prediction performance than REVEL or BayesDel. Our results support the use of gene-level rather than generalized thresholds, when gene-level thresholds can be estimated. Our results also support the use of 2-sided thresholds, which allow for uncertainty, rather than a single, binary cut-point for assigning benign and deleterious evidence. The gene-level 2-sided thresholds we derived for REVEL or BayesDel can be used to assess in silico evidence for missense variants in accordance with current classification guidelines.

3.
J Med Genet ; 2019 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31391288

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pathogenic variants in mismatch repair (MMR) genes (MLH1, MSH2, MSH6 and PMS2) increase risk for Lynch syndrome and related cancers. We quantified tumour characteristics to assess variant pathogenicity for germline MMR genes. METHODS: Among 4740 patients with cancer with microsatellite instability (MSI) and immunohistochemical (IHC) results, we tested MMR pathogenic variant association with MSI/IHC status, and estimated likelihood ratios which we used to compute a tumour characteristic likelihood ratio (TCLR) for each variant. Predictive performance of TCLR in combination with in silico predictors, and a multifactorial variant prediction (MVP) model that included allele frequency, co-occurrence, co-segregation, and clinical and family history information was assessed. RESULTS: Compared with non-carriers, carriers of germline pathogenic/likely pathogenic (P/LP) variants were more likely to have abnormal MSI/IHC status (p<0.0001). Among 150 classified missense variants, 73.3% were accurately predicted with TCLR alone. Models leveraging in silico scores as prior probabilities accurately classified >76.7% variants. Adding TCLR as quantitative evidence in an MVP model (MVP +TCLR Pred) increased the proportion of accurately classified variants from 88.0% (MVP alone) to 98.0% and generated optimal performance statistics among all models tested. Importantly, MVP +TCLR Pred resulted in the high yield of predicted classifications for missense variants of unknown significance (VUS); among 193 VUS, 62.7% were predicted as P/PL or benign/likely benign (B/LB) when assessed according to American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics/Association for Molecular Pathology guidelines. CONCLUSION: Our study demonstrates that when used separately or in conjunction with other evidence, tumour characteristics provide evidence for germline MMR missense variant assessment, which may have important implications for genetic testing and clinical management.

4.
Genet Med ; 2019 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31406321

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Despite the rapid uptake of multigene panel testing (MGPT) for hereditary cancer predisposition, there is limited guidance surrounding indications for testing and genes to include. METHODS: To inform the clinical approach to hereditary cancer MGPT, we comprehensively evaluated 32 cancer predisposition genes by assessing phenotype-specific pathogenic variant (PV) frequencies, cancer risk associations, and performance of genetic testing criteria in a cohort of 165,000 patients referred for MGPT. RESULTS: We identified extensive genetic heterogeneity surrounding predisposition to cancer types commonly referred for germline testing (breast, ovarian, colorectal, uterine/endometrial, pancreatic, and melanoma). PV frequencies were highest among patients with ovarian cancer (13.8%) and lowest among patients with melanoma (8.1%). Fewer than half of PVs identified in patients meeting testing criteria for only BRCA1/2 or only Lynch syndrome occurred in the respective genes (33.1% and 46.2%). In addition, 5.8% of patients with PVs in BRCA1/2 and 26.9% of patients with PVs in Lynch syndrome genes did not meet respective testing criteria. CONCLUSION: Opportunities to improve upon identification of patients at risk for hereditary cancer predisposition include revising BRCA1/2 and Lynch syndrome testing criteria to include additional clinically actionable genes with overlapping phenotypes and relaxing testing criteria for associated cancers.

5.
Cancer Genet ; 235-236: 21-27, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31296311

RESUMO

TP53 pathogenic germline variation is associated with the multi-cancer predisposition Li-Fraumeni syndrome (LFS). Next-generation sequencing and multigene panel testing are highlighting variability in the clinical presentation of patients with TP53 positive results. We aimed to investigate if the p53 variants considered as major hotspots at both germline and somatic levels (p.Arg175His, p.Gly245Asp, p.Gly245Ser, p.Arg248Gln, p.Arg248Trp, p.Arg273Cys, p.Arg273His, and p.Arg282Trp) were associated with poorer prognostic features compared to other pathogenic missense variants in the DNA-binding domain. To do so, we assessed clinical features from 1025 carriers of germline TP53 pathogenic variants (749 probands and 276 relatives) from three independent datasets (IARC TP53 Database, Ambry Single Gene Testing, and Ambry Multigene Panel Testing). We observed that, compared to carriers of non-hotspot germline variants, individuals that carried a hotspot germline variant were more likely to present with a Classic LFS phenotype, earlier age of first breast cancer onset, and shorter time to diagnosis to any cancer. Further studies with larger datasets addressing differences in cancer phenotypes by genotype are thus needed to replicate our findings and consider variant effect and position, towards future personalized clinical management of pathogenic variant carriers.

6.
J Med Genet ; 56(7): 453-460, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30890586

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: PALB2 monoallelic loss-of-function germ-line variants confer a breast cancer risk comparable to the average BRCA2 pathogenic variant. Recommendations for risk reduction strategies in carriers are similar. Elaborating robust criteria to identify loss-of-function variants in PALB2-without incurring overprediction-is thus of paramount clinical relevance. Towards this aim, we have performed a comprehensive characterisation of alternative splicing in PALB2, analysing its relevance for the classification of truncating and splice site variants according to the 2015 American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics-Association for Molecular Pathology guidelines. METHODS: Alternative splicing was characterised in RNAs extracted from blood, breast and fimbriae/ovary-related human specimens (n=112). RNAseq, RT-PCR/CE and CloneSeq experiments were performed by five contributing laboratories. Centralised revision/curation was performed to assure high-quality annotations. Additional splicing analyses were performed in PALB2 c.212-1G>A, c.1684+1G>A, c.2748+2T>G, c.3113+5G>A, c.3350+1G>A, c.3350+4A>C and c.3350+5G>A carriers. The impact of the findings on PVS1 status was evaluated for truncating and splice site variant. RESULTS: We identified 88 naturally occurring alternative splicing events (81 newly described), including 4 in-frame events predicted relevant to evaluate PVS1 status of splice site variants. We did not identify tissue-specific alternate gene transcripts in breast or ovarian-related samples, supporting the clinical relevance of blood-based splicing studies. CONCLUSIONS: PVS1 is not necessarily warranted for splice site variants targeting four PALB2 acceptor sites (exons 2, 5, 7 and 10). As a result, rare variants at these splice sites cannot be assumed pathogenic/likely pathogenic without further evidences. Our study puts a warning in up to five PALB2 genetic variants that are currently reported as pathogenic/likely pathogenic in ClinVar.

7.
Front Oncol ; 8: 480, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30410870

RESUMO

PALB2 (partner and localizer of BRCA2) was initially identified as a binding partner of BRCA2. It interacts also with BRCA1 forming a complex promoting DNA repair by homologous recombination. Germline pathogenic variants in BRCA1, BRCA2 and PALB2 DNA repair genes are associated with high risk of developing breast cancer. Mutation screening in these breast cancer predisposition genes is routinely performed and allows the identification of individuals who carry pathogenic variants and are at risk of developing the disease. However, variants of uncertain significance (VUSs) are often detected and establishing their pathogenicity and clinical relevance remains a central challenge for the risk assessment of the carriers and the clinical decision-making process. Many of these VUSs are missense variants leading to single amino acid substitutions, whose impact on protein function is uncertain. Typically, VUSs are rare and due to the limited genetic, clinical, and pathological data the multifactorial approaches used for classification cannot be applied. Thus, these variants can only be characterized through functional analyses comparing their effect with that of normal and mutant gene products used as positive and negative controls. The two missense variants BRCA2:c.91T >G (p.Trp31Gly) and PALB2:c.3262C >T (p.Pro1088Ser) were detected in two breast cancer probands originally ascertained at Breast Cancer Units of Institutes located in Milan and Bergamo (Northern Italy), respectively. These variants were located in the BRCA2-PALB2 interacting domains, were predicted to be deleterious by in silico analyses, and were very rare and clinically not classified. Therefore, we initiate to study their functional effect by exploiting a green fluorescent protein (GFP)-reassembly in vitro assay specifically designed to test the BRCA2-PALB2 interaction. This functional assay proved to be easy to develop, robust and reliable. It also allows testing variants located in different genes. Results from these functional analyses showed that the BRCA2:p.Trp31Gly and the PALB2:p.Pro1088Ser prevented the BRCA2-PALB2 binding. While caution is warranted when the interpretation of the clinical significance of rare VUSs is based on functional studies only, our data provide initial evidences in favor of the possibility that these variants are pathogenic.

8.
Hum Mutat ; 39(11): 1553-1568, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30311375

RESUMO

The variant curation guidelines published in 2015 by the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics and the Association for Molecular Pathology (ACMG/AMP) provided the genetics community with a framework to assess variant pathogenicity; however, these rules are not gene specific. Germline pathogenic variants in the CDH1 gene cause hereditary diffuse gastric cancer and lobular breast cancer, a clinically challenging cancer predisposition syndrome that often requires a multidisciplinary team of experts to be properly managed. Given this challenge, the Clinical Genome Resource (ClinGen) Hereditary Cancer Domain prioritized the development of the CDH1 variant curation expert panel (VCEP) to develop and implement rules for CDH1 variant classifications. Here, we describe the CDH1 specifications of the ACMG/AMP guidelines, which were developed and validated after a systematic evaluation of variants obtained from a cohort of clinical laboratory data encompassing ∼827,000 CDH1 sequenced alleles. Comparing previously reported germline variants that were classified using the 2015 ACMG/AMP guidelines to the CDH1 VCEP recommendations resulted in reduced variants of uncertain significance and facilitated resolution of variants with conflicted assertions in ClinVar. The ClinGen CDH1 VCEP recommends the use of these CDH1-specific guidelines for the assessment and classification of variants identified in this clinically actionable gene.

9.
Hum Mutat ; 39(11): 1581-1592, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30311380

RESUMO

The ClinGen PTEN Expert Panel was organized by the ClinGen Hereditary Cancer Clinical Domain Working Group to assemble clinicians, researchers, and molecular diagnosticians with PTEN expertise to develop specifications to the 2015 ACMG/AMP Sequence Variant Interpretation Guidelines for PTEN variant interpretation. We describe finalized PTEN-specific variant classification criteria and outcomes from pilot testing of 42 variants with benign/likely benign (BEN/LBEN), pathogenic/likely pathogenic (PATH/LPATH), uncertain significance (VUS), and conflicting (CONF) ClinVar assertions. Utilizing these rules, classifications concordant with ClinVar assertions were achieved for 14/15 (93.3%) BEN/LBEN and 16/16 (100%) PATH/LPATH ClinVar consensus variants for an overall concordance of 96.8% (30/31). The variant where agreement was not reached was a synonymous variant near a splice donor with noncanonical sequence for which in silico models cannot predict the native site. Applying these rules to six VUS and five CONF variants, adding shared internal laboratory data enabled one VUS to be classified as LBEN and two CONF variants to be as classified as PATH and LPATH. This study highlights the benefit of gene-specific criteria and the value of sharing internal laboratory data for variant interpretation. Our PTEN-specific criteria and expertly reviewed assertions should prove helpful for laboratories and others curating PTEN variants.

10.
PLoS One ; 13(9): e0203553, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30212499

RESUMO

There is a growing need to develop variant prediction tools capable of assessing a wide spectrum of evidence. We present a Bayesian framework that involves aggregating pathogenicity data across multiple in silico scores on a gene-by-gene basis and multiple evidence statistics in both quantitative and qualitative forms, and performs 5-tiered variant classification based on the resulting probability credible interval. When evaluated in 1,161 missense variants, our gene-specific in silico model-based meta-predictor yielded an area under the curve (AUC) of 96.0% and outperformed all other in silico predictors. Multifactorial model analysis incorporating all available evidence yielded 99.7% AUC, with 22.8% predicted as variants of uncertain significance (VUS). Use of only 3 auto-computed evidence statistics yielded 98.6% AUC with 56.0% predicted as VUS, which represented sufficient accuracy to rapidly assign a significant portion of VUS to clinically meaningful classifications. Collectively, our findings support the use of this framework to conduct large-scale variant prioritization using in silico predictors followed by variant prediction and classification with a high degree of predictive accuracy.

11.
Hum Mutat ; 39(11): 1517-1524, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30192042

RESUMO

The 2015 ACMG/AMP sequence variant interpretation guideline provided a framework for classifying variants based on several benign and pathogenic evidence criteria, including a pathogenic criterion (PVS1) for predicted loss of function variants. However, the guideline did not elaborate on specific considerations for the different types of loss of function variants, nor did it provide decision-making pathways assimilating information about variant type, its location, or any additional evidence for the likelihood of a true null effect. Furthermore, this guideline did not take into account the relative strengths for each evidence type and the final outcome of their combinations with respect to PVS1 strength. Finally, criteria specifying the genes for which PVS1 can be applied are still missing. Here, as part of the ClinGen Sequence Variant Interpretation (SVI) Workgroup's goal of refining ACMG/AMP criteria, we provide recommendations for applying the PVS1 criterion using detailed guidance addressing the above-mentioned gaps. Evaluation of the refined criterion by seven disease-specific groups using heterogeneous types of loss of function variants (n = 56) showed 89% agreement with the new recommendation, while discrepancies in six variants (11%) were appropriately due to disease-specific refinements. Our recommendations will facilitate consistent and accurate interpretation of predicted loss of function variants.

12.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 2018 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30099541

RESUMO

Background: Germline genetic testing with hereditary cancer gene panels can identify women at increased risk of breast cancer. However, those at increased risk of triple-negative (estrogen receptor-negative, progesterone receptor-negative, human epidermal growth factor receptor-negative) breast cancer (TNBC) cannot be identified because predisposition genes for TNBC, other than BRCA1, have not been established. The aim of this study was to define the cancer panel genes associated with increased risk of TNBC. Methods: Multigene panel testing for 21 genes in 8753 TNBC patients was performed by a clinical testing laboratory, and testing for 17 genes in 2148 patients was conducted by a Triple Negative Breast Cancer Consortium (TNBCC) of research studies. Associations between deleterious mutations in cancer predisposition genes and TNBC were evaluated using results from TNBC patients and reference controls. Results: Germline pathogenic variants in BARD1, BRCA1, BRCA2, PALB2, and RAD51D were associated with high risk (odds ratio > 5.0) of TNBC and greater than 20% lifetime risk for overall breast cancer among Caucasians. Pathogenic variants in BRIP1, RAD51C, and TP53 were associated with moderate risk (odds ratio > 2) of TNBC. Similar trends were observed for the African American population. Pathogenic variants in these TNBC genes were detected in 12.0% (3.7% non-BRCA1/2) of all participants. Conclusions: Multigene hereditary cancer panel testing can identify women with elevated risk of TNBC due to mutations in BARD1, BRCA1, BRCA2, PALB2, and RAD51D. These women can potentially benefit from improved screening, risk management, and cancer prevention strategies. Patients with mutations may also benefit from specific targeted therapeutic strategies.

13.
14.
Genet Med ; 2018 Jul 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30054569

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Gross duplications are ambiguous in terms of clinical interpretation due to the limitations of the detection methods that cannot infer their context, namely, whether they occur in tandem or are duplicated and inserted elsewhere in the genome. We investigated the proportion of gross duplications occurring in tandem in breast cancer predisposition genes with the intent of informing their classifications. METHODS: The DNA breakpoint assay (DBA) is a custom, paired-end, next-generation sequencing (NGS) method designed to capture and detect deep-intronic DNA breakpoints in gross duplications in BRCA1, BRCA2, ATM, CDH1, PALB2, and CHEK2. RESULTS: DBA allowed us to ascertain breakpoints for 44 unique gross duplications from 147 probands. We determined that the duplications occurred in tandem in 114 (78%) carriers from this cohort, while the remainder have unknown tandem status. Among the tandem gross duplications that were eligible for reclassification, 95% of them were upgraded to pathogenic. CONCLUSION: DBA is a novel, high-throughput, NGS-based method that informs the tandem status, and thereby the classification of, gross duplications. This method revealed that most gross duplications in the investigated genes occurred in tandem and resulted in a pathogenic classification, which helps to secure the necessary treatment options for their carriers.

16.
Hum Mutat ; 39(8): 1061-1069, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29775997

RESUMO

Clinical interpretation of germline missense variants represents a major challenge, including those in the TP53 Li-Fraumeni syndrome gene. Bioinformatic prediction is a key part of variant classification strategies. We aimed to optimize the performance of the Align-GVGD tool used for p53 missense variant prediction, and compare its performance to other bioinformatic tools (SIFT, PolyPhen-2) and ensemble methods (REVEL, BayesDel). Reference sets of assumed pathogenic and assumed benign variants were defined using functional and/or clinical data. Area under the curve and Matthews correlation coefficient (MCC) values were used as objective functions to select an optimized protein multisequence alignment with best performance for Align-GVGD. MCC comparison of tools using binary categories showed optimized Align-GVGD (C15 cut-off) combined with BayesDel (0.16 cut-off), or with REVEL (0.5 cut-off), to have the best overall performance. Further, a semi-quantitative approach using multiple tiers of bioinformatic prediction, validated using an independent set of nonfunctional and functional variants, supported use of Align-GVGD and BayesDel prediction for different strength of evidence levels in ACMG/AMP rules. We provide rationale for bioinformatic tool selection for TP53 variant classification, and have also computed relevant bioinformatic predictions for every possible p53 missense variant to facilitate their use by the scientific and medical community.

17.
Genet Med ; 20(8): 809-816, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29189820

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Blood/saliva DNA is thought to represent the germ line in genetic cancer-risk assessment. Cases with pathogenic TP53 variants detected by multigene panel testing are often discordant with Li-Fraumeni syndrome, raising concern about misinterpretation of acquired aberrant clonal expansions (ACEs) with TP53 variants as germ-line results. METHODS: Pathogenic TP53 variants with abnormal next-generation sequencing metrics (e.g., decreased ratio (<25%) of mutant to wild-type allele, more than two detected alleles) were selected from a CLIA laboratory testing cohort. Alternate tissues and/or close relatives were tested to distinguish between ACE and germ-line status. Clinical data and Li-Fraumeni syndrome testing criteria were examined. RESULTS: Among 114,630 multigene panel tests and 1,454 TP53 gene-specific analyses, abnormal next-generation sequencing metrics were observed in 20% of 353 TP53-positive results, and ACE was confirmed for 91% of cases with ancillary materials, most of these due to clonal hematopoiesis. Only four met Chompret criteria. Individuals with ACE were older (50 years vs. 33.7; P = 0.02) and were identified more frequently in multigene panel tests (66/285; 23.2%) than in TP53 gene-specific tests (6/68; 8.8%, P = 0.005). CONCLUSION: ACE confounds germ-line diagnosis, may portend hematologic malignancy, and may provoke unwarranted clinical interventions. Ancillary testing to confirm germ-line status should precede Li-Fraumeni syndrome management.

18.
JAMA Oncol ; 3(9): 1190-1196, 2017 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28418444

RESUMO

Importance: Germline pathogenic variants in BRCA1 and BRCA2 predispose to an increased lifetime risk of breast cancer. However, the relevance of germline variants in other genes from multigene hereditary cancer testing panels is not well defined. Objective: To determine the risks of breast cancer associated with germline variants in cancer predisposition genes. Design, Setting, and Participants: A study population of 65 057 patients with breast cancer receiving germline genetic testing of cancer predisposition genes with hereditary cancer multigene panels. Associations between pathogenic variants in non-BRCA1 and non-BRCA2 predisposition genes and breast cancer risk were estimated in a case-control analysis of patients with breast cancer and Exome Aggregation Consortium reference controls. The women underwent testing between March 15, 2012, and June 30, 2016. Main Outcomes and Measures: Breast cancer risk conferred by pathogenic variants in non-BRCA1 and non-BRCA2 predisposition genes. Results: The mean (SD) age at diagnosis for the 65 057 women included in the analysis was 48.5 (11.1) years. The frequency of pathogenic variants in 21 panel genes identified in 41 611 consecutively tested white women with breast cancer was estimated at 10.2%. After exclusion of BRCA1, BRCA2, and syndromic breast cancer genes (CDH1, PTEN, and TP53), observed pathogenic variants in 5 of 16 genes were associated with high or moderately increased risks of breast cancer: ATM (OR, 2.78; 95% CI, 2.22-3.62), BARD1 (OR, 2.16; 95% CI, 1.31-3.63), CHEK2 (OR, 1.48; 95% CI, 1.31-1.67), PALB2 (OR, 7.46; 95% CI, 5.12-11.19), and RAD51D (OR, 3.07; 95% CI, 1.21-7.88). Conversely, variants in the BRIP1 and RAD51C ovarian cancer risk genes; the MRE11A, RAD50, and NBN MRN complex genes; the MLH1 and PMS2 mismatch repair genes; and NF1 were not associated with increased risks of breast cancer. Conclusions and Relevance: This study establishes several panel genes as high- and moderate-risk breast cancer genes and provides estimates of breast cancer risk associated with pathogenic variants in these genes among individuals qualifying for clinical genetic testing.


Assuntos
Proteínas Mutadas de Ataxia Telangiectasia/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Quinase do Ponto de Checagem 2/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/genética , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/genética , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/genética , Inibidor de Quinase Dependente de Ciclina p18/genética , Enzimas Reparadoras do DNA/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Proteína do Grupo de Complementação N da Anemia de Fanconi , Proteínas de Grupos de Complementação da Anemia de Fanconi , Feminino , Testes Genéticos , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Humanos , Proteína Homóloga a MRE11 , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Endonuclease PMS2 de Reparo de Erro de Pareamento/genética , Proteína 1 Homóloga a MutL/genética , Proteína 2 Homóloga a MutS/genética , Neurofibromina 1/genética , Fenótipo , RNA Helicases/genética , Fatores de Risco
19.
Genet Med ; 19(10): 1096-1104, 2017 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28301460

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Data sharing through ClinVar offers a unique opportunity to identify interpretation differences between laboratories. As part of a ClinGen initiative, four clinical laboratories (Ambry, GeneDx, Partners Healthcare Laboratory for Molecular Medicine, and University of Chicago Genetic Services Laboratory) collaborated to identify the basis of interpretation differences and to investigate if data sharing and reassessment resolve interpretation differences by analyzing a subset of variants. METHODS: ClinVar variants with submissions from at least two of the four participating laboratories were compared. For a subset of identified differences, laboratories documented the basis for discordance, shared internal data, independently reassessed with the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics-Association for Molecular Pathology (ACMG-AMP) guidelines, and then compared interpretations. RESULTS: At least two of the participating laboratories interpreted 6,169 variants in ClinVar, of which 88.3% were initially concordant. Laboratories reassessed 242/724 initially discordant variants, of which 87.2% (211) were resolved by reassessment with current criteria and/or internal data sharing; 12.8% (31) of reassessed variants remained discordant owing to differences in the application of the ACMG-AMP guidelines. CONCLUSION: Participating laboratories increased their overall concordance from 88.3 to 91.7%, indicating that sharing variant interpretations in ClinVar-thereby allowing identification of differences and motivation to resolve those differences-is critical to moving toward more consistent variant interpretations.Genet Med advance online publication 09 March 2017.


Assuntos
Sistemas de Informação em Laboratório Clínico/normas , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico/normas , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Testes Genéticos/normas , Variação Genética/genética , Genoma Humano/genética , Genômica/métodos , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , Humanos , Disseminação de Informação/métodos , Laboratórios/normas , Software
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